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Argentine Republic
República Argentina

Argentina
Flag of Argentina
ACU CoA (2)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "En unión y libertad"
("'In Unity and Freedom")
550px-Argentina orthographic.svg
Mainland Argentina shown in dark green, with territorial claims shown in light green
Capital Buenos Aires
Official languages Spanish
Ethnic groups (2014)

98.5% European

1.5% Mestizo, Amerindian and Asian
Demonym Argentine
Argentinian
Argentinean
Government Federal presidential dominant party republic
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
Amado Boudou
Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez
Legislature Congress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Establishment
25th May 1810
9th July 1816
• Peronist takeover and current constitution
11th November 1982
Area
• Total
2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi) (8th)
• Water (%)
1.57
Population
• 2014 estimate
42,669,500 (32nd)
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
• Total
$927.382 billion (25th)
• Per capita
$22,101 (55th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
• Total
$536.155 billion (24th)
• Per capita
$12,778 (60th)
Gini (2014) 66.2
very high
HDI (2014) 0.808
very high · 49th
Currency Peso ($) (ARS)
Time zone ART (UTC-3)
Date format ddd.mmm.yyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +54
Internet TLD .ar

The Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina) more commonly known as Argentina is a country located in south eastern South America. It is boarded westwards by Chile, Paraguay and Bolivia to the north, Brazil to the northeast and Uruguay to the east. Its total area of 2,780,400 km2 marks it as the largest Spanish speaking country in the world, the second largest country in Latin America and the eighth largest country overall.

Argentina has housed life from Palaeolithic times with the Spanish first colonising it in 1512. Argentina was both part of the Spanish colonies of Viceroyalty of Peru and the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata before Argentina began a long war for independence from 1810 to 1818. Despite gaining independence Argentina was behest by civil wars which only properly ended in 1861. Argentina was organised into a federation at the end of the civil wars, and experienced huge national growth becoming the worlds seventh wealthiest country by the early 20th century. A military coup in 1930 led Argentina into decline after the great depression. Military officer Juan Perón nationalised many businesses after taking power in 1946 promoting a nationalist, populist ideology. Perón remained president of Argentina until his death in 1974, in which during that time he had cemented the Justicialist Party as the primary political organ. Since then the Argentine government has remained heavily under the control of the Justicialist Party.

Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and one autonomous city, that being the capital Buenos Aires. Argentina operates under a presidential republic with the Justicialist Party being the dominant political force. Argentina is a middle power as well as being a Latin American regional power. Argentina has a large economy often being listed as possessing a G20 and G15 economy. Argentina is a founding member of the LN, WTO, WBG, Mercosur, UNASUR, CELAC and OEI. Despite possessing a very high HDI rating Argentina has often been accused of human rights violations including the persecution of political dissidents.

Etymology

History

Pre-colonial history

The area of Argentina was barely population prior to European colonisation. Despite this archaeological evidence shows that Humans had been living in region during the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic eras. Humans who lived in Argentina prior to colonisation mainly consisted of basic hunter-gatherers, and farmers with the ability to create pottery. Indigenous peoples of Argentina included the Yaghan and Selknam peoples in the southern most regions, the Tehuelche of Patagonia, and the Wichis. The Komlek and the Diaguita lived in the north along with the Guaraní, Charrua, yaros, Bohanes and Chanás. The Querandí settled in the modern territory of Buenos Aires.

Colonial Argentina

Early colonisation

Argentina was first discovered by Europeans by Portuguese explorers Gonçalo Coelho and Amerigo Vespucci around 1502. Later explorers João de Lisboa and Estevão de Fróis further explored the region, discovering the Rio de La Plata, and obtaining the first European knowledge of the Inca empire from the Charrúa people.

The first Spanish settlers of Argentina were led by Juan Díaz de Solís and settled in Argentina in 1516. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza established a colony in Argentina, where modern day Buenos Aires, although this was abandoned five years later. In 1573 Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera founded a larger colony in Córdoba, and Juan de Garay re-established the colony of Buenos Aires in 1580, both as part of the larger Viceroyalty of Peru. These colonies did not draw as much immigrants as other parts of the Viceroyalty due to the apparent lack of gold to mine.

Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata

In 1776 the Spanish created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata to replace the Viceroyalty of Peru in the lower regions of their American empire. Taking up most of modern day Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia the Viceroyalties capital was located in Buenos Aires which had developed into a prosperous port town. The Viceroyalty was crippled from the onset with a lack of unity among its regions and neglect from Spain. Buenos Aires was also becoming more self sufficient whist other regions were not, prompting the government of Buenos Aires to spread its own resources to the rest of the Viceroyalty and to Spain.

The Viceroyalty started to collapse when the Kingdom of Albion started engaging in evermore frequent wars with Spain, prompting maritime isolation between the Viceroyalty and Spain. The upper regions of the Viceroyalty (now modern day Bolivia) had started to show active contempt with the Buenos Aires government who they accused of holding a monopoly over trade.

Spains alliance with the Gaulish empire in the Napoleonic Wars meant a large portion of its navy was destroyed in the Battle of Trafalgar. The Spanish government sent word to Buenos Aires that they would unable to help them in the event of an Albish invasion, which they also warned would be increasingly likely. In 1806 on the 27th June an Albish force led by William Beresford was able to invade Buenos Aires ousting Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte. Santiago de Liniers by December 1806 managed to drive out the Albish by leading an armed militia primarily consisting of criollos.

Albish forces in February 1807 led by Samuel Auchmuty managed to capture Montevideo. Reinforcements led by John Whitelocke attacked Buenos Aires, but encountered heavy resistance. With over half of his forces either killed or captured Whitelocke elected to sign a ceasefire retreating back to Albion. This victory helped spur movements dedicated towards independence with growing discontent towards the government in Madrid. By 1814 Argentina was in all but in name self governing, and Paraguay had by this point declared independence, diminishing the notion of the Viceroyalty substantially.

Independence

Growing calls for independence had been voiced since the American and Gaulish revolutions, as well as the successful repelling of Albish invasion forces. Another factor for the calls of independence was the disconnect between the local immigrants and the ruling classes of the Viceroyalty; this ruling class was comprised of nobles from Spain who were far removed from those who ruled.

The capture of King Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War prompted the notion that the Viceroyalty could rule without a king, thus becoming independent. In May, 1810 the May Revolution occurred within the Viceroyalty, removing the Viceroy from power. A new government named the Primera Junta was established on the 25th May. The junta deliberated on whether to re establish a constitutional monarchy or regency before instead creating the United Provinces of South America. This sparked the Argentine War of Independence, as well as various states of the former Viceroyalty started to foster their own nations.
220px-Smartin

José de San Martín.

Juan José Castelli and Manuel Belgrano were able to lead the early military campaigns against loyalists and Royalists. In 1812 the government declared it would write a formal declaration of independence and a constitution. This fell through with a Supreme Dictator being appointed in place of an executive government. It was during this period that José de San Martín arrived in Buenos Aires bolstering Argentinian Royalist resistance.

San Martín was instrumental in coordinating a military campaign across much of the southern regions of South America. San Martín was able to liberate Chile, Peru and Argentina. After meeting with Simón Bolívar San Martín retired from action. The Congress of Tucumán declared the independence of the United Provinces on the 9th July 1816. Bolivia declared independence nine years later, and the Cisplatine War of 1828 helped solidify the independence of Uruguay. Albion recognised Argentinian independence in 1825; however Spain would not do the same until 1864.

Civil wars

Despite gaining independence Argentina soon became wrought with conflict with the Argentine Civil War. The Civil War was fought between the Unitarians, who campaigned for a strong centralised government against the federalists who advocated that Argentina should become a federation similar to the United States of America. During this time Argentina lacked a de jure leader. The Governors of Buenos Aires Province remained the main decision making board in Argentina with federalist Juan Manuel de Rosas dictating much of the internal affairs of Buenos Aires.

Justo José de Urquiza overthrew Rosas and called together for an assembly to draft a constitution, which unified the country as a federation. The first president to rule over a unified Argentina following the Constitutions signing was Bartolomé Mitre in 1853.

Unified Republic

Under Mitre conflict in Argentina started to end with the country stabilising. Peace enabled Argentina to implement policies of modernisation, which was helped by international support through investment and immigrants. This helped result in an economic boom in Argentina. As well as this Buenos Aires agreed to become part of Argentina, but was not subject to the federal government and given the right to leave the However during this period Argentina sided Brazil during the Paraguayan War annexing Paraguayan territories, which promoted national outrage due to Argentina's previous long standing rivalry with Brazil and their friendship with Paraguay.

Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was voted the seventh president of Argentina in 1868, and was finally able to defeat the last rebel caudillo forces. He also made way for increased public education in Argentina and helped facilitate the means of developing culture. Technological advancements such as the telegram were also introduced in his rule. However the Panic of 1873
Estacion constitucion 1900

Immigrants enter Buenos Aires, circa 1900

stunted economic development in Argentina, which prompted the ascension of Nicolás Avellaneda to the role of president. Avellaneda along with his Minister of War Julio Argentino Roca tried to improve the economy through the Conquest of the Desert which displaced natives in Patagonia, expanding Argentine territory meaning more farmland could be established. In 1880 Buenos Aires declared it would secede from Argentina, an action unrecognised by the Argentine government, who moved troops in Buenos Aires, before incorporating it as a federal state, naming it the capital of Argentina.

Roca was voted president in 1880, who established what would be now called a dominant party oligarchy with the National Autonomist Party holding power until 1916. Argentina gained huge amounts of foreign investment creating a industrial agricultural system, although industrialisation was not yet implemented. Education was also provided for all children. However Argentina continued to have boarder disputes with Chile as well as an increasingly secularised government meant that the Argentine government became detached from the Catholic church.

In 1888 Roca was by law unable to run for president with Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman elected instead, who started to cement his authority over Roca's. This led to the Revolution of the Park which coupled with the Long Depression forced Juárez Celman to resign. Carlos Pellegrini took over the position of president, but allowed Roca to exercise unofficial control over Argentina. Social and political instability was still rampant in Argentina leading to Roca taking the role of president in 1898. Roca had the police heavily suppress rebels and protesters, but his declining health gave way to his power in government to slowly recede.

Four years after the turn of the century members of the Socialist Party gained seats in government, which enabled laws to be passed regarding child labour, womens work, and working hours. In 1910 president Roque Sáenz Peña led the end of the dominant party system with the passing of the Sáenz Peña Law which forced all males over the age of 18 to vote in secret elections.

The Sáenz Peña Law led to the liberal politician Hipólito Yrigoyen becoming president. However, Yrigoyen's party, the Radical Civic Union (UCR) failed to gain a majority in Congress with the conservative government retaining a large amount of power. Yrigoyen and the UCR were able to pass laws that make the government more democratic, as well as pursing agricultural reform and increasing the role of the middle and working class in Argen
Yrigoyen (1)

Hipólito Yrigoyen

tine society and politics. Argentina remained neutral in the WWI although other nations (such as the United States) urged Argentina to oppose the Central Powers. High food prices in Europe during the war led to an economic boom in Argentina who were able to export more of their agricultural yield to Europe (especially Albion) at higher prices.

In 1918 Argentina enacted university reforms that spurred other South American nations to follow suit. However riots in 1919 known as the Tragic Week still showed signs of political instability. In 1921 Yrigoyen gave more power to the workers by legalising strikes and implementing minimum wage. Argentina also did not oppose the Soviet Union sending the USSR economic aid.

Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear became president in 1922, placing much of the old oligarchy back into power. Alvear still had to deal with many communist, socialist and anarchist uprisings in Argentina with frequent violence. As well as this right wing groups (modelled on Benito Mussolini's blackshirts) also caused unrest in Argentina. In 1928 Yrigoyen was re-elected president, but the Great Depression severely damaged the Argentine economy with Yrigoyen struggling to hold onto power, leading to a military coup led by José Félix Uriburu ousting Yrigoyen.

Infamous decade

In its early days military rule was supported by the people of Argentina who hoped that the new government could help rectify the sagging economy. Uriburu had anarchists and communists executed under his regime, with as many as 2,000 being illegally killed in his short tenure. Crackdowns against all opposition groups in Argentina was also sanctioned by the government with Argentina soon becoming a de facto single party state.

Uriburu however lost crucial support after attempting to introduce corporatist policies into the constitution, which led to Agustín Pedro Justo to rise to power. Justo helped liberalise the economy of Argentina which granted huge benefits to the upper classes of Argentina, as well as negotiate deals with Albion who soon possessed a large stake in the beef industry of Argentina. Justo's government also oversaw large amounts of corruption within Congress, with international trade stalling as a result. Political instability was also rife with many fascist and left-wing groups engaging in violence with the military government failing to intervene.

In 1937 Roberto María Ortiz was elected as president, although his poor health has meant that his deputy Ramón Castillo effectively ran the government. The outbreak of World War Two saw international pressure placed upon Argentina to side with the Allies but an uncooperative military meant that relations with the Axis was retained. Reportedly reluctance to join the allies was chalked up to fear that communism could spread through Argentina.

