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Adrianople Turkish: Edirne, Bulgarian: Одрин (Odrin) is the capital city of Marmara, close to the borders with
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A typical street in Edirne

Greece and Bulgaria. Edirne served as the capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1365 to 1453, before Constantinople (Istanbul) became the empire's new capital. At present, Edirne is the capital of Marmara, and the Edirne Province. The city's estimated population in 2010 was 138,793, up from 119,298 in 2000. It has consulates of Bulgaria, Germany (Honorary), Greece, Romania (Honorary) and Slovakia (Honorary). Its sister cities are Haskovo and Yambol in Bulgaria and Alexandroupolis in Greece. There is a large Jewish community.

History

he area around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges, from the days of the ancient Greeks. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location.
Edirne.10

Map showing relation of Edirne to Border


According to Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza). The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama or Uskodama or Uscudama . It was the capital of the Bessi. Hadrian developed it, adorned it with monuments, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, and made it the capital of the Roman province of Haemimont, or Thrace. Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378). In 813 the city was seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands towards the north of the Danube.During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the battle of Adrianople (1205). Later Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, and three years later was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Asen, Emperor of the Bulgarians. Following its capture by the Ottoman Sultan Murad I in 1365, Edirne served as the capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1365 to 1453; until the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) which became the empire's new capital.
800px-Edirne trakya university

Trakya University

Under Ottoman rule Adrianople was the principal city of a vilayet (province) of the same name, both of which were later renamed as Edirne. Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, was born in Adrianople. It was here that he fell under the influence of some Hurufis known as Certain accursed ones of no significance, who were burnt as heretics by Mahmut Paşa.Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople and died in Edirne in 1693.Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868. He was exiled there by the Ottoman Empire before being banished further to the Ottoman penal colony in Akka. He referred to Edirne in his writings as the "Land of Mystery".==Culture== Situated near the Greek (7 km) and Bulgarian (20 km) borders, this city is famed for its many mosques, domes
Edirne evleri

A House in Edirne

and minarets. Adrianople contains the ruins of the ancient palace of the Ottoman Sultans and the Selimiye Mosque, one of the most important monuments in this ancient province; built in 1575 and designed by Turkey's greatest master architect, Mimar Sinan, it has the highest minarets in Turkey, at 70.9 meters and a cupola three or four feet higher than that of St. Sophia in Istanbul. Carrying the name of the then reigning the Ottoman Sultan Selim II, this mosque represents Turkish marble handicrafts and it is covered with valuable tiles and fine paintings.Another notable building is the Trakya University's Bayezid II Külliye Health Museum, an important monument with its complex construction comprising many facilities used in those times.Besides the mosques, there are different sites to be visited in Edirne, all reflecting its rich past. The most prominent place being the Edirne Palace, which was the "Palace of the Empire" built during the reign of Murad II. There are caravansaries, like the Rustem Pasha and Ekmekcioglu Ahmet Pasha caravansaries, which were designed to host travelers, in the 16th century.
450px-Salimiye Masjid
Of Edirne's Christian heritage, there remain two Bulgarian Orthodox churches: Saint George (dating to 1880) and Saints Constantine and Helena (built in 1869). The Bulgarian churches were reconstructed in the 2000s with the cooperation of Turkey, using mostly Bulgarian state funds. They are both in a good condition today; Saint George also has a Bulgarian library and an ethnographic collection. The two Bulgarian churches are the only functioning Christian places of worship in the city today,as none of the Greek churches are active or even preserved.[citation needed] Saraçhane Bridge is one of several old bridges.A cultural partnership with Lörrach in Germany has been started in 2006. The goal is to exchange pupils and students to improve their cultural skills and understanding.

Climate

Edirne has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa). with long, hot summers and cold and occasionally snowy winters.

