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The Constitution of the United Republic of Cascadia is the supeme law of Cascadia. It consists of 36 articles in six chapters, plus annexes. The constitution establishes the state as a federal directorial republic comprising two constituent states, Oregon and Washington. It guarantees separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches, which are independent of and coequal with each other. Both constituent states also have their own constitutions.

The constitution was signed on November 27, 2014, at 21:00 local time at Whitman College in Walla Walla. The constitution was ratified and published on December 1, 2014, and came into effect on January 1, 2015. All popularly elected positions in the new federal government, as well as the new constituent state governments, will be filled in an election taking place on February 14–15, 2015.

Chapter I: Basic Articles

Article 1: The United Republic of Cascadia

  1. The United Republic of Cascadia is an independent and sovereign state with a single international legal personality and a federal government and consists of two constituent states, namely Oregon and Washington.
  2. The independence, territorial integrity, security, and constitutional order of the United Republic of Cascadia shall be safeguarded and respected by all.
  3. Union of Cascadia in whole or in part with any other country, any form of partition of secession, and any other unilateral change to the state of affairs established by this Constitution is prohibited.
  4. The United Republic of Cascadia shall be organized under this Constitution in accordance with the basic principles of rule of law, democracy, representative republican government, political equality of Oregonians and Washingtonians, bi-zonality and the equal status of the constituent states.

Article 2: The constituent states

  1. The constituent states are of equal status. Each constituent state exercises its authority within the limits of this Constitution and its territorial boundaries, as set out in the maps attached to this Constitution.
  2. The identity, territorial integrity, security and constitutional oder of the constituent states shall be safeguarded and respected by all.
  3. The constituent states shall organize themselves freely within the limits of this Constitution and in conformity with the basic principles of rule of law, democracy, and representative republican government under their own Constitutions.

Chapter II: General Provisions

Article 3: Constitution as supreme law

  1. This Constitution, having been democratically adopted by the Oregonians and the Washingtonians through their separately expressed common will, is the supreme law of the land and is binding on all federal authorities and the constituent states. Any act by the federal government or either constituent state in contravention of this Constitution shall be null and void.
  2. The federal government shall fully respect and not infringe upon the powers and functions of the constituent states under this Constitution. Each constituent state shall fully respect and not infringe upon the powers ad functions of the federal government or the other constituent state under this Constitution. There shall be no hierarchy between federal and constituent state laws.
  3. The Supreme Court shall uphold this Constitution and ensure its full respect by other federal organs and the constituent states.

Article 4: Rule of law

  1. The law is the basis of and limitation for all acts of government at all levels.
  2. All acts of government at all levels shall conform with the principles of public interest, proportionality and good faith.
  3. The federal government as well as the constituent states shall respect international law, including all treaties binding upon the United Republic of Cascadia, which shall prevail over any federal or constituent state legislation.

Article 5: Secular nature of the United Republic of Cascadia

  1. The United Republic of Cascadia, its federal government and its constituent states are secular.
  2. Religious functionaries shall not hold elected or appointed political or public office.

Article 6: Demilitarization of the United Republic of Cascadia

  1. The United Republic of Cascadia and its constituent states shall be demilitarized. There shall be no paramilitary or reserve forces or military or paramilitary training of citizens.
  2. Cascadia shall not put its territory at the disposal of international military operations other than with the consent of the governments of both constituent states.
  3. All weapons, except licensed sporting guns, shall be prohibited and the supply of weapons other than in accordance with licensing law shall be an offense carrying a mandatory sentence of a minimum of three years in prison.
  4. The constituent states shall prohibit by law violence and the incitement to violence against the United Republic of Cascadia, the federal government, or the constituent states, and shall not tolerate such acts by persons, groups, or organizations operating within their boundaries.
  5. The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to the provisions of this Constitution on federal and constituent state police and the Joint Investigation Agency.

Article 7: Seat of the federal government

The seat of the federal government shall be Greater Portland.

