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Conference of American States
Conferencia de los Estados Americanos
Conférence des États Américains
Konferenz der Amerikanische Staaten
Ассоциация государств Америки
Flag of the Conference of American States
Flag
Map of the Conference of American States
  Member states
  Candidates and Partner Dependencies
  Observers
Headquarters Porciúncula, Sierra
Working languages English, Spanish, French, German, Russian
Membership
Leaders
• Secretary General
Johann Hauptsmann
• Assistant Secretary-General
Oscar Turray
• Legislature
American Council (upper)
American Parliament (lower)
• Judiciary
American Court of Justice
• Financial body
American Customs Authority
Establishment
7 January 1946 (1946-01-07)
The Conference of American States (Spanish: Conferencia de los Estados Americanos, French: Conférence des États Américains, German: Konferenz der Amerikanische Staaten, Russian: Ассоциация государств Америки), or the CAS or CEA, is a supranational political-economic union of 36 member states that are located primarily in North America. Covering an area of over 879,000 square miles (2,276,600 square kilometers) and with an estimated population of over 600 million people, it includes all of North America (with the exception of Cuba and Mexico along with the dependent territories of external nations including Bermuda). The Conference of American States has a combined GDP of $24 trillion, and if it were a sovereign state, be the largest economy in the world.

The CAS features an organized system of supranational institutions and standardized laws that apply to all member states. The institutions include the Parliament of American States, the American Council, the American Secretariat, American Court of Justice, and the American Customs Authority. Within the St. Louis Area, border control between participating member states (Acadiana, Alaska, The Bahamas, Belize, the Confederate States, Costa Rica, Hudson, Jamaica, Lakotah, Maritime Republic, New England, Newfoundland, Panama, Quebec, Rainier, Sierra, Superior, Brazoria, and the United Commonwealth) has been eliminated. The CAS features a common market with an overarching free trade agreement among all member states. Members of the American Parliament are elected every four years by CAS citizens while members in the Conference's other institutions are appointed internally or by their member states.

Through common agreement and the Treaty of St. Louis, the CAS is enabled the power to protect basic human rights and to enact legislation concerning internal affairs and justice, and common policies on trade, agriculture, and the environment. In recent years however, the scope of legislation for the CAS has expanded to address virtually all areas and issues. Unlike its European counterpart, there is no currency union although there is customs union with a fixed exchange-rate system.

The CAS was created through the Treaty of St. Louis in 1946, following the conclusion of World War II with the intention of creating an international union that would include all countries in the Americas. With most of Latin America objecting to a political union however (and with the alternative creation of the Organization of American States), namely, in opposition to perceived dominance by the Anglo-speaking nations of North America, the CAS was initially founded with only seven states: Acadiana, the Confederate States, Hudson, Maritime Republic, Michigan, New England, and the United Commonwealth. Over the years, membership expanded, with Sierra joining in 1965, and all of North America excluding Mexico by 2006. Since then, the possibility of expanding the CAS into South America as it was originally intended has been considered, with all of the South American states (excluding Bolivia and Venezuela) an observer state of the CAS.

As a whole, the CAS has been treated as a supranational entity with some elements akin to that of a sovereign state. In the League of Nations and other organizations, the CAS represents itself alongside its own member states, although only as an observer state. In the LN, it has enhanced participation rights and status as an observer. Featuring some of the wealthiest and most politically developed nations, including Hudson, Sierra, New England, and the United Commonwealth, the Conference of American States has been described and treated as a world superpower by its own right, due to its global influence.

History

Assasination of Lincoln

The assassinations of Abraham Lincoln and other prominent American leaders led to the collapse of the United States and rise of a fractured Anglo-America.

