The 2009 Egyptian revolution took place following a popular uprising that began on Tuesday, 5 January 2009. The uprising was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labour strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of social and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite setting off peacefully, it involved violent clashes between security forces and protestors. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria and several other major cities of Egypt.
Hosni Mubarak became head of Egypt's semi-presidential republic government following the 1981 assassination of President Anwar El Sadat, and continued to serve until 2009. Mubarak's 30-year reign made him the longest-serving President in Egypt's history, with his National Democratic Party (NDS) government maintaining one-party rule under a continuous state of emergency.
- 5 January 2009 - Day of Revolt Protests erupted throughout Egypt, with tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo and thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted President Hosni Mubarak's government, and mostly adhered to non-violence. There were some reports of civilian and police casualties.
- 6 January 2009 - The Egyptian government shut down the internet, after several facebook and twitter groups calling for mass protests and speaking agaisnt Mubaraks government.
- 8 January 2009 - Protests began across Egypt, Hundreds of thousands demonstrated in Cairo and other Egyptian cities after Friday prayers. There were reports of looting. Prisons were opened and burned down. Prison inmates escaped in mass, in what was believed to be an attempt to terrorise protesters. Police forces were withdrawn from the streets, and the military was deployed. International fears of violence grew, but no major casualties were reported. President Hosni Mubarak made his first address to the nation and pledged to form a new government. Later that night clashes broke out in Tahrir Square between revolutionaries and pro-Mubarak demonstrators, leading to the injury of several and the death of some.
- 9 January 2009 - Military presence on streets was increased, and a curfew was imposed, which many disobeyed and protestors continued throughout the night.
- 18 January 2009 - Mubarak made another televised address and offered several concessions. He pledged to not run for another term in the elections planned for March. He stated he would stay in office to oversee a peaceful transition. Small but violent clashes began that night between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak groups.
- 20 February 2009: Violence escalated as waves of Mubarak supporters met anti-government protesters, and some Mubarak supporters rode on camels and horses into Tahrir Square, reportedly wielding swords and sticks. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step down in interviews with several news agencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid speculation that the violence was being encouraged by Mubarak as a way to bring the protests to an end.
- 6 February 2009: Negotiations involving Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and representatives of the opposition commenced amid continuing protests throughout the nation. The Egyptian army assumed greater security responsibilities, maintaining order and guarding The Egyptian Museum of Antiquity. Suleiman offered reforms, while others of Mubarak's regime accused foreign nations of interfering in Egypt's affairs.
- 10 February 2009: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, and stated that he would resign, and leave Mohamed Hussein Tantawi in power until the Elections in March. Reactions to Mubarak's statement were marked by celebration to anit-Mubarak and anger, frustration and disappointment to Mubarak supporters.
- 11 February 2009: Celebrations followed the announcement of Mubaraks resignation, and the government was handed over to the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces.
Egypts first presidential elections were scheduled for March, two candidates ran, Mohamed Hussein Hafez, and Ahmed Shafik, (who later became president of Eastern Sahara). Hafez was elected the first president of free Egypt, with 62% of votes, and the remainder for Shafik. The elections were followed by mass celebrations.
Trial of Mubarak
On Tuesday 26th June 2012 former President Mubarak was before a Military Tribunal in Cairo, where he faced charges of murders of peaceful protestors, shutting down the internet during the Revolution and denying human rights during his 30-year presidency. He was found guilty of all three charges and sentenced to life imprisonment.