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The Constitution of the Republic of California is the supreme law of the Republic of California. The first three Articles of the Constitution establish the rules and separate powers of the federal government: a legislature, the bicameral congress; an executive branch led by the president; and a federal judiciary headed by the Supreme Court. The last four Articles frame the principle of federalism. The Tenth Amendment confirms its federal characteristics. The Constitution was adopted on June 1, 2015, and ratified by conventions in all five states. The first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights.

The Constitution guides Californian society in law and political culture. It is one of the youngest charter of supreme law in continuous use, and it influenced later international figures establishing national constitutions. Recent impulses for reform center on concerns for extending democracy and balancing the Federal budget.

Amendments

# Definition

Year Enacted

1 Protection of freedom of religion, speech, and the press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the government 2015
2 Protects the right to bear arms 2015
3 Prohibits the forced quartering of soldiers out of war time. 2015
4 Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures and sets out requirements for search warrants based on probable cause 2015
5 Sets out rules for indictment by grand jury and eminent domain, protects the right to due process, and prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy 2015
6 Protects the right to a fair and speedy public trial by jury, including the rights to be notified of the accusations, to confront the accuser, to obtain witnesses and to retain counsel

2015

7 Provides for the right to trial by jury in certain civil cases, according to common law 2015
8 Prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment 2015
9 Asserts the existence of unenumerated rights retained by the people 2015
10 Limits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the Constitution 2015
11 Abolishes slavery, and involetude service, except as punishment for an crime 2016
12 Prohibits the denial of suffrage based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude 2017
13 Establishes Prohibition of alcohol (excluding beer and wine) 2017
14 Establishes women's suffrage 2018
15 Establishes the official voting age to be 16 years old 2019
16 Establishes the official drinking age to 26 years old 2019
17 Abolishes electoral college 2020
18 Establishes Prohibition of drugs 2021

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