In the early 19th century, the region today known as Anglo-America was composed of the United States, the British-Canadian dominions, Brazoria, Rainier, and Sierra, the most powerful and largest of which was the United States. As the first true Anglo-American country, the United States was a major influence in the region. From the beginning of its history in the 1770s however, the nation faced regionalism, principally between the North and South. These differences worsened over the years, and by the 1860s, regionalism had fractured the political fabric of the United States that it led to the American Civil War in 1861 when Southern states began seceding from the Union. Although the Union prevailed and regained control over the South by 1865, the assassination of U.S. president Abraham Lincoln and other high-profile American leaders led to political turmoil, derailing into the re-secession of the South, along with New England, New York, and the American West. The states which remained under the American government reorganized as the United Commonwealth, and centralized its government, moving the capital from Washington, D.C. to Louisville in Kentucky. The South was renamed the Confederate States of Dixie while the State of New York became the Hudson Republic, the New Englander states became the New England Republic, and the American Western states became the Federal Republic of Missouri. The United Commonwealth attempted to restore the Union by invading the self-declared breakaway countries in the War of Contingency but ultimately failed with Brazoria and Sierra aided the freed states, and solidified the new separated countries. Eventually, Superior and Lakotah broke free from Missouri in the Superiorn War of Liberation, and the rest of Missouri joined Acadiana. These borders remained the same for much of the rest of the century and into World War II, with tensions still high between the United Commonwealth and its neighbors in the early 20th century.

The first major incident that pointed towards a closer union between Anglo-America occurred during World War I. Although at first, all of the states were reluctant to enter the conflict (with the exception of Canada, which joined the war due to its status as a dominion of Britain, a belligerent state), news of rising casualties and destruction horrified citizens, as well as unprovoked attacks by German U-boats on civilian ships enraged the region. After the exposure of the particularly damning Zimmerman Telegram, and then Germany's decision to target any neutral ship in a defined war zone, Hudson was the first of the Anglo-American sovereign states to enter the war, followed by the Canadian dominions (the Maritimes, Newfoundland, and Quebec), New England, United Commonwealth, the Confederate States, Superior, and Sierra in that order, all in the year 1917.

The entry of the Anglo-American states proved instrumental in giving the Allies a victory, defeating the Central Powers in 1918. All of the Anglo-American participant states were signatories of the Treaty of Versailles, with the Hudson Republic leading the collective delegation. The war had reignited a sense of commonality and unity, and tensions cooled. Hudson with its exploding population and economy was poised to become the region's leading power in the 1920s but this reality came to end following the Great Depression which hit Hudson the hardest, sending Anglo-America into economic hardship. During this time, the need for collective collaboration became more apparent, but it was not until the start of World War II was this perceived necessity realized.

Like in World War I, the Anglo-American states were skeptical and hesitant in joining World War II, opting to remain neutral although some of the states actively sent war material and supplies to the Allied powers. Despite this, talks between the nations led to the creation of the North American Defense Organization (NADO), the immediate predecessor to the Conference of American States. Formed in 1938, Hudson, the United Commonwealth, the Confederate States, New England, and Sierra agreed to share some of their military bases together and perform annual joint military practices in case of a continental invasion. One of the bases leased was Pearl Harbor in the Sierran territory of Hawaii, which began housing vessels and crewmen of NADO's combined navies in 1940. The base was especially important for Sierra as it was a strategic port to project Sierran power and influence across the Pacific. The introduction of other Anglo-American states in the Pacific was perceived as a threat to the Empire of Japan which decided to cripple Anglo-American presence in Pacific by destroying the fleet based in Pearl Harbor. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and the attack was seen as a direct threat to the entire region. This attack prompted all of the states to enter including Rainier and Alaska which were not part of the NADO. During World War II, the Anglo-American states fought in both the Pacific and European theater, and Sierra, Brazoria, and Hudson worked on developing the nuclear weapons that would later be used against Japan towards the end of the war.

Harry S. Truman

Acadiana President Harry S. Truman was a vocal supporter for American integration and supported the Conference of American States.

Following Allied victory of World War II, American cooperation and integration was deemed necessary to unite the region against future, potential conflicts. Particularly harrowed by the rise of the Soviet Union, the Anglo-American government, under the Truman Administration, sought to establish a "new order" that would comprise all the nations of the Americas, dedicated towards mutual cooperation, assistance, and defense. At the 1945 New York Convention, the CAS' precursor organization, the American Integration Society (AIS) was founded, with the stated intention of establishing a union as desired by the Americans. The Convention's proposals were universally rejected by nations of Latin America, particularly due to the Spanish-speaking nations' fear of being dominated by their Anglophone neighbors. Bearing this in mind, the CAS would focus primarily on integrating the Anglophone region of North America, as opposed to all of the Americas. In 1946, through the Treaty of St. Louis, the CAS was formally established with seven signatories: Acadiana, the Confederate States, Hudson, Maritime Republic, Michigan, New England, and the United Commonwealth.