Climate data for Edirne
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.5

(68.9)

23.2

(73.8)

28.0

(82.4)

29.8

(85.6)

35.3

(95.5)

42.6

(108.7)

44.1

(111.4)

40.7

(105.3)

37.8

(100.0)

35.8

(96.4)

28.0

(82.4)

22.8

(73.0)

44.1

(111.4)

Average high °C (°F) 6.7

(44.1)

9.4

(48.9)

13.5

(56.3)

19.3

(66.7)

24.7

(76.5)

29.3

(84.7)

31.7

(89.1)

31.6

(88.9)

27.1

(80.8)

20.5

(68.9)

13.6

(56.5)

8.1

(46.6)

19.63

(67.33)

Average low °C (°F) −0.5

(31.1)

0.3

(32.5)

2.9

(37.2)

7.1

(44.8)

11.4

(52.5)

15.4

(59.7)

17.3

(63.1)

17.1

(62.8)

13.3

(55.9)

9.1

(48.4)

4.7

(40.5)

1.1

(34.0)

8.27

(46.88)

Record low °C (°F) −19

(−2.2)

−19

(−2.2)

−12

(10.4)

−4.1

(24.6)

0.7

(33.3)

6.0

(42.8)

9.3

(48.7)

9.4

(48.9)

4.2

(39.6)

−3.7

(25.3)

−6.6

(20.1)

−13.4

(7.9)

−19

(−2.2)

Precipitation mm (inches) 53.4

(2.102)

48.9

(1.925)

50.2

(1.976)

45.3

(1.783)

53.9

(2.122)

39.2

(1.543)

34.2

(1.346)

26.5

(1.043)

38.1

(1.5)

52.8

(2.079)

69.0

(2.717)

63.8

(2.512)

575.3

(22.65)

Avg. rainy days 11.5 8.1 9.3 10.3 10.0 8.0 5.5 4.8 4.9 7.1 10.4 12.9 102.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4 103.6 142.6 192.0 263.5 294.0 328.6 310.0 234.0 161.2 99.0 68.2 2,271.1


Festivals

Edirne is home to the traditional oil-wrestling tournament called Kırkpınar. Held every year in June, it is said to be the oldest active sport organization after the Olympic Games that were refounded only after centuries of inactivity.Another international festival in Edirne is Kakava, a celebration of Romani people held on May 5 each year.

Economy

Edirne's economy largely depends on agriculture. 73% of the working population work in agriculture, fishing, forests, hunting. There are lots of things that are cultivated here. Its lowlands are productive. The field crop cultivation has developed so much here. Corn, sugarbeet and sunflower are the first. Melon, watermelon and viniculture are advanced. For the last decade, the agricultural products have doubled. Corn, rice, sunflower, sugarbeet, tomato, eggplant, melon, watermelon, grape are cultivated so much.The through highway with an important role in global transport that connects Europe to Middle East and Anatolian to Istanbul passes through Edirne.Also, the existence of many historical and natural touristic places and events lead the fact that tourism has become a leading component of the economic growth of the city in recent years.Industry has also been developing. Agriculture-based industries (agro-industries) are especially important for the city's economy.==Education==

  • Trakya University linked with Loerrach through the Erasmus programme of the EU
  • University of Cooperative Education Loerrach
    800px-TrakyaUNI6

    Trakya University Congress Centre

High Schools

  • Beykent Educational Institutions
  • 80th Year of Republic Anatolian High School (80. Yıl Cumhuriyet Anadolu Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne High School (Anatolian High School) (Edirne Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Yildirim Anatolian High School (Edirne Anadolu Lisesi - Yıldırım Anadolu Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Anatolian Teacher Training High School (Edirne Anadolu Öğretmen Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Suleyman Demirel Science & Maths High School (Edirne Fen Lisesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne İlhami Ertem High School(Edirne İlhami Ertem Lİsesi in Turkish)
  • Edirne Milli Piyango Trade Profession High School( Edirne Milli Piyango Ticaret Meslek Lisesi)
  • Edirne Beykent High School of Science (Özel Edirne Beykent Fen Lisesi)
  • Edirne Beykent High School of Anatolian (Özel Edirne Beykent Anadolu Lisesi)

Twin Cities

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