Article 8: Flags and anthems

  1. The flag of the United Republic of Cascadia shall be as attached to this Constitution. It is one and one-half times as long as it is high. It consists of five horizontal stripes of unequal width:
    1. the top stripe is forest green and is 1/5th of the height of the flag;
    2. the second stripe is black and 1/20th of the height of the flag;
    3. the third stripe is white and is 1/2 of the height of the flag;
    4. the fourth stripe is black and 1/20th of the height of the flag;
    5. the bottom stripe is royal blue and is 1/5th of the height of the flag.

The flag shall be flown on federal government buildings.

  1. The anthem of the United Republic of Cascadia shall be as attached to this Constitution.
  2. The constituent states shall have their own flags and anthems. The constituent state flag shall be flown on constituent state government buildings, along with and in the same manner as the flag of the United Republic of Cascadia. No other flags shall be flown on constituent state government buildings or public property.

Article 9: The official language and promulgation of official acts

  1. The official language of the United Republic of Cascadia is English.
  2. Legislative, executive, administrative and judicial acts and documents of the federal government shall be drawn up in the official language and shall, unless otherwise provided, be promulgated by publication in the official Gazette of the United Republic of Cascadia in the official language.
  3. All persons have the right to address the federal authorities in the official language, and to be addressed in that same language.
  4. The official language of the United Republic of Cascadia shall be taught mandatorily to all primary and secondary school students.

Article 10: Official Holidays of the United Republic of Cascadia

  1. The National Holiday of the Untied Republic of Cascadia shall be named Independence Day, and shall be observed on October 22.
  2. In addition to Sundays, the following official holidays shall be observed throughout Cascadia:
    1. January 1 (New Year's Day)
    2. The last Monday in May (Memorial Day)
    3. The first Monday in September (Labor Day)
    4. The fourth Thursday in November (Thanksgiving Day)
    5. December 25 (Christmas Day);
    6. Good Friday;
    7. Easter Monday;
    8. Rosh Hashanah;
    9. Yom Kippur;
    10. The first day of Ramadan;
    11. The first day of Eid-al-Adha;
    12. The birthday of the Prophet Mohammed.
  3. Each constituent state shall determine and observe its own holidays in addition to those of the United Republic of Cascadia.
  4. Federal public servants are entitled to observe, in addition to the above, the official holidays of either one constituent state or the other.

Chapter III: Fundamental Rights and Liberties

Article 11: Fundamental rights

  1. In accordance with Article 4.3 of this Constitution, the human rights and fundamental freedoms enshrined in the Catalogue of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms shall be an integral part of this Constitution. The United Nations Covenant on Civil and Political Rights shall also be an integral part of this Constitution.
  2. There shall be no discrimination against any person on the basis of his or her gender, ethnic or religious identity, or internal constituent state citizenship status.
  3. There shall be freedom of movement and freedom of residence throughout Cascadia, except as otherwise expressly provided in this Constitution or a Constitutional Law.

Article 12: Citizenship

  1. There is a single Cascadian citizenship.
  2. All persons holding Cascadian citizenship shall also enjoy internal constituent state citizenship status as provided for by Constitutional Law. Such status is complementary to and does not replace Cascadian citizenship. Only Cascadian citizens shall enjoy internal constituent state citizenship status.
  3. Where any provision of this Constitution refers to the constituent state origins of a person, or where a person hails from, the criterion shall be the holding of internal constituent state citizenship status. No one may hold the internal constituent state citizenship status of both constituent states.

Article 13: Exercise of political rights

Cascadian citizens who are at least 18 years old shall enjoy political rights at the federal level and exercise them based on their internal constituent state citizenship status.

