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Kingdom of Benolia
Reino da Benolia (ben)
Reino de Benolia (es)
Benoliaf
Benolia coa
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Nacimos para ser libres!
Born to be free!
Capital
and largest city
Nordana
63°4′S 62°39.5′W
Official languages Spanish
Recognised languages Portuguese, English
Recognised national languages Benolian (national dialect)
Recognised regional languages Portuguese
Ethnic groups

94% White 4% Mestizo

2% Others
Religion

63% Catholic 35% Non-religious

2% Others
Government Constitutional monarchy
• Queen
Lara I
Indepenence from Spain
19 March, 1998
• Recognized
18 May, 2004
21 January, 2005
Area
• Total
206,354 km2 (79,674 sq mi) (85th)
• Land
67,457 km2 (26,045 sq mi)
• Water
138,897 km2 (53,628 sq mi)
• Water (%)
67,3
Population
• 2017 estimate
874,044 (178th)
• 2014 census
867,458 (178th)
• Density
2.1/km2 (5.4/sq mi)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$17,3 billion
• Per capita
$19,943
Currency Benolian Fran (BNF)
Time zone UTC-3
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +19
Internet TLD .rb
The Kingdom of Benolia (Spanish: Reino de Benolia, Benolian: Reino da Benolia) is a constitutional monarchy on Antarctic Peninsula. It is bordered by Southern Ocean in the west, east and north and by Hielo Arc (69th parallel) in the south. 99.6% of land area of Benolia is surrounded by Southern Ocean, meanwhile the South Sandwich Islands (Tierra de Coronas Province) is located in South Atlantic Ocean. The whole province of Tierra de Coronas is disputed by United Kingdom, but only eight countries (Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg) recognise the province as British territory. Just 12% of the country's land area is ice-free in summer (mostly off the mainland, on the mainland ice-free land is just within towns and surrounds highways and railways) because of cold climate and failed attempts of removing ice. Because of it vast majority (78%) of Benolia's population lives off the mainland.

Benolia is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generalles (General Courts). The executive branch consists of the Council of Ministers of Benolia presided over by the Prime Minister, nominated and appointed by the monarch and confirmed by the Congress of Deputies following legislative elections. By political customs established by King Alejandro I since the ratification of the 2005 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress. The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 82 members (two from each province and municipality), elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (Senado) with 123 seats (three for each province and municipality), all of which are directly elected by popular vote and serve four-year terms.

The country is divided into 37 provinces (36 excluding Tierra de Coronas) and 4 municipalities. Each of the municipalities has some power over some of the provinces and direct power over the surrounding one. These provinces together with the municipality make county, with capital city in the municipality. The municipalities are called Nordana, Josenna (Hosenna), San Antin and Zadramara. They are also the four largest cities of Benolia (in the same order). The only exclusion is Norde County; its capital is located in the city of Nordana, but as the capital of the country it is a federal territory and it is located outside of the county. Nordana is home to four governments; the federal government (Nordana is the capital of Benolia), county government (it is the capital of Norde county despite being located outside of it), provincial government (capital of Nordana province is also located there) and municipal government (Nordana is one of Benolia's four municipalities).


History

Main article: The history of Benolia

In 1816 Argentina declared independence. Spain declined the declaration. After that the rebellion started and after three years of war, the rebels lost and Argentina remained being part of Spain.

When Bellingshausen discovered Antarctica, the Spanish on the ship called "Flor Sur" crossed Drake Passage, founding the city of Josenna in 1821 (the city exists today; it is the second largest city of the country with population of 17692) and then, in the year 1827, they went to the north and founded the city of Sur-Ciudad (Sur-Sadad in local dialect) in the north of the western coast of the Antarctic Peninsula.

In 1829, British ships from their colony of Patagonia arrived to Tower Island and founded a small settlement of Nat.

In 1831 British attempted to enter mainland Benolia. They failed, being defeated by the Spanish.

The population of Sur-Sadad increased quickly because of relatively warm climate and very huge stream of imigrants from Argentina. 

In 1847, Sur-Sadad reached 9,000 inhabitants and became a very important port in the region. From December till March the port was ice free and was making many transportations to Ushuaia, Buenos Aires and Puerto Deseado.

In 1897 the Argentines began the second rebellion and gained independence in 1901 after almost four years of bloody war. 

After that it was difficult for Spain to hold an area situated almost 13 000 kilometers away from Madrid (Spanish capital) and Barcelona (largest port of Spain) which also has two trade transportations to Barcelona every year. So the Spanish gave very high autonomy to Benolia (called after Jose Benol, the captain of Flor Sur).

In 1991 Benolia suddenly stopped all transportations to rest of Spain. Making some trade deals with Argentina, Benolia instantly became very rich.

In 1993 Spanish fleet was going to invade Benolia, but then the South American countries got involved. Spanish surrendered and gave Benolia very huge level of autonomy: they couldn't just make relationships with other countries.

Five years later, in 1998, Benolia declared independence. Spanish at first ignored the declaration, and then marched 78 thousand troops through the Panama Canal. After that soldiers came to South Pacific, landed in Antarctica and crossed more than 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) till the southern border of Benolia and attacked town of San Antin. Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Bolivia and Russia got involved and helped Benolia to win the war.

However, Spain still did not recognize the independence of Benolia until 18 May 2004. That was the day when Nordana International Airport was opened and Benolian population was no longer dependent of the economy of mainland Spain.

The first King of Benolia was Alejandro I (2004-2012), and the first Queen was Lara I (2012 - present) 

In 2016 the capital city - Sur-Sadad was renamed into Nordana.

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