During its infancy, the modern CAS institutions of the Parliament and Council were rudimentary, with the union's focus primarily geared towards economic cooperation through a customs union. By the 1960s however, the CAS grew more organized, and many provisions of the Treaty of St. Louis were implemented, strengthening the institutions by allowing the Parliament to pass binding legislation, under the principle of subsidiarity. On the condition of membership, member states were obliged to follow policies passed by the Parliament under the supervision of the Council. By 1965, the Kingdom of Alaska, the Kingdom of Sierra, and the Kingdom of the Great Lakes joined as CAS' s as the eighth, ninth, and tenth members respectively, followed by The Bahamas, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Mexico.

During the Cold War, the CAS was the forefront of the international stage, largely due to its most influential members, the Anglo-American group: Brazoria, Rainier, Sierra, and the United Commonwealth, and their fellow CAS allies. The CAS led the "free", capitalist faction and collaborated intensively with its allies in Western Europe and Northeast Asia, and postured itself as a whole, against the Soviet Union and the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Rainier joined the CAS in 1984 following a successful referendum on the issue - Rainian voters had rejected CAS membership in an earlier referendum in 1976.

Following the end of the Cold War, the CAS witnessed its expansion as additional states joined, including Hispanophone nations. In 1999, Barbados, Costa Rica, Panama, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines joined. In 2000, the St. Louis Area was created, eliminating border control and visa requirements between Acadiana, the Bahamas, Canada, the Confederate States, Hudson, Maritime Republic, New England, Newfoundland, Quebec, Rainier, Sierra, Brazoria, and the United Commonwealth. In 2002, Dominica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Saint Kitts and Nevis became CAS members. In 2004, Greenland joined the CAS. In 2006, the Conference of American States saw its most recent enlargement when Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada, and Trinidad and Tobago joined. In the wake of the 2008 economic crisis, the American Customs Authority was established to stabilize the CAS' economies as a single market, and had all member states' currencies pegged to the Hudson dollar. In addition, it was afforded limited discretion on monetary policy as calls for a single currency similar to the Euro was advocated for. In 2007, the newly formed nation of Tlingit and Haida Gwaii joined the Conference after it gained its independence from fellow CAS member Alaska. In 2009, Mexico withdrew its membership from CAS, becoming the first to do so in the history of the organization. In 2011, the CAS declared that its membership was now open to select nations of South America as well as dependencies of non-American nations through the Panama Accords, which required prospective nations and dependencies to have an economically developed free market, a democratic government, and sufficient infrastructure. Since then, all nations under the new criteria aside from Mexico have become observer or partner states, with Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Suriname elevated to candidate-status in 2012.

Future

Opening its membership up to South America, the CAS has intended to continue the process of political and economic integration of its member states. With Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, and Suriname entered in candidate status, it is predicted that both will be accepted as members by 2020, becoming the largest single entrance of countries into the CAS since Sierra in 1965.

There have been plans among the member states of the CAS to expand the St. Louis Area, mainly among the Caribbean states. In addition, the CAS has been working towards standardized drug and energy policies. The CAS is also exploring the possibility of including mutual defense policy, increased military cooperation, and continuing its mission towards promoting "peace, democracy, and liberty" across the Americas and the world. One of the Conference's stated goals is to promote democracy in Mexico, an aim that faces great obstruction due to the Mexican government's resistance against reform and defense of Veracruzism, an ideology that is deemed "fundamentally and morally incompatible" with the CAS. In 2014, the Mexican government-in-exile in Sierra was officially recognized by the CAS as the official representative of Mexico within the organization, and has been granted special observer status.

Geography

The CAS encompasses all of North America and the Caribbean except Cuba, Mexico, and the overseas territories of European countries (such as Bermuda). Approximately 8,787,300 square miles (about 22,759,000 km2), there are a total of 31 member states in the Conference, of which 16 are also part of the St. Louis Area.

