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Democratic Republic of Eastern Sahara
شرق جمهورية الصحراء
Easternsaharaflag
Easternsaharacoatofarms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: الحرية هي كل شيء (Freedom is Everything)
Anthem: 'Bilady, Bilady, Bilady' (My Country, My Country, My Country)
Easternsaharamap
location of Eastern Sahara
Capital
and largest city
Cairo
Official languages Arabic
Recognised regional languages Coptic
Demonym East Saharan
Government Presidential Republic
• President
Ahmed Shafik
• Vice President
Kamal Gonzouri
• Prime Minister
Mohamed Hussein Hafez
Legislature Peoples Assembly of Eastern Sahara
Establishment
• Almagation of Egypt and Sudan
29th November 2011
• Declared
12th January 2012
Area
• Total
2,888,518 km2 (1,115,263 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.638
Population
• Census
107,548,427 - 2012
• Density
27,552/km2 (71,359.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
• Total
$608.024 billion
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
• Total
$288.986 Billion
Currency East Saharan Pound (EPS)
Time zone East Africa Time (UTC+3)
• Summer (DST)
 (UTC+3 Not Observed)
Drives on the right
Calling code +20, 249
Internet TLD .eg, .sd, .masr
Eastern Sahara (الصحراء الشرقية- Arabic) is a country located in the North East of Africa. Eastern Sahara is made up of the former countries of Egypt and Sudan (Exluding South Sudan). Formed in 2011 following the Egyptian Revolution and the Sudan Civil War, when Sudan was separated, the two countries suffering economic and security issues agree to join, and Eastern Sahara gained independance on the 29th November 2011. Eastern Sahara is the largest country on the African Continent, which was formerly Sudan before the almagation and separation. Eastern Sahara is a secularist state, unlike most other arab states, religion does no interfere with government activites, and freedom of religion is granted to all citizens, aswell as speech.

Becuase of Eastern Sahara's reforms, and tolerant society compared to the rest of the Middle East and Africa, the country has good relations with most Western Countries, including European countries and North American. Eastern Sahara is a member of the United Nations, African Union, and the Arab League.

Monuments in Eastern Sahara such as the Giza pyramid complex and its Great Sphinx were constructed by its ancient civilization. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Thebes, and Karnak and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study. The tourism industry and the Red Sea Riviera employ about 16% of East Saharas workforce.

The Almagation between Egypt and Sudan, has strengthened security, and brought a more liberal government, after the former Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir was arrested, for war crimes including genocide. War and Unrest in Sudan is on a decrease, with hieghtened security in the regions of unrest.

History

2009 Egyptian Revolution

See Also: 2009 Egyptian Revolution

The 2009 revolution led to the overthrow of President Mubaraks Regime in Marchr 2009. Which led to the egyptians freedom, and the elections of the new President, Mohamed Hussein Hafez, who became the leader of the new free Egypt, which led to the almagation of the then struggling Sudan.

Formation of Eastern Sahara

Egypts good relations with Sudan, and on-going civil unrest in Sudan forced the talks of a possible alamagation, to resolve both countries states, by the strengthening of military and other security forces, and speeding up the process of new presidential elections and the freedom Egyptians and Sudans had fought for.

Although talks fell through, when the Sudanese president, Omar al-Bashir was finally arrested in July 2011 after many years of arrest warrants against genocide and war crimes since 1989 under order of Mohamed Hafez. The leadership of Sudan fell into the hands of the Vice President Ali Osman Taha, who was very much in favour os ending the civil violence and blood shed in Sudan, and the talks went ahead between Egypt and Sudan.

By October 2011 the talks had been finalised, and the two countries were ready for almagation. On 20th November 2011 the formation of the Eastern Sahara was finalised, and presidency was held by Mohamed Hussein Hafez for the interim before the 2012 Elections in January, where Ahmed Shafik was elected.

Geography

Easterndaharageomap

Satellite Image of Eastern Sahara

Eastern Sahara is bordered by Israel, Jordan and Eritrea to the east, the Libyan Sea to the North, Libya and Chad to the west and Southern Sudan and Central African Republic. to the south. Due to the aridity of Eastern Sahara's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that about 99% of the population uses only about 5.5% of the total land area. Eastern Sahara is bordered by Libya and Chad to the west, South Sudan to the south, and by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. The Eastern Sahara's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea. In the South The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges; in the west the Deriba Caldera, located in the Marrah Mountains; in the east are the Red Sea Hills.

Climate

Most of Eastern Sahara's rain falls in the winter months. South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm per year and at intervals of many years. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim, Sidi Barrany, etc. and rarely in Alexandria. Frost is also known in mid-Sinai and the mid-regions.

Government

Officially, the politics of Eastern Sahara takes place in the framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Eastern Sahara is head of state, in a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the unicarmel legislature, the Peoples Assembly of Eastern Sahara. The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court. Since the 2009 Egyptian Revolution government has become highly democratic and liberal, following the former Military Junta in place in Egypt prior.