Chapter IV: The Federal Government and the Constituent States

Article 14: Competences and functions of the federal government

  1. The federal government shall, in accordance with this Constitution, sovereignly exercise legislative and executive competences in the following matters:
    1. External relations, including conclusion of international treaties and defense policy;
    2. Central Bank functions, including issuance of currency, monetary policy and banking regulations;
    3. Federal finances, including budget and all indirect taxation, including customs and excise, and federal economic and trade policy;
    4. Natural resources, including water resources;
    5. Meteorology, aviation, international navigation and the continental shelf and territorial waters of the United Republic of Cascadia;
    6. Communications, including postal, electronic, and telecommunications;
    7. Cascadian citizenship, including issuance of passports, and immigration, including asylum, deportation, and extradition of aliens;
    8. Combating terrorism, drug trafficking, money laundering, and organized crime;
    9. Pardons and amnesties, other than for crimes concerning only one constituent state;
    10. Intellectual property and weights and measures; and
    11. Antiquities.
  2. Incidental to the above competences and to other provisions of this Constitution, the federal government shall exercise legislative and executive competences over federal administration, including public service, federal police, as well as independent institutions and officers; federal elections and referenda; offenses against federal laws; federal administration of justice; federal property, including public works for federal facilities and expropriation; and like matters which are clearly incidental to the specified powers of the federal government.
  3. The federal government shall, as appropriate, entrust the implementation of tis laws, including the collection of certain forms of taxes, to constituent state authorities.
  4. Obligations of the United Republic of Cascadia under international treaties shall be implemented by the federal government or constituent state authority which enjoys legislative competence in the subject matter to which the treaty pertains.
  5. The federal government shall confer upon the constituent states a portion of its revenue from indirect taxation as provided for by special majority law.

Article 15: Competences and functions of the constituent states

  1. The constituent states shall, within the limits of this Constitution, sovereignly exercise within their territorial boundaries all competences and functions not vested by this Constitution in the federal government.
  2. The constituent states shall have primary criminal jurisdiction over offenses against federal laws, unless such jurisdiction is reserved for the Supreme Court of Cascadia by federal legislation.
  3. The police of a constituent state shall be stationed and operate exclusively within that constituent state and shall be responsible for the protection and enforcement of law and order and public safety within that constituent state, including offenses against federal laws, without prejudice to the functions of the federal police and the Joint Investigation Agency. A Constitutional Law shall regulate the strength and equipment of constituent state police and a Cooperation Agreement between the federal government and the constituent states shall provide for cooperation on police matters.

Article 16: Cooperation and coordination

  1. Where expressly provided for in this Constitution, legislative matters may be regulated in a manner binding upon the federal government and the constituent states, through Constitutional Laws. Such laws shall be approved by the federal Parliament and both constituent state legislatures in accordance with procedures set down in a Constitutional Law and shall have precedence over any other federal or constituent state laws.
  2. The constituent states may conclude agreements with each other or with the federal government. Such agreements may create common organizations and institutions on matters within the competence of the parties. Such agreements shall have the same legal standing as Constitutional Laws, provided they have been approved by the federal Parliament and both constituent state legislatures.
  3. The constituent states shall strive to coordinate or harmonize their policy and legislation, including through agreements, common standards and consultations wherever appropriate, in particular on the following matters:
    1. Tourism;
    2. Protection of the environment and use and conservation of energy;
    3. Fisheries and agriculture;
    4. Industry and commerce, including insurance, consumer protection, professions and professional associations;
    5. Zoning and planning, including for overland transport;
    6. Sports and education;
    7. Health, including regulation of tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and veterinary matters;
    8. Social security and labor;
    9. Family, company and criminal law; and
    10. Acceptance of validity of documents.
  4. Either constituent state or any branch of the federal government may initiate the coordination or harmonization process.
  5. Agreements on such coordination or harmonization shall be approved by the competent branch of the constituent state governments and, if federal participation is required, by the competent brand of the federal government.
  6. The federal government shall support, both financially and logistically, cooperative endeavors between the constituent states or between municipalities and counties located in different constituent states.
  7. The federal government and the constituent states shall accept valid documents issued by government authorities and educational, medical, and other public service institutions.

Article 17: Joint Investigation Agency

There shall be a Joint Investigation Agency, comprising federal and constituent state police personnel and reporting to the federal Attorney-General. Its composition and functions, as well as the strength and equipment of the federal and constituent state police, shall be regulated by Constitutional Law.