The CAS covers a geographically diverse and vast landscape, occupying much of the North American continent, the Central American peninsula, the Panamanian isthmus, the Caribbean, and several islands in the Pacific including the Hawaiian Islands and the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Meteorologically, climate is equally diverse in CAS, ranging from Arctic (northern Canada) to tropical (Hawaii and the Caribbean), with much more consistent, and smooth transition of climates along the Atlantic Seaboard, and haphazardly varied climates in the western continental region of the CAS.

Member states

The Conference of American States was originally composed of only seven member states: Acadiana, Canada, Dixie, Hudson, Maritime Republic, Michigan, New England, and the United Commonwealth in 1946. Since then, membership count has expanded to a total of 36 states. In order to join the Conference, countries must become signatories of the Conference's founding treaties, namely the Treaty of St. Louis and have been approved for ascension by the American Council and Parliament. Members are free to withdraw from the Conference although as of date, there has never been an instance of a member state leaving the CAS. As a member, countries agree to confer some of its sovereignty to the Conference in exchange for representation and participation.

Before a country can even apply for membership, it must satisfy all of the five points of the Louisville Standard. The Standard requires that:

  1. the country must be predominantly located in either North or South America and share a border, land or maritime, with at least one existing member state;
  2. the country must be a fully sovereign state recognized by the League of Nations;
  3. the country must have a democratic form of government which allows all of its citizens to participate equally in the national civic discourse and hold free elections at every level of government;
  4. the country has a functioning market economy which is capable of competing against and withstanding the international market;
  5. the country must have adopted and complied, or is in the process of adopting and complying with the most up-to-date accumulated law of the CAS.

In addition to member states, there are candidate, observer, and partner states. Candidate states are countries which are in the process of fulfilling the Louisville Standard and negotiating with the Conference on the terms of ascension, and the process itself usually takes between 4–10 years to implement. Observer states are countries which are eligible for candidacy but have not elected to undergo such a process at the time being, but enjoy a passive presence in the Conference. Partner states are countries which are ineligible for candidacy (namely as they do not satisfy Rule 1 which requires the country be primarily located in the Americas) but nonetheless, are influential, trusted allies outside the Americas with the Conference who seek to engage and work alongside the Conference as a whole directly.

