Its only moon has a roughly 26.6 Konethian day cycle.
As on Earth, a number of calendars exist. Many cultures use some form of lunar calendar.
Eight Kingdoms (traditional)
The traditional calendar of the Eight Kingdoms (still used in most of the kingdoms) is based on a 195-year cycle divided into 3 65-year cycles, in turn divided into 9 phases of 7 or 8 years. The year alternates between 15 and 16 months.
There are two types of months, short months (of 26 days) and long months (of 27 days). The 1st, 4th, 6th, 9th, 11th, and 14th months are short, the 16th month alternates between long and short, and all other months are long.
Naming of Days
There are four named days in every month. They are
- Opening - the first day of every month
- Swelling - the 8th day of every month
- Fullness - the 14th day of short months, 15th of long months
- Withering - the 21st day of short months, the 22nd day of long monhts
Other days are named by counting from these days. Thus, for example, the 5th day would be called "the fourth day after the Opening of [month name]". The 17th day of a short month or the 18th day of a long month would both be called "the third day after the Fullness of [month name]"
The named days are often observed as days of rest.
Note that, due to the method of naming days, the "leap day" in the 16th month is actually what we would call the 14th day, as the 14th day of a short 16th month is named the same as the 15th day of a long 16th month, and the 14th day of a long 16th month is called by a name (6th day after the Swelling) not used in a short month.
There are three types of years, short (15 months, 399 days), long (16 months, 425 days), and extended (16 months, 426 days). The difference between long and extended is whether the 16th month is short or long.
The basic 65-year cycle is divided into 9 phases. The 5th and 9th phases have 8 years, the others 7.
In the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th phases, the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th years are short, the 2nd and 6th years are long, and the 4th year is extended.
The 3rd and 7th phases differ from these only in having the 6th year be extended also.
The 5th phase has short years in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 8th years, long years in the 2nd year, and extended years in the 4th and 6th years.
The 9th phase has short years in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th years, long years in the 2nd and 6th years, and extended years in the 4th and 8th years.
Every third cycle has an extended year in the 6th year of the 9th phase.
Naming of Years
Historians date from the federation of the Eight Kingdoms. This is rarely used anywhere else, however.
Years are normally referred to as the Xth year of King Y within an individual kingdom, or the Xth year of High King Y in the Eight Kingdoms as a whole. Sometimes years are referred to by the cycles. E.g., the year 874 FE would be called the 1st year of the 5th Phase of the 14th Cycle since Federation. Before Federation, each kingdom had its own cycles. At Federation, they were united and the 1st cycle began.
The Ptakw Kingdoms use an altered calendar called the Sun Calendar. This is far simpler than the traditional calendar. It consists of years of 16 months of which the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, and 16th are 25 days, and all others are 26 days, except in long years when the 16th month is also 26 days.
Naming of Days
Days are named, as in the traditional calendar, relative to fixed days.
- Opening - 1st of every month
- Swelling - 7th of every month
- Fullness - 13th of short months, 14th of long months
- Withering - 19th of short months, 20th of long months
The named days, as in the traditional calendar, are often observed as days of rest.
The pattern of long and short years follows a simple 5-year cycle in which the 3rd and 5th years are long (26-day last month) and the rest short (25-day last month).
The God-Deniers have a simpler, though less accurate, calendar. The beginnings of months are determined by naked-eye observation. The length of the year is based on a simple 7-year cycle, with the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th years having 15 months, and the rest 16 months. Their calendar has drifted by a little over 2 months relative to the seasons since the beginning of their faith, meaning that their religious holidays now occur about 2 months earlier relative to the calendar of the Eight Kingdoms today than it did when they were established.