Article 18: External relations

  1. Cascadia shall maintain special ties of friendship with the United States of America and Canada, and shall by agreement on appropriate terms accord them most favored nation treatment to the extent that this is compatible with its obligations under this Constitution, international treaties, and law.
  2. The constituent states shall be consulted on federal decisions on external relations that affect their competences.
  3. The constituent states may appoint representatives on commercial or cultural matters, who shall be accredited as part of diplomatic missions of Cascadia.
  4. The constituent states may also conclude agreements on commercial and cultural matters, with authorities of States that have relations with the United Republic of Cascadia, provided that such agreements do not cause prejudice to the United Republic of Cascadia, the authority of the federal government, or the other constituent state.
  5. In the exercise of the powers conferred by paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Article, the following procedures shall be observed:
    1. The constituent states shall use the channel of the federal ministry of foreign affairs for contacts at a political level with foreign governments; and
    2. The constituent states may have direct contacts with constituent- or sub-entities or subordinate authorities of other states. In this case, they shall inform the federal ministry of foreign affairs upon starting negotiations on any agreement with such authorities and continue to advise on the progress and outcome of such negotiations.
  6. A Cooperation Agreement between the federal government and the constituent states on external relations shall regulate the implementation of this Article.

Chapter V: Federal Institutions

Article 19: Eligibility and incompatibility and discharge of duties

  1. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or law, a person shall be qualified to be elected or appointed to serve in the federal institutions if he or she is a citizen of the United Republic of Cascadia and has reached the age of 18.
  2. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or law, no person may be a member of more than one branch of the federal government or of the federal government and a constituent state government.
  3. Persons elected to or appointed to serve in the federal institutions shall act in the best interests of the federal government.

Article 20: Federal government immunities and exemptions

  1. Members of Parliament, the Presidential Council, the Supreme Court, and the Board of Directors of the Central Bank of Cascadia, as well as the Independent Officers, shall enjoy immunity from arrest or judicial prosecution unless federal law provides otherwise.
  2. Federal property used for official purposes shall be exempt from the application of constituent state legislation, including taxation. Such property shall be under the direct and sole authority of the federal government. The constituent states shall assist the federal police in assuring the safety of federal property located within their territorial boundaries.

Chapter V-a: The Legislature

Article 21: Composition and election of Parliament

  1. The federal Parliament shall be composed of two Chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  2. Each Chamber shall have 72 members, elected for four years on the basis of proportional representation. The constituent states shall serve as electoral precincts unless special majority law provides otherwise, in which case each precinct may have no less than ten seats.
  3. The Senate shall be composed of an equal number of Oregonian and Washingtonian senators. They shall be elected on a proportional basis by the citizens of Cascadia, voting separately as Oregonians and Washingtonians, in accordance with the law.
  4. The House of Representatives shall be composed of representatives from both constituent states, with seats attributed on the basis of the number of persons holding internal constituent state citizenship status of each constituent state; provided that each constituent state shall be attributed a minimum of one-quarter of the seats.

Article 22: Organization

  1. The law shall regulate the time and duration of the ordinary sessions of the federal Parliament. At any time, the Presidential Council or one-quarter of sitting members of either Chamber may convene Parliament for an extraordinary session.
  2. Each Chamber shall elect a Speaker and two Deputy Speakers, one from each constituent state, for a period of four years. The Speakers of the two Chambers shall not come from the same constituent state, nor shall two consecutive Speakers of either Chamber. The Deputy who does not come from the same constituent state as the Speaker of the relevant chamber shall be the First Deputy of that Chamber.
  3. Each Chamber shall organize its own committees in accordance with the law.
  4. Each Chamber shall require the presence of a majority of sitting members in order to take decisions.
  5. The law shall regulate the obligation of members of Parliament to attend meetings and the consequences of failure to do so without authorization.

Article 23: Powers

  1. Parliament shall legislate and take decisions.
  2. Parliament shall approve international treaties for ratification, except where it has delegated that power to the Presidential Council.
  3. Parliament shall elect and oversee the functioning of the Presidential Council.
  4. Parliament may by special majority refer to the Supreme Court allegations of impeachment regarding the members of the Presidential Council and of organs of the independent institutions, and independent officers, for grave violations of their duties or serious crimes.
  5. Parliament shall adopt the federal budget.