Membership list
Arms Flag Country Capital Date of Ascension Area (km2) Population Pop. year
Nationalist Party of Acadiana Acadiana flag NR Acadiana Fayette January 7, 1946 847,940 18,449,330 (2016)
Coat of arms of Antigua and Barbuda Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Babruda St. John's May 30, 2006 442 91,295 (2014)
Coat of arms of Bahamas Flag of Bahamas Bahamas Nassau February 14, 1965 13,943 321,834 (2014)
Coat of arms of Barbados Flag of Barbados Barbados Bridgetown January 1, 1999 430 277,821 (2010)
Coat of arms of Belize Flag of Belize Belize Belmopan January 1, 1999 22,966 368,310 (2015)
CanaanismMoonSun(Gradient) Flag of Canaanism Canaan Bolaris December 25, 2012 269,837 5,456,574 (2015)
Seal of the Confederate States of America Flag of the Confederate States Confederate States Montgomery January 7, 1946 941,462 42,593,305 (2015)
Coat of arms of Costa Rica Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica San José January 1, 1999 51,100 4,586,353 (2011)
Coat of arms of Dominica Flag of Dominica Dominica Rouseau August 9, 2002 751 72,324 (2016)
Coat of arms of Dominican Republic Flag of Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo February 14, 1965 48,671 10,075,045 (2016)
Coat of arms of El Salvador Flag of El Salvador El Salvador San Salvador September 18, 2005 21,041 6,377,195 (2015)
Coat of arms of Grenada Flag of Grenada Grenada St. George's May 30, 2006 344 109,590 (2012)
Coat of arms of Guatemala Flag of Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala City August 9, 2002 108,889 15,806,675 (2014)
Coat of arms of Haiti Flag of Haiti Haiti Port-au-Prince June 4, 2003 27,750 10,604,000 (2015)
Coat of arms of Honduras Flag of Honduras Honduras Tegucigalpa December 7, 2005 112,492 8,249,574 (2010)
Coat of arms of Hudson Flag of Hudson Republic Hudson New York City January 7, 1946 141,300 22,941,840 (2015)
Coat of arms of Jamaica Flag of Jamaica Jamaica Kingston February 14, 1965 10,991 2,950,210 (2015)
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of the Great Lakes Flag of the Kingdom of the Great Lakes Michigan Detroit February 14, 1965 TBD 44,221,942 (2015)
N/A Flag of Lakotah Lakotah Porcupine March 9, 1999 383,170 5,855,028 (2015)
Arms of New Brunswick Flag of New Brunswick Maritime Republic Halifax January 7, 1946 128,191 3,119,742 (2016)
Coat of arms of Nicaragua Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua Managua August 9, 2002 130,373 6,167,237 (2012)
Coat of arms of New England Flag of New England New England Boston January 7, 1946 186,447 14,232,666 (2015)
Coat of arms of Newfoundland and Labrador Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland St. John's February 22, 1970 108,860 497,447 (2016)
Coat of arms of Panama Flag of Panama Panama Panama City January 1, 1999 75,417 3,929,141 (2015)
Armoiries du Québec Flag of Quebec Quebec Quebec City November 7, 1981 1,836,386 7,903,011 (2011)
Coat of arms of Guayana Flag of Rainier Rainier Victoria March 18, 1986 9,084,543 24,993,445 (2015)
Coat of arms of Saint Kitts and Nevis Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre August 9, 2002 261 54,961 (2015)
Coat of arms of Saint Lucia Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Castries August 9, 2002 539 183,600 (2014)
Coat of arms of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown August 9, 2002 389 103,000 (2013)
Coat of arms of Sierra Flag of Sierra Sierra Porciúncula February 14, 1965 1,473,799 89,326,777 (2016)
Hohenzollern-Teutonica Flag of Teutonica Superior St. Anthony June 14, 1972 2,347,496 29,419,651 (2016)
Coat of arms of Brazoria Flag of Texas Brazoria Houston September 1, 1950 695,662 26,720,558 (2016)
N/A Flag of Tlingit and Haida Gwaii Tlingit and Haida Gwaii Sheetʼká December 28, 2007 101,190 297,808 (2015)
Coat of arms of Trinidad and Tobago Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain May 30, 2006 5,130 1,349,667 (2015)
United Commonwealth Seal 2 Warren Flag United Commonwealth Louisville January 7, 1946 1,067,610 98,283,911 (2015)

      – Part of the St. Louis Area

Government and politics

Similar to the European Union, the Conference of American States operates as a conferral and supplementary institution governed by the Treaty of St. Louis and other regulatory documents. Laws made by the Conference of American States can be either binding or non-binding, the former generally being mandatory statutes that must be enforced in all member states with or without CAS financial assistance, and the latter recommended implementation plans that always entails guaranteed funding. It is composed of five primary organs: the American Parliament (located in St. Louis), the American Council (located in St. Louis), the American Secretariat (located in St. Louis), the American Court of Justice (located in Austin), and the American Customs Authority (located in New York City).

Principal Institutions of the Conference of American States
American Parliament

- Legislature -
American Parliament

American Council

- Legislature -
American Council

American Secretariat

- Executive administration -
American Secretariat HQ

  • establishes CAS law and common policies
  • forms and controls budget
  • negotiates with the Council on legislative policymaking
  • has legislative oversight over other CAS bodies
  • based in St. Louis
  • concludes international agreements
  • reviews and approves legislative actions of Parliament
  • coordinates with national governments and legislatures in implementing common policy
  • negotiates with the Parliament on legislative policymaking
  • oversees CAS defense policy and international security
  • based in St. Louis
  • is the executive
  • implements policy
  • establishes CAS agenda
  • sends legislative proposals to Parliament
  • administers the CAS organization and staff
  • commands and leads the collective American defense system
  • engages in diplomatic dialogue with member states and non-CAS states
  • based in St. Louis
American Court of Justice

