For conservation of the national habitat, almost all citizens of the Novaya Zemlya Free Republic live in one of fourteen cities:

  • Yuzhny Island (southern island)
    • Free City - the capital and most populous city. The first city established by the "dissidents" and headquarters of Vanev. Population recorded as 203'045 in the 2010 census.
    • Belushya Guba - established before the arrival of the dissidents, in 1897. The main site of interaction with the Soviet Union, and most different to the other cities in political standpoint (more conservative). Population recorded as 10'229 in the 2010 census.
    • South City - the southernmost of the Free Republic's cities. Perhaps the nation's only tourist hub. Population recorded as 157'982 in the 2010 census.
    • Strait City - city on the southern shore of the Matochkin Strait. Population recorded as 25'256 in the 2010 census.
    • Tornelovsk - (fishing) port on the eastern shore. Population recorded as 15'678 in the 2010 census.
    • Garden City - city centered around the Free Republic's largest park. Population recorded as 75'573 in the 2010 census.
    • Outside cities: 673 (2010 census)
    • Total population of Yuzhny Island: 488'436 (2010 census)
  • Severny Island (northern island)
    • Severny City - largest and first established city on the island, and second-largest city of the nation. Population recorded as 178'206 in the 2010 census.
    • North City - the northernmost of the Free Republic's cities. Population recorded as 30'990 in the 2010 census.
    • Darnansk - city containing the main international press offices of the Free Republic. Population recorded as 49'124 in the 2010 census.
    • Uter Anese - city on the northern shore of the Matochkin Strait. Population recorded as 19'168 in the 2010 census.
    • Norskanov - least populated of the fourteen cities. Population recorded as 8975 in the 2010 census.
    • Angerbeijen - city located in the middle of a large nature reserve. Population recorded as 16'213 in the 2010 census.
    • Library City - city that houses the Free Republic's main libraries and musea. Population recorded as 56'772 in the 2010 census.
    • Storage City - the site of the Free Republic's main military base, as well as an "industrial" port and large areas of container storage. Population recorded as 21'169 in the 2010 census.
    • Outside cities: 988 (2010 census)
    • Total population of Severny Island: 381'605 (2010 census)
  • Smaller islands population: 1430 (2010 census)
  • Total population of the Novaya Zemlya Free Republic: 871'471 (2010 census)

The national population density is about 9.6 people per square kilometre (871'471 people per 90'650 square kilometres), quite low from a global perspective.

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