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Bergish Language / Buergesch

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PHONOLOGY

Vowels

Letter Sound Example Respective sound in other languages
A a [a] Mann D. Mann, N. man, E. man
[a:] kafen D. kaufen, N. kopen
E e [e] Held D. Held, N. held
[e:] nemen D. nehmen, N. nemen
[ə] kommen D. kommen, N. kommen
Ë ë [ə] wëllen D. wollen, N. willen, E. will
È è [ɛ] rèpsen D. rülpsen, N. oprispen
Ei ei [aı] nei D. neu, N. nieuw
Éi éi [eı] présentéiren

D. präsentieren, N. presenteren

Èi èi [ɛı] Wèin D. Wein, N. wijn
Èe Èe [ɛə] wèerden D. werden, N. worden
I i [ı] sitzen D. sitzen, N. sitten
[i:]
Ie ie [iə] fliegen D. fliegen, N. vliegen
O o [o] kosten D. kosten, N. kosten
Oe oe [oə] Loef D. Liebe, N. liefde
Ou ou [ou] grouss D. groß, N. groot
U u [u] Mudder D. Mutter, N. moeder
[u:]
Ue ue [uə] Muer D. Morgen, N. morgen

Consonants

B b [b][p]
D d [d] [t] raad
F f [f] faren
G g [g] [k] D. gehen, N. gaan
[χ] Dag D. Tag, N. dag
H h [h] hunn D. haben, N. heven
J j [j]
K k [k]
L l [l]
M m [m]
N n [n]
P p [p]
R r [r~ʀ]
S s [s] Wasser D. Wasser, N. water
[z] sëngen D. singen, N. singen
[ʃ] stoen D. stehen, N. staan
T t [t]
V v [f]
W w [v]
Z z / tz [ts]

Diphthongs

Letter Sound Example Other Languages
ch [ç~ʃ] licht D. licht, N. licht
sch [ʃ] Schule D. Schule, N. school
tz / z [ts] Netz D. Netz, N. net

French Loanwords

French words are pronounced as in French except for the attached suffixes.

Examples: changéiren [ʃãʒeirən], constitution [kõstitysjoun]

  • chance [ʃãs], chancen [ʃãsən]

VERBS

REGULAR VERBS

I No Peculiarities

''''rèpsen ’to belch, to burp’

Infinitive rèpsen

Past Participle gerèpst

Present/Imperative rèps (sg.), rèpsen (pl.)


II Ending in -te or -de / -tte or -dde

'w'arten ’to wait’

Infinitive warten

Past Participle gewart

Present/Imperative wart (sg.), warten (pl.)


schudden ’to shake, to jolt’

Infinitive schudden

Past Participle geschutt

Present/Imperative schudd (sg.), schudden (pl.)


III Verbs of French origin (No ge- in PP)

''changéiren ’to change, to alter’

Infinitive changéiren

Past Participle changéirt

Present/Imperative changéir (sg.), changéiren (pl.)


IRREGULAR VERBS

Irregular Verbs: Table
Infinitive Present Imperative Preterite 'Conjunctive ' Past Participle Translation
dèerfen dèerf/en dèerf/en duerf/en dierf/en gedèerft to dare; to be allowed
dunn dunn,dees,deet / dunn du/nn doun/en dèit/en gedunn to do
ginn ginn,gees, geet / ginn gi/nn gouf/en gèif/en geginn to give
hunn hunn,hees,heet /hunn hu/nn hatt/en hètt/en gehatt to have
kënnen kann / kënne kënn/en konn/en kënnt/en gekënnt

can; to be able

kommen komm/en komm/en koum/en kèim/en gekommen to come
sinn bin,bis,is / sinn si/nn war/en wèr/en gewiescht to be
soen so/en so/en sèi/en sot/en gesot to say
wèerden wèerd/en wèerd/en wuerd/en wierd/en gewèert to become
wëllen wëll/en wëll/en wollt/en wèilt/en gewëllt to want



Strong Verbs with Preterite: Table
Infinitive Preterite Past participle Translation
beginnen begonn/en begonnen to begin
bleifen blief/en gebliefen to stay; to remain
brëngen bruecht/en gebruecht to bring
denken duecht/en geduecht to think
fënnen fonnen gefonn to find
goen goung/en gegoungen to go
stoen stoun/en gestoun to stand
wëssen woss/en gewosst to know



STRONG VERBS WITH IRREGULAR PAST PARTICIPLE 7 Infinitive PP bèeren geboren to bear bënnen gebonnen to bind brennen gebrannt to burn fèerten gefuert to fear geschéen geschéen to happen séen geséen to see sëngen gesongen to sing stielen gestuelen to steal waksen gewaksen to growwerfen geworfen to throw


NOUNS

PLURAL

As a rule of thumb, most nouns form their plural with the suffix -en.

Examples:

radio radioen radio/s
bank banken bank/s
bed bedden bed/s
auto autoen car/s
bèrn bèrnen child/children
mann mannen man/men
wuerd wuerden word
foen foenen phone/s
fenster fensteren window/s


Even the words of French origin have their plural in -en. But alternatively the original French plural in -s or -x may be used:

chance - chancen (chance), pompjé - pompjéen (firefighter), client - clienten (client)


Some consonant groups are simplified: ND/ NT to NN and LT/LD to LL:

frënd - frënnen (friend), tand - tannen (tooth), bild - biller (picture)

This is not necessarily shown in the spelling: frënden, tanden, bilden are possible spellings although they are virtually never pronounced as such.


