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The Republic of Chiquitas, commonly known as Chiquitas or Las Chiquitas is a country which is located in South America, bordered by Brazil at the south and the east, by French Guyana at the west and by the Atlantic Ocean at the north. First a spanish colony, it took its indenpendence in 1727. Chiquitas is know a republic governed by General Ramon Zamon since december 2012. The capital and largest city is Chiquita City.

Geography

Chiquitas is located in South America and is bordered by Brazil at the south and at the west, by French Guyana at the east and by the Atlantic ocean at the north. It has a territory of 209000 km². Las Chiquitas has a wet tropical climate in most of its territory but there's also a highland climate due to the Coran mountain range. Chiquitas is crossed by three rivers : the Amazon river, which forms the border with Brazil, the Jari river, which forms the border with Brazil and French Guyana, and the Granaz river, which crosses the country.

History

Pre-colonization

Before the spanish colonisation the Petromastec civilisation ruled Las Chiquitas and were the major etnic group. This civilisation has built impressive temples and were known to have a very important knowledge about astronomy and science. They were exterminated by the european diseases and by the war to keep their territory.

Colonization

Chiquitas was discovered in 1562 by a Spanish expedition and was colonized four years later in 1566 with the foundation of Chiquitas City. Chiquitas quickly became a rich and prosperous colony due to the gold and iron mines and the spice trade.The settler population grew from 500 in 1566 to 50 000 in 1700 and became one of the most important population of settlers in South America.

Indenpendence

In 1727, the Chiquitans, fustrated by the taxes and by the decadent governor José Luis Boréias, started to revolt and to reclaim indenpendence. Leaded by Alfonso Cuerrias, the Chiquitans, helped by the majority of the army, chased the governor and declared indenpendence from Spain. The leader became king Alfonso I of Chiquitas. But Spain did not recognise Chiquitas as a country and tried during 50 years to take it back. Finally in 1777, Spain signed for the end of the war, but did not recognise the country until 1923 !

Kingdom of Chiquitas

From 1727 to 1949, Chiquitas was a kingdom. Founded by Alfonso I, the kingdom set the bases of the Chiquitan Constitution and was a constitutionnal monarchy. After the abdiction of Alfonso I in 1777, his son Esteban I became king. He changed the constitution to create an absolute monarchy and instaured youth sanguini. The dinasty lasted for more then a century, but, as the years past, it became clear that the monarchs couldn't manage the country and in 1940 Chiquitas was still a XVIII century country. In 1948, the Chiquitans started to revolt.

Revolution

In november 1948, the revolution began. The Chiquitans, ennoyed by the disastrous economy of the country, wanted king Alfonso IV to abdict in favor of a republic. He did abdict, but in favor of his son Alfonso V ! Alfonso IV was then captured and executed by the rebells. The revolution opposed from 1949 to 1952 four groups : the Royalists, the Autocratics, who were supported by the major part of the army, the moderate republicans and the communists. The revolution became a civil war, dominated by the Autocratics under the command of Pedro Zantas. But he was murdered on april 1952 and the Autocratics, disorganized, were  overthrown by the Communists.

Republic of Chiquitas

From 1952 to 1969 Chiquitas was a Communist republic under the name of Popular Republic of Chiquitas. The republic was corrupted, instable and was disapointing for the Chiquitans who expected the communists to change the country. That's why, in 1969, Ramon Prinz took the power with the help of most of the Chiquitans. During his ten years as president he modernised and industrialised his country but didn't restore the liberty of expression, abolished since 1952. After his death his son Brandy Prinz became president. Having slight mental problems he was manipulated by his ministers and was also overthrown in 1993. After three years of politic instability, democratic elections were organized in 1996. The winner of these elections was Achilio Azavatas, and he was reelected in 2001 and 2005. He resigned in december 2012 and the actuel president is Ramon Zamon, who declared himself president for life on february 13 2013.

Politics

The actual president is Ramon Zamon and the head of government is José Ignacio Hernandez. Chiquitas was a nearly democratic republic until the Coup of 13 february 2013. The constitution of 1996 said that the president, elected for 5 years, controls the executive and the judicary while the head of government controls the legislative. The parliament is elected at the same time as the president. But since february 2013 the Constitution and the parliament were suspended by Ramon Zamon and Chiquitas has become a dictartorship.

Economy

Chiquitas economy is mainly based on lumber industry (4.5 million tons in 2011), oil industry (oil was discovered in 2010), and agriculture, especially cacao and banana farming. It also developped tourism industry, but tourism is almost forbidden since february 2013.

Demography

Las Chiquitas is inhabited by 48 015 636 people (2012). There is an evident problem of overpopulation, most of the houses are shantytowns and the urban area of Chiquita City  has 15 million habitants ! This overcrowding is due to the high rate of natality and to the South American immigrants coming there to find jobs.

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