Perónist years

On June 4th 1943 military officers Pedro Pablo Ramírez, Edelmiro Julián Farrell, António José Lorenzetti, Arturo Rawson, and Juan Perón launched a coup against Castillo with Ramírez being appointed president. Whilst remaining neutral in the WWII Ramírez severed ties with the Axis powers. A year later Farrell became president, declaring war against Germany in order to curry favour with the Allies.

Eva-juan-peron-formal

Eva and Juan Perón

During this time Farrell's protégé and manager of relations between labour unions Juan Perón became a prominent figure in government. Perón was imprisoned in 1945 but popular support secured his release a year later where he managed to win the subsequent elections becoming president of Argentina. Following his successful election Perón formulated his own ideology known as peronism. Peronism mixed fascist and populist policies nationalising many businesses within Argentina as well as increasing government spending.

Perón's presidency saw him gather huge amounts of support, although he still faced opposition. His anti-clerical stance for example angered many members of the Catholic Church. Perón sanctioned torture and repression against his opponents whilst inflation in Argentina started to put a strain on the economy.

Despite issues with inflation Perón reduced unemployment and helped improve wages for many workers in Argentina. Better working conditions also contributed to Perón's popularity. Perón's wife Eva Perón also became extremely popular to much of the populace thanks to her pushing through universal suffrage and championed social support for many Argentines. Eva's death in 1952 led to Perón's power to weaken, as well as the rampant cronyism in the Argentine government creating a wedge between Perón and military officials.

Geography

Politics

Government

Argentina officially is a federal presidential authoritarian democracy. Legislative power is vested in Congress, which is split into an upper house (the Senate) and a lower house (the Chamber of Deputies). The Chamber of Deputies is intended to represent the interests of the people, and the Senate the interests of the provinces. Executive power meanwhile is handled by a cabinet of ministers from the Chamber of appointed by the president. Members of Congress are elected as a representative democracy.

Administrative Divisions

Foreign Relations

Argentina's foreign policy is strongly influenced by a desire to hold dominance in the Latin America community. Argentina has close ties to Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Uruguay. Argentina also maintains close links to USA, Sierra, Wabash and Mexico.

Military

Economy

Official government policy in Argentina is to maintain a mixed economy with various degrees of government intervention. Up until the 1940's Argentina operated under a highly liberalised economy - however following Peron's ascent to power many businesses were nationalised with workers being granted more rights.

Argentina is rich in natural resources. Argentina is a leader in the agricultural field with agriculture making up 9% of the total GDP and a fifth of the countries exports. Major agricultural industries include cattle farming, fishing, seed farming, sheep raising, and the growing of fruit. Mining natural resources also is a lucrative industry in Argentina. Natural resource extraction of petroleum and gas have seen increased production in recent years, with 10% of exports being that of petroleum. Other mining includes that of gold, copper, coal, lead, uranium, zinc, magnesium, and borate. Mining in Argentina in 2010 was valued at over $3 billion. Over 16% of the GDP is dedicated around industry in Argentina, ranging from the processing of food, motor vehicles, biodiesel, electronics, steel, and industrial/farming machinery. The manufacturing of glass, cement, lumber, computers and laptops, plastics and textiles are also large businesses in Argentina. The large, diversified service sector of Argentina accounts for around 60% of the total GDP. The telecommunications and tourist sectors are the fastest growing in the service sector.

Demographics

Religion

The Argentinian constitution allows freedom of religion, although it gives Roman Catholicism a higher status. Government statistics state that 83.7% of Argentines are Catholic, 11.4% Agnostics or Atheists, 3.8% Evangelical Protestants, and 1.1% other religions such as Islam and Judaism.

The Argentinian government reportedly has conducted Anti-Semitic actions against Jewish persons - prior to the 1946 Argentina had one of the largest Jewish communities in Latin America. Since the 1946 coup the Argentine government has housed many ex-members of the Nazi regime of Germany, who have significantly contributed to Anti-Semitic movements in Argentina, resulting in much of the Jewish population to migrate to Paraguay and Bolivia.

Argentina Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected as Pope of the Catholic Church on the 13th March 2013, taking the name of Francis. Pope Francis is the first pope to come from the Americas, the Southern Hemisphere and to be a Jesuit.

Culture

Sport

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