The office of Prime Minister of Eastern Sahara was created in September 2012 by President Ahmed Shafik to be appointed head of government. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President every 2 years, during the presidents 4 year term. The current Prime Minister is Mohamed Hussein Hafez, who was appointed by President Shafik on the 26th September 2012.

Military

800px-Egyptian Mi-8 Hip helicopters after unloading troops

Helicopters Dropping off troops

The Eastern Sahara Armed Forces is the regular forces of the Eastern Sahara and is divided into five branches; the Eastern Saharan Army, Eastern Saharan Navy (including the Marine Corps), Eastern Saharan Air Force, Border Patrol and the Internal Affairs Defense Force, totalling about 600,000 troops. The military of East Sahara has become a well-equipped fighting force, thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms. These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its strategic principles include defending Eastern Saharas external borders and preserve internal security. The Eastern Saharan military has recently undergone massive modernization, mostly in its Air Force.

Eastern Sahara is the second country in the region with a spy satellite, SaharaSat 1 (launched by Egypt), and plns to launch a second in 2013, SaharaSat 2.

Eastern Sahara controls the islands of Tiran and Sanifura, which gives Eastern Sahara a large amount of control of traffic in the Tiran Straights, and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Administrative Divisions

Administrative Divisions of Eastern Sahara
Governorate Capital Governorate Capital
Al Jazirah Al Jazirah Matruh Mersa Matruh
Al Qadarif Al Qadarif Minya Minya
Alexandria Alexandria Monufia Monufia
Aswan Aswan New Valley Kharga
Asyut Asyut North Darfur Al-Ubayyid
Beheria Damanhur North Kurdufan Al-Fashir
Beni Suef Beni Suef North Sinai Arish
Blue Nile Ad Damazin Northern Sudan Dongola
Cairo Cairo Port Said Port Said
Central Darfur Zalingei Qalyubia Banha
Dakahlia Mansura Qena Qena
Damietta Damietta Red Sea Hurghada
East Darfur Ed Daein River Nile Ad-Damir
Faiyum Faiyum Sharqia Zagazig
Gharbia Tanta Sennar Sennar
Giza Giza Sohag Sohag
Ismailia Ismailia South Darfur Nyala
Kassala Kassala South Kurdufan Kaduqli
Kafr el-Sheikh Kafr el-Sheikh South Sinai El-Tor
Khartoum Khartoum Suez Suez
Luxor Luxor West Darfur Geneina

Disputed Territories

Name Disputed With
Abyei Area Southern Sudan
Kafia Kingi Southern Sudan
Tiran and Sanifura Islands Saudi Arabia

Foreign Relations

See Also: Foreign Relations of Eastern Sahara Eastern Sahara has good relations with most Middle Eastern and North African Countries. The country, as of July 2012, is at a state of war with Southern Sudan after the country Invaded the dipsuted territory of Abyei.

Economy

Khartoum

Modern Development in Khartoum

Eastern Sahara's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, exports of natural gas, and tourism, particularly in the Northern Regions. A rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy. The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Its main revenues however come from tourism as well as traffic that goes through the Suez Canal. Eastern Sahara has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power, large coal deposits are located in North Sinai.

Demographics

See Also: Demographics of Eastern Sahara

Religion

Eastern Sahara is a secularist state, and one of very few in the Middle East. The main religion is Islam, particularly Sunni Islam, around 90% of East Saharans are classified as Muslim, and 5% are identified as Christians, and the remaining 5% of no faith or atheists.

Infrastructure

Healthcare

Healthcare in Eastern Sahara is provided by the state, with well maintained hospitals and clinics. Many people rely on the free healthcare the government provides, as they cannot afford the benefits of private. Private Healthcare is normally used by people who have a higher income, as State healthcare is generally worse than private, as the massive population of the country forces its resources to be stretched finely.

Communications

See Also: Communications in Eastern Sahara

Before the Eastern Sahara, Egypt had always been one of the cultural and information centres of the Arab World, particularly in Cairo, and still is today.

Today the Eastern Sahara has a fairly developed communications network, with over 65% of the population as internet users, although WiFi technologies are not as developed as other countries. Cellular Communications are developed, with three main providors of Mobile technologies, including Mobinil, Etisalat and Vodafone Sahara.

Transport

Cairotraffic1

Eastern Sahara does not have a largely developed infrastructure outside of its major cities, such as Cairo, or Khartoum. Most of the roads are in poor condition, and there are very few traffic rules, and it can often be dangerous on roads, even in cities, particularly in Cairo where traffic is a large problem. The majority of drivers do not have car insurance. Because of the lack of public transport around 91% of the population own a vehicle, most of which are imported from Asia, including Toyotas and Geelys, other popular vehicles include Russian Ladas, and Peugots. On rural roads badly maintained vehicles, lack of road markings and stray animals including camels are major hazards. Train services run regularly, and are the main source of transport for long journeys.

Science and Technology

Eastern Sahara is not a largely technologically advanced nation, although it is one of the most in Africa. In recent years the government has sought to improve Eastern Saharas infrastructure and technology. The launch of the SaharaSat program in 2007 by Egypt was one of the technological feats of the country, a second Satellite is to launched in 2013, from Ukraine.

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