- Judiciary -
American Court of Justice

American Customs Authority

- Financial auditor -
American Customs Authority

  • ensures the uniform application and interpretation of American law
  • has the power to decide legal disputes between member states, the institutions, businesses, and individuals
  • defends human rights and reviews human rights cases
  • based in Austin
  • coordinates and promotes uniformity in monetary policy
  • reviews and ensures proper implementation of budget
  • oversees economic regulations
  • assesses economic data and recommends action to other bodies and governments
  • based in New York City

American Parliament

The American Parliament, alongside the American Council, form the official deliberative, legislative body in the CAS. The Parliament consists of 800 Members of the American Parliament (MAPs) who are directly elected by CAS citizens every four years on the basis of the D'Hondt method form of party-list proportional representation. MAPs are seated and grouped based on political coalitions rather than by nationality, and the number of seats each member state has is based on a fixed proportion grounded on population.

The American Parliament is charged with formulating and passing legislation on virtually every area of issues and policies, and include binding and non-binding legislation, the former being mandatory statutes that must be implemented by member states, and the latter recommended policy plans. The Parliament is in charge of creating the Conference's budget and together with the Council, appropriates funds to CAS bodies and member states to ensure policy can be implemented properly and efficiently. The Parliament is the origin of all CAS law and possesses the right of legislative initiation, but all proposed legislation must be reviewed and approved by the Council. Typically, Parliament and the Council work together in formulating law but ultimately, the Council decides whether or not if a legislation shall pass. Parliament is also responsible for creating and controlling the budget for the Conference. As with normal legislation, any appropriation of funds must be reviewed by the Council.

The Parliament is headed by the President of the American Parliament, who is currently Sofia Muñoz from Honduras. The President serves as the speaker and chairperson in the Parliament, and its official spokesperson to the public. The President's signature is one of the names required for legislation to pass. The President and other senior officials in Parliament are elected by MAPs every 2 years and may serve indefinitely renewable terms. There are also group leaders for every one of Parliament's nine official political groups: the Alliance of American Unity (AAU), American Coalition for Liberty (ACL), American Conservative Coalition (ACC), Americans for Freedom and Democracy (AFD), Liberal Democrats of America (LDA), Pan-American Reform Union (PARU), Red-Green Alliance (RGA), Social Democrats of America (SDA), and the United Alliance of the Left (UAL). There is no party leader for the Non-Inscrits which comprises of all parties which are not a part of any of the other nine groups.

American Council

The American Council is a 28-member institution that serves as the other half of the CAS legislature. Each member, known as a minister, is a representative appointed by their respective member state. The Council is led by the Presidency which rotates among the ministers every six-months. The current President of the Council is Jérôme François Brissot from Canada. The Council is primarily concerned with reviewing and modifying legislation submitted by Parliament, and sending back revisions and amendments to Parliament if the legislation requires additional deliberations. Once a compromise has been reached with the legislation deemed satisfactory by the Council, the legislation is passed and signed by the President of the Council, President of the Parliament, and the Secretary-General, thus officiating the legislation into law. If compromise cannot be reached, a conciliatory committee is formed to reconcile differences and disputes between the two bodies. If a compromise cannot be reached within 30 working days, the bill is automatically dismissed and must be re-proposed on the Parliament floor, restarting the drafting process. A bill can be dismissed instantly by the Council if more than 60% of the Council rejects its initial proposal.

On matters regarding foreign policy, defense policy, and transnational security, the Council is responsible for proposing legislation within its floor without the input of Parliament. Although a conciliatory committee may be formed, this is not required, and any legislation regarding these fields may be passed as long as a supermajority is reached and is signed by the President of the Council and the Secretary-General.

American Secretariat

The American Secretariat is responsible for running and administrating the daily affairs of the CAS organization. The American Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General who acts as the CAS leader and official spokesperson. The current Secretary-General is Johann Hauptsmann from Superior. In addition to the Secretary-General, he is aided by the Deputy Secretary-General and Adjunct Secretaries who head one of the Secretariat's 12 departments ranging from foreign policy to healthcare. The Secretariat can propose legislation before Parliament and is involved in the legislation process as a moderator, by steering legislation to fit according to the Secretariat agenda. All pieces of legislation require a signature from the Secretary-General in order to pass.