Article 24: Procedure

  1. Unless otherwise specified in this Constitution, decisions of Parliament need the approval of both Chambers with simple majority of members present and voting, including one-quarter of senators present and voting from each constituent state.
  2. A special majority comprising at least two-fifths of sitting senators from each constituent state, in addition to a simple majority of deputies present and voting, shall be required for:
    1. Ratification of international agreements on matters which fall within the legislative competence of the constituent states;
    2. Ratification of treaties and adoption of laws and regulations concerning the airspace, continental shelf and territorial waters of the United Republic of Cascadia, including the exclusive economic zone and the contiguous zone;
    3. Adoption of laws and regulations concerning citizenship, immigration, water resources and taxation;
    4. Approval of the federal budget;
    5. Election of the Presidential Council; and
    6. Other matters which specifically require special majority approval pursuant to other provisions of this Constitution.
  3. The law shall provide for a conciliation mechanism between the Chambers of Parliament.

Chapter V-b: The Executive

Article 25: The Presidential Council

  1. The Office of Head of State is vested in a Presidential Council, which shall exercise the executive power. The Council shall have six voting members. Parliament may elect additional, non-voting members. Unless it decides otherwise by special majority, it shall elect three non-voting members.
  2. All members of the Presidential Council shall be elected by Parliament for a fixed five-year term on a single list by special majority. The list shall specify the voting members.
  3. Members of the Presidential Council shall not hold any other public office or private position.
  4. The members of the Presidential Council shall continue to exercise their functions after the expiry of their term in office until a new Council has been elected.
  5. In the event of a vacancy in the Council, a replacement shall be elected by Parliament by special majority for the remainder of the term of office.
  6. The composition of the Presidential Council shall be proportional to the numbers of persons holding the internal constituent state citizenship status of each constituent state, though at least one-third of voting members and one-third of non-voting members must hail from each constituent state.
  7. The Presidential Council shall strive to reach all decisions by consensus. Where it fails to reach consensus, it shall make decisions by simple majority of members present and voting unless otherwise stated in this Constitution. Such majority must in all cases comprise at least one member from each constituent state. In case of absence, a voting member may delegate his or her voting right to a non-voting member.
  8. Notwithstanding voting rights, the members of the Presidential Council shall be equal. Any member of the Council shall be able to place an item on the agenda of the Council.
  9. The Presidential Council may, where appropriate, invite heads of government of the constituent states to participate without a vote in its meetings.

Article 26: The President and Vice President of the Council

  1. The Council shall decide on the rotation of the offices of President and Vice President among its members. Unless the voting members of the Council unanimously decide otherwise, the following arrangements shall apply:
    1. Two members of the Council, not hailing from the same constituent state, shall be elected by the Council on a single list; and
    2. They shall rotate in the exercise of the offices of President and Vice President of the Council every twenty months. The first President of the Council in each term shall be the member hailing from the more populous constituent state.
  2. The Vice President of the Council shall assume the duties of the President in the absence or temporary incapacity of the President.
  3. The President of the Council shall convene and chair the meetings of the Presidential Council
  4. Neither the President nor the Vice President of the Council shall have a casting vote.

Article 27: The Departments

  1. The Presidential Council shall attribute the departments among its members. It may decide that some members shall be without portfolio.
  2. Where the Council is unable to reach a decision on the attribution of departments, the choice shall be in order of strength of party representation in the Senate.
  3. The heads of department shall prepare and execute the decisions of the Presidential Council relating to their departments.