The irregular plurals include:

buch bicher book/s
dag deen day/s
kënd kënner child / children
lied lieder song/s
fader fèder father/s
mudder midder mother/s
bruder brider brother/s
suster sister sister/s

Plurals kënden and lieden are possible. Buch and dag are always irregular in plural.

Note that on compound words dag [daç] is -deg [dəç] but the plural remains (-)deen [de:n]. Example: Maandeg – Maandeen ’Monday/s’.


Latin words are treated as indigenous words:

aquarie aquarien aquarium
musé muséen

museum

stadie stadien stadium



ARTICLES

Singular Plural Indefinite Definite Indefinite DefiniteNominative e/en de - deStressed ien die - dieDative em dem - denStressed engem diem - dien The genitive case of German has disappeared, except for possessive pronouns.A construction of van + dative case or possessor + possessive pronoun is used instead:Examples: de buch vam mann (the book of the man), Jean sèi mudder (John’s mother) E is used before nouns beginning with a consonant and en before nouns beginning with a vowel. Thus, e man but: en auto. NAMES Names of persons are always given with a definite article.The nominative articles are de for masculine and di for feminine.Di is an archaic feminine gender article which is used solely with female names nowadays.So one says de Jean (John), di Marie (Mary), de Mësjèi/Monsieur Rodange (Mr Rodange) and di Madame Strasser (Ms Strasser).

ADJECTIVES

DECLENSION

Adjectives used attributively are not declined:De dag is schèin. (The day is beautiful.) Adjectives are declined when they stand directly before a noun:Indefinite singular: - (E schèin dag = a beautiful day)Definite singular and always in plural: -e (de schèine dag = the beautiful day; {de} schèine dagen = {the} beautiful days)

COMPARISION

The Buergesch way of comparing adjectives is closer to French and English than German. to form the comparative, one uses the word mèir (”more”) or mënner (”less”). to form the superlative, one uses the word mèist (”most”) or mënst (”least”). Buergesch: schèin – mèir schèin – (de) mèist schèinGerman: schön - schöner - am schönsten French: beau - plus beau - le plus beau English: beautiful / pretty - more beautiful / prettier - most beautiful / prettiest Negative comparision: mënner schèin – mënst schèin (less beautiful – least beautiful). The only exception is the word ”good”:gudd – besser – best The conjunction for comparing adjectives is dan or as:Dèitschland is mèir klein dan China. (Germany is smaller than China.)De wieder is haut as schèin as gester. (The weather today is as beautiful as yesterday.)

NUMERALS

CARDINAL NUMBERS Numbers are not declined in Buergesch. 0 null, 1 ien, 2 twee, 3 drèi, 4 fier, 5 fënf, 6 seks, 7 siewen, 8 acht, 9 néin, 10 teen11 ellef, 12 twellef, 13 drèiteen, 14 fierteen, 15 fënfteen, 16 seksteen, 17 siewenteen, 18 achteen, 19 néinteen, 20 twënteg21 ienuntwënteg, 22 tweeuntwënteg, 23 drèiuntwënteg..30 drèiteg, 40 fierteg, 50 fënfteg, 60 seksteg, 70 siewenteg, 80 achteg, 90 néinteg 100 honnerd, 1 000 dausend, 1 000 000 miljoun, 1 000 000 000 miljard10^12 biljoun, 10^15 biljard ORDINAL NUMBERS The only irregular ordninal number is 1 (ien) which changes to éinst. The regular ending for all numbers is –t(e). Ordinal numbers are declined as adjectives. they are written simply by adding a full stop behind the number. 1. (de) éinst(e), 2.tweet, 3. drèit, 4. fiert, 5. fënft, 6. sekst, 7. siewent, 8. acht, 9. néint, 10. teent, 11. elleft, 12. twelleft, 13. drèiteent,21. ienuntwëntegt, 22. tweeuntwëntegt..30. drèitegt, 40. fiertegt..100. honnert, 1000. dausent, 1 000 000. miljount, 1 000 000 000 miljart10^12. biljount, 10^15. biljart FRACTIONS Fractions receive the ending –tel an are declined as nouns. ½ e hallef ⅓ e drèitel ¼ e fiertel1/5 e fënftel 1/6 e sekstel 1/7 e siewentel1/8 e achtel 1/9 e néintel 1/10 e teentel..1/100 e honnertel 1/1000 e dausentel¾ drèi fiertel

PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Nom Dat Acc ReflexiveSg 1st ech mer mech mechSg 2nd du der dech dechSg 3rd m hen him hen sechSg 3rd n et him et sechSg 3rd f si hir si sechPl 1st mer ons ons onsPl 2nd der éich éich éichPl 3rd si hinnen si sech

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Nom (sg. & pl.) Dat (sg.) Dat (pl.)Sg 1st mèi mengem mengenSg 2nd dèi dengem dengenSg 3rd m/n sèi sengem sengenSg 3rd f hir hirem hirenPl 1st ons onsem onsenPl 2nd èer èerem èerenPl 3rd hir hirem hiren

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Singular PluralNear-deitic dies dieseFar-deitic deen/dat dene

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

English Buergeschwhen? wann?why? wufir?what? wat?who? wie?whose? wies?how? wèi?how much/many? wivill?from where? wuvan?where (to)? wute?with what? wumët?of what? wuvan?

PREPOSITIONS

Buergesch Englishbei D by, at so’s placedier A throughënner A/D underfuer (fë) A forin (ën) A/D iniwwer (ier) A/D overmet (mè) D withnèer D belowaaf (op) A/D onsonner A withoutte D totzwëssen A betweenvan D of

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