The Secretariat is responsible for ensuring that all member states comply with CAS law and implement the law correctly and efficiently. If the Secretariat deems a nation as non-compliant, it may flag the nation and submit a Writ of Suspension to the defiant government, ordering compliance within a set time period. If the nation fails to meet the requirements by then, the nation's membership can be automatically suspended and all CAS funding to the country can be halted, and representatives placed on administrative leave until the suspended nation can prove it has complied with the Secretariat's orders. It is imperative and within the interest of the Secretariat to maintain continuous dialogue with the governments of all member states, and is seen as the persuasive arm of the Conference to encourage member states to back CAS policy and legislation, and foster cooperation.

In times of emergency or war, the Secretariat acts as the focal point of collective defense and works with coordinating the commanders-in-chief and their militaries of all member states in defending the region from any threats internal or external. Although the Secretariat does not have any direct power or control over any individual military, nor does it control any independent defense organization, it does have limited authority over joint international military bases set aside for the Conference itself.

American Court of Justice

The American Court of Justice is the chief judicial authority in the Conference and is responsible for interpreting American law, and oversees the law being uniformly applied across the member states. Contrary to popular thought, the cases settled by national supreme courts within a member state's own jurisdiction cannot usually be appealed to the American Court of Justice as the Court has no jurisdiction or competence in interpreting the laws of individual member states. However, it does have jurisdiction over the following cases: a member state against another member state; a member state against a non-member state; individuals, companies, or governments whose cases involve American law; internal actions pertaining to the Conference; and any cases involving treaties or international agreements.

American Customs Authority

The American Customs Authority is the most recently established institution of the CAS, created in 2006, superseding the former American Commission on Trade and Finance. Currently, the American Customs Authority is responsible for auditing and reviewing the CAS' finances and budget, oversees economic regulations, and working with national banks. In the future, once a common currency is adopted (most likely the proposed Amero), the Customs Authority has, by a 2011 CAS statute, the right to upgrade into a central bank with control over monetary policy as it was intended to do. It is based in New York City.

Legal system

The Conference of American States is an internationally recognized supranational politico-economic entity which is based on the culmination of several treaties signed over the years including the Treaty of St. Louis by its member states. The treaties were mutual, multilateral agreements that granted the Conference various political rights and authority to carry out the stated goals and aims of the Conference's member states. Some of these legal powers include the right to enact legislation which can apply to all citizens and governments within the CAS. Internationally, the CAS has a legal personality, and is allowed to sign agreements and international treaties as a singular signatory. A condition of membership in the CAS requires that the member state adopt and ratify all treaties that the CAS is built upon, and signs itself, even if such documents violate national law under the principal of CAS legal supremacy. The American Court of Justice is responsible for interpreting and reviewing all actions that pertain to the American legal and treatise system.

Under the 1980 Treaty of Porciúncula, citizens of the CAS are guaranteed "essential" human rights, among them including the freedom of religion, speech, employment opportunity, basic housing, and education. The CAS promotes itself as a supporter of human rights, dignity, peace, freedom, democracy, rule of law, protection of minority and indigenous rights, national sovereignty, and transnational security.

Foreign relations

The American Secretariat and Council are charged with coordinating, formulating, and enforcing common foreign and security policies among member states. The development of a common foreign affairs policy started with the foundation of the CAS. By the 1950s, as nations including Sierra joined, in wake of rising tension between the West and the Soviet bloc, the American Parliament and Council established the Common American Cooperation Initiative (CACI) which aimed towards establishing a non-binding consultive group tasked with evaluating, recommending, negotiating, and supporting relations with non-member states. The purposes and goals of the CACI were later incorporated into the 1972 Treaty of Porciúncula under the American Common Diplomatic Policy. Mutual defense and military policy is closely tied with the American Common Diplomatic Policy, as the CAS also operates simultaneously as an international military organization.

Military

The military history of the CAS predates the existence of the organization, and began under the CAS' immediate predecessor, the North American Defense Organization (NADO). Founded in 1938 by the continental Anglo-American nations, the military alliance was created in response to the outbreak of World War II, and the desire to create a common defense against potential continental-based invasions. The NADO led to the sharing of select Anglo-American military bases and facilities, and created an agreement where an attack on one of the NADO member states would be seen as an attack against all of the member states. After NADO played a key role in Anglo-America's entry and involvement in World War II, its objectives and services were integrated into the CAS, with the assistance of the American Integration Society (AIS). Together with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the CAS led the Western Bloc in the Cold War, against the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc in the ideological standoff.