Article 28: Representation of the Presidential Council

  1. The President of the Council shall represent the Presidential Council as Head of State.
  2. In representing the Presidential Council as Head of State, the President shall attend official functions, sign and receive credentials of diplomatic envoys, and confer the honors of the United Republic of Cascadia.
  3. The President of the Council shall represent the United Republic of Cascadia at meetings of heads of government.
  4. The heads of the relevant Departments shall represent the United Republic of Cascadia at meetings of government ministers unless otherwise provided for by law or by agreement between the federal government and the constituent states.
  5. Where an international meeting is likely to address vital interests of a constituent state, and the Council representative to that meeting hails from the other constituent state, the Council shall, upon special request of a majority of Council members from the interested constituent state, appoint a member from that constituent state to accompany the Council representative, provided delegations to such meetings may comprise more than one person.
  6. Any representative of the United Republic of Cascadia at international meetings shall be bound by decisions of the Presidential Council. Where the Council has appointed one of its members to accompany its representative in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article, the representative of Cascadia shall exercise any discretion in concord with such member.

Article 29: Federal administration

  1. A Public Service Commission composed of men and women hailing in equal numbers from each constituent state shall have authority to appoint and promote federal public servants. It shall take decisions in accordance with the law.
  2. The composition of the public service shall, where not otherwise specified in this Constitution or by special majority law, be proportional to the population of the constituent states, though at least one-third of the public servants at every level of the administration must hail from each constituent state.
  3. A federal public servant may not simultaneously serve as a public servant of a constituent state.

Article 30: The federal police

There shall be a federal police composed of an equal number of personnel hailing from each constituent state. The federal police shall control Cascadia's border and protect federal officials, buildings and property, as well as foreign dignitaries and diplomatic missions.

Chapter V-c: Independent Officers and Institutions

Article 31: Central Bank of Cascadia

  1. The Central Bank of Cascadia shall be the monetary authority of the United Republic of Cascadia. It shall issue currency, define and implement monetary policy and regulate and supervise credit institutions.
  2. The Central Bank shall be independent from other arms of the federal government.
  3. The primary objective of the Central Bank of Cascadia shall be to maintain price stability.
  4. The organs of the Central Bank shall be the Governor and the Deputy Governor, the Board of Directors and the Monetary Policy Committee. Their composition shall be as follows:
    1. The Governor and Deputy Governor shall not hail from the same constituent state. They shall be appointed by the Presidential Council;
    2. The Board of Directors shall consist of five members, including the Governor and Deputy Governor, with at least two members hailing from each constituent state. One member may be a non-Cascadian; and
    3. The Monetary Policy Committee shall consist of seven members, including the Governor and Deputy Governor, as well as any non-Cascadian member of the Board of Directors, with at least three members hailing from each constituent state.

All decisions of the Board of Directors and the Monetary Policy Committee shall be taken by simple majority. The law shall otherwise regulate the appointment of members to the organs of the Central Bank and their decision-making procedures.

  1. The Governor and Deputy Governor shall be appointed for a term of seven years. The other members of the Board of Directors shall be appointed for a term of six years, and the other members of the Monetary Policy Committee for a term of five years.
  2. The law may provide for the establishment of branches of the Central Bank in each constituent state, and for inclusion of branch directors in the Board of Directors of the Central Bank.

Article 32: Other independent officers

  1. The Attorney-General and Deputy Attorney-General and the Auditor-General and Deputy Auditor-General shall be independent officers and not come under any department. They shall be appointed by the Presidential Council for a non-renewable term of office of nine years but no longer than until their 75th birthday.
  2. The Attorney-General and the Auditor-General shall not hail from the same constituent state, nor shall the Attorney-General and the Deputy Attorney-General or the Auditor-General and the Deputy Auditor-General.

Article 33: The office of the Attorney-General and the Deputy Attorney-General

  1. The Attorney-General and the Deputy Attorney-General shall be the Head and Deputy Head, respectively, of the Federal Law Office. They shall be appointed and hold office in the same manner and under the same terms and conditions as judges of the Supreme Court of Cascadia and shall not be removed from office except on like grounds and in the same manner as a judge.
  2. The Attorney-General, assisted by the Deputy Attorney-General, shall be the legal adviser of the federal government and shall exercise all such other powers and perform all such other functions and duties as are conferred or imposed upon him or her by this Constitution or by law.
  3. The Attorney-General shall have power, exercisable at his or her discretion in the public interest, to institute, conduct, take over and continue or discontinue any proceedings regarding offenses against federal law against any person in the United Republic of Cascadia.
  4. The law shall regulate further aspects of the office of the Attorney-General and the Deputy Attorney-General.

