|United States of Central America
Estados Unidos de Centroamérica
|Motto: Dios, Unión y Libertad
"God, Unity and Liberty"
|Anthem: Himno de Centroamérica
"Anthem of Central America"
Location of Central America
|Recognised regional languages||Mayan Languages and other indigenous languages|
|Ethnic groups||Mestizo, White,|
|Government||Federal presidential republic|
|-||Federal Republic of Central America||1821|
|-||United States of Central America||2003|
|-||Total|| 500,814 km2 (?)
193,365 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2009 estimate|
|-||Total||$259.65 billion (?)|
|-||Per capita||$6,161 (?)|
|GDP (nominal)||2009 estimate|
|-||Total||$156.13 billion (?)|
|-||Per capita||$3,705 (?)|
|HDI||0.784 (high) (?)|
|Currency||Central American Peso (Ᵽ) (
|Time zone||(UTC+6:00. +5:00 (only in Panama))|
- For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation).
Central America (Spanish: Centroamérica) officially know as the United States of Central America (Spanish: Estados Unidos de Centroamérica) is a federal constitutional republic located in the geographical area of the same name, comprising the former countries of the Central American isthmus. It is bordered to the north and northwest by Everett, the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Caribbean Sea to the east and South America to the southeast.
Historically, partially of entirely, Central America has been united in a single entity. Notable examples are the Capitaincy General of Guatemala, within the Spanish Empire and the First Mexican Empire and the Federal Republic of Central America, after independence from Mexico. After the dissolution of the first federal republic, several attempts and proposals for regional unification were made. Those, as actual unified states, were unsuccessful until the early 20th Century. In 1907 the Central American Court of Justice was established by the five original members of the modern federation, beginning a century long unification process. Central American Integration was finally possible in December 2003 with the signing of the Treaty of Union.
Central America has achieved an important modernization and general improvement in social, economic and politic matters since it formation. However, longlasting issues such as violence in urban centers, lack of proper education and social inequity mainly due to socioeconomic factors prevail with few or none attention from most of governmental entities to resolve these situations.
Before European contactEdit
Before the time In pre-Columbian times, most of modern Central America was part of the Mesoamerican civilization. The Native American societies of Mesoamerica occupied the land ranging from central Mexico in the north to Costa Rica in the south. The pre-Columbian cultures of Panama traded with both Mesoamerica and South America, and can be considered transitional between those two cultural areas.
Government and politicsEdit
- Main article: Politics of Central America
Central America is a federal representative democratic republic based in a presidential system. The constitution establishes four levels of government: federal, state, departmental and municipal. The constitution further expresses that every state must have a republican form of government divided in three branches: the executive, represented by the a state governor, the legislative, represented by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, represented by a court. Departments only hold limited executive powers.
The Executive power resides in the President of the Federation, serving as head of state and head of government. The President appoints the Cabinet an other offices, without an intervention from the legislature. The President is responsible mainly for the execution and enforcement of law. The President is elected to a four-year term, with no possibilities of a reelection. The current President is Fernando Gutiérrez-Stahl.
Legislative power resides in the bicameral Federal Parliament, composed by a 325-member Chamber of Deputies (lower house) and a 180-member Senate (upper house). The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by closed-list proportional representation and those of the Senate are elected directly, 2 per each department.The parliament is responsible of making federal law, imposing taxes, approving budgets and ratifying treaties and other diplomatic issues, among other situations.
Central America makes use of a pluriform multi-party system. As the local parties in the states of the federation are virtually too small to sustain a government, coallitions have been made among parties with identical or similar ideologies. This coalitions participate both in Federal government and legislature. To date, the two dominant coallitions constantly struggling for power are the Union for Central America, mostly from social democratic and center-left parties and the Central American Democratic Alliance, formed by conservative and right parties.
- Main articles: Foreign Relations of Central America
The union of the five former Central American nations has created a new political environment as the federation has improved and stabilized its economic and social situation, which has given the country a higher profile at international level, opening ways to new alliances and improving already obtained ones.
Following its formation and its birth as a new global superpower, Everett has become the main political and economic ally of Central America, with a 40% of total exports directed to it. Although neutral towards the original and subsequent formation of the Union, Central American government frowned upon Belize joining Everett, invoking a long conflict with the United Kingdom over the soveirgnity of the aforementioned country and transfering it to Everett. The third and current Federal Government, led by Fernando Gutiérrez-Stahl, is negociating a trilateral treaty with Everett and the United Kingdom to finally abandon the claim over Belize and discussing other matters of interest to the three countries. Central America regards the Spencer administration as the beginning of a new age for politics and trade among American nations. Some Central American politicians critizice the incredibly high rate of technological advancement of Everett, claming a future "world domination" by it. However, Everett has become one of the primary technologic suppliers of Central America.