All members of the CAS, with the exception of Costa Rica, contribute and provide funding, logistical support, resources, troops, and facilities to support the military operations and defensive functions of the CAS. Hudson, New England, Sierra, Superior, and the United Commonwealth contribute as much as 70% of the CAS' military budget, and 60% of its military capacity collectively. Sierra and the United Commonwealths are also permanent members of the League of Nations Security Council, while both of them and Superior are nuclear weapon states.

Foreign aid

Economy

The Conference of American States has evolved to become a full-fledged single market, guaranteeing free trade and free movement of goods, enterprise, capital, and people. The Conference is represented in the World Trade Organization and the World Bank, and has a combined GDP of $27.5 trillion, making it the largest political entity in the world by GDP. Although the Conference officially established a single market in 2002, plans to introduce a common currency has been delayed, and a unified, legally binding monetary policy has met resistance by several members, most notably from Rainier and Sierra. The proposed currency union would use the Amero. In 2016, the American Parliament unveiled design plans for the Amero, and established a pathway for it to be preliminarily implemented by 2022.

Customs union

Demographics

Culture

As a supranational union of American states, the CAS has promoted the shared cultural heritage and experiences of its member states, and has been deeply invested in all aspects of preserving and protecting historic sites, art, literature, music, and other non-tangible cultural objects. CAS policies have helped support the development and growth of individuals, corporations, and organizations committed towards the fields of cinema, television, music, literature, journalism, dance, and more. The organization also hosts a number of annual celebrations and competitions to raise awareness of cultural diversity, including the Solaris Song Contest and the American Culture of the Month program, aimed at educating citizens, and supporting students, artists, entrepreneurs, and others.

Unionism

US flag 13 stars – Betsy Ross

The Betsy Ross flag, which represents the original Thirteen Colonies, is the predominant symbol of American unionism, and also serves as the symbol of Anglo-America.

Symbols

Flag

Criticism

Ameroskepticism

Ameroskepticism (spelled as Ameroscepticism in the former British dominions) is the criticism or opposition to the Conference of American States, and consists of two variants: soft (which advocates reforming the Conference) and hard (which advocates for the abolishment of the Conference or the withdrawal of one's state from the organization). Ameroskepticism is contrasted with American unionism which may include soft Ameroskeptics as generally, American unionists believe the Conference is essential towards American unity and integration, and is beneficial to the peoples of the Americas. Ameroskepticism is most prevalent among Sierrans and Confederates who have historically been resistant towards integrating or reluctant to participate with the rest of their Anglo-American neighbors.

Ameroskepticism is both a historic and a recent political phenomenon, with its resurgence occurring after the September 11 attacks when several major international cities including New York City, Porciúncula, Houston, and Louisville were attacked by Islamic terrorists. In Sierra, differences on foreign policy, trade, and national sovereignty reignited the discussion and controversy on the nature of the CAS as an organization, and gained traction across both sides of Sierra's political spectrum. These concerns were similarly apparent in the Confederate States, and in minor circles in the other states including the United Commonwealth and the Confederate States. Ameroskepticism is also pronounced in Superior and Quebec, two nations which have resisted Anglicization, and retained their respective, distinct cultural and linguistic differences (German/Scandinavian and French respectively). Ameroskepticism has also been on the rise in Rainier after in recent years Rainier has been under pressure within the CAS to reduce its high budget deficits, which in turn has led to unpopular austrity policies blamed on the CAS alongside opposition to immigration.

In Sierra

Historically, the Sierran government officially maintained a policy of neutrality and a semi-isolationist foreign policy, having only engaged in one foreign war, the War of Contingency before the arrival of the 20th century. Although Sierra's principal ally was Rainier, Sierran interaction with the rest of Anglo-America was minimal with the exception of trade and transnational commerce. When World War I broke out, Sierra was hesitant to join the collective forces of Anglo-America, and vehemently opposed coalescing its military with others under a defense group.

See also