Article 34: The office of the Auditor-General and the Deputy Auditor-General

  1. The Auditor-General and the Deputy Auditor-General shall be the Head and Deputy Head, respectively, of the Federal Audit Office. They shall be members of the federal public service and shall not be retired or removed from office except on like grounds and in like manner as judges of the Supreme Court of Cascadia.
  2. The Auditor-General, assisted by the Deputy Auditor-General, shall, on behalf of the federal government, control all disbursements and receipts and audit and inspect all accounts of monies and other assets administered, and of liabilities incurred, by or under the authority of the federal government and for this purpose, shall have the right of access to all books, records, and returns relating to such accounts and to places where such assets are kept.
  3. The Auditor-General, assisted by the Deputy Auditor-General, shall exercise all such other powers and shall perform all such other functions and duties as are conferred or imposed upon him or her by law. The Auditor-General shall submit annually a report on the exercise of his functions and duties under this Constitution to the Presidential Council who shall cause it to be laid before Parliament.

Chapter V-d: The Judiciary

Article 35: The Supreme Court of Cascadia

  1. The Supreme Court of Cascadia shall count an equal number of judges from each constituent state among its members. The Presidential Council shall appoint the judges, for a non-renewable term of nine years, in accordance with criteria and procedures stipulated in a special majority law which shall also fix the number of judges.
  2. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive jurisdiction over disputes between the constituent states, between one or both constituent states and the federal government and between organs of the federal government.
  3. The Supreme Court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine the validity of any federal or constituent state law under this Constitution or any question that may arise from the precedence of Constitutional laws. Upon request of constituent state courts or other federal or constituent state authorities it may do so in the form of a binding opinion.
  4. The Supreme Court shall be the appeals court in all other disputes on matters which involve the interpretation or an alleged violation of this Constitution, federal laws, including federal administrative decisions, or treaties binding upon the United Republic of Cascadia.
  5. The Supreme Court shall have primary jurisdiction over violations of federal law where provided by federal legislation.
  6. If a deadlock arises in one of the federal institutions preventing the taking of a decision without which the federal government or its institutions could not properly function, or the absence of which would result in the substantial default on the obligations of the United Republic of Cascadia, the Supreme Court may, upon application of a member of the Presidential Council, the Speaker or Deputy Speaker of either Chamber of Parliament, or the Attorney-General or Deputy Attorney-General, take an ad interim decision on the matter, to remain in force until such time as a decision on the matter is taken by the institution in question. In so acting, the Supreme Court shall exercise appropriate restraint. The Law on the Central Bank may exempt the Central Bank from this provision.
  7. The Supreme Court of Cascadia shall sit as a Constitutional Court or as a Court of Primary Federal Jurisdiction. Judges shall be appointed to serve either on the Constitutional Court or the Court of Primary Federal Jurisdiction. The law shall regulate the number of judges serving in each court, the attribution of competence to each court, the division of the two courts into chambers, and any right of appeal within either court or from the Court of Primary Federal Jurisdiction to the Constitutional Court.
  8. The Supreme Court shall strive to reach its decisions by consensus and issue joint judgments of the Court. However, all decisions of the Supreme Court may be taken by simple majority as specified by law.

Chapter VI: Amendments of this Constitution

Article 36: Amendments of this Constitution

  1. Amendments of this Constitution, including the attachments which are an integral part of it, shall be considered adopted by the federal Parliament after consultation with the constituent state governments and interested sectors of society.
  2. The Basic Articles of this Constitution cannot be amended.
  3. After adoption by both Chambers of Parliament, proposed amendments shall be submitted to referendum for approval by separate majority of the people in each constituent state.
  4. Amendments shall enter into force 90 days after their approval, unless the amendment otherwise provides.

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