Because of its enormous industrial and techonological market, the East Asian Federation has the highest import rates in Central America in the automotive and informatics markets, and the second highest export rates in the agricultural sector, after Everett. The learning of Japanese and Korean language and culture has been incentivated in Central America because of the support provided by the East Asian Federation with scholarships and student interchange programs between both countries. The government of Central America has anounced that the East Asian Federation will invest in the construction of the Nicaragua Canal, financing the 50% of the costs of the project
Although having profound political discrepancies, Yarphei is a moderate trading partner of Central America. A considerable percentage of the total coffee production is exported to Yarphei. Yarphese mineral resources as titanium and steel are highly appreciated in the country. Central America and Yarphei also retain relations because of the developing idea of vertical agriculture, with Central American leading agronomers cooperating with Yarphese experts to outcome an economic benefit to both countries with this innovative proposal.
- Main article: Federal Armed Forces of Central America
The manpower of the Federal Armed Forces of Central America (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Federales de Centroamérica, FAFCA) comes from volunteers, but conscription is taken in case of wartime involving directly the Federation as whole or any of the six states individually. Both males and females are elligible for voluntary services.
The sectors of the FAFCA are the Joint Forces (Fuerzas Conjuntas), which consists in the Army (Ejército), the Navy (Marina) and the Air Forces (Fuerza Aérea), summed to the Special Forces (Fuerzas Especiales), consisting of units called "Freedom Birds" or Aves de la Libertad.
Central American defence expenditures arise to 1% of its total GDP. Currently, the army has about 100,000 soldiers. As head of state, the Central American President (currently Fernando Gutiérrez-Stahl) is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the FAFCA. However, in reality the Federal Armed Forces are commanded exclusively by the Minister of Defense, currently Marcos Moreno.
Several contigents of the Central American Armed Forces have been deployed in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. Approximately 500 active soldiers are deployed in Irak and about 100 have been sent recently to Kosovo.
- Main article: States of Central America
As a federal republic, Central America is divided into five states (Spanish: Estados), plus the Federal District. The states are then divided in districts or departments (Departamentos). Departments are further subdividen in municipalities (Municipios). More than just administrative divisions, the states have certain legislative powers, distinct from the Federal Government, as matters of culture, social welfare, environmental protection, forestry and infrastructure.
|The States of Central America|
|1||Costa Rica||San José||51,100 km²||4,779,278||5|
|2||El Salvador||San Salvador||21,040 km²||6,363,955||3|
|4||25px Guatemala City (Federal District)||692 km²||1,125,053||7|
|7||Panamá||Panama City||78,200 km²||3,458,885||6|
Since the formation of the Federation, Central America has experienced an important boost in economy never experienced before. The current GDP (PPP) per Capita rises to USD 6,000, as opposed to the average USD 4,000 before the Federation. Increased standard of living, adult literacy rate and lower rates of scholar desertion have taken the whole of Central America out of the poorest countries of Latin America. However, the distribution of income remains highly unequal and an approximate 40% of the total population of Central America is living in poverty. About the 5% of the population remains unemployed. In recent times, privatization has reduced the state holdings to incredibly low levels.
The main sources of foreign income of Central America are tourism and exports. Touristic spots like Antigua Guatemala, Lake Nicaragua and the national parks of Costa Rica are visited by millions of tourists every year. The exports of Central America consist mainly in coffee, bananas, beans, sugar, tobacco and beef, Nicaragua possessing the largest agricultural production of the Federation. Secondary sources of income, like mining of silver, zing, gold and nickel, and the industrial sector are rapidly growing.
The main trading partner of Central America was the United States until its fractioning into the Union of Everett and the Allied States, the first becoming the main trade partner in recent times. Recently, Central America has increased trade with East Asia and Franco-Germania and Europe, taking Central American products where they never reached before. Rum like Guatemalan Zacapa Centenario and Nicarguan Flor de Cañana are becoming widely recognized and appreciated worldwide.
The largest project taken by the Federal Government, the Nicaragua Canal, is currently under negociation between Central America, East Asia and Franco-Germania, both investors financing half of the project construction, logistics and technology, Central America financing the subsequent infrastructure that will become necessary after the completion of the canal. This canal will rivalize Panama and Yucatan canals, but its main purpose is to increase trade between Europe and Asian and boost local economy. The Federal Government, which controls the budget for each of the five states, originally announced that the income from the canal would be distributed equally for each member of the Federation, but arguments from Nicaraguan politicians made the Federal Government decide that Nicaragua would keep the 30% of total incomes and the remaining would be distributed equally among the other four states.