Democratic Republic of Turkey
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The official foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of Turkey refer to the external relations between Turkey and the international community. Turkish foreign relations are handled by the Office of External Affairs (Dış İlişkiler Ofisi).

Since its inception Turkey has long been an ally to the former Soviet Union and its modern territories, having an anti-west policy. Currently Turkey has sought to increase its power within the Middle East with recent military action in Syria and Iraq. Turkey is a member of the League of Nations. Many have described Turkey foreign policy to be based around Neo-Stalinist and Neo-Ottoman ideals.

Bilateral relations

Turkey foreign relations map

Key to Relations

  •      - Exceptionally Friendly
  •      - Very Friendly
  •      - Friendly
  •      - Fair
  •      - Strained
  •      - Poor
  •      - Exceptionally Poor
  •      - Hostile

  •      - Neutral
  •      - No/Former diplomatic relations (neutral officially)


Country Formal relations began Notes
Flag of Algeria People's Democratic Republic of Algeria1962Turkey originally supported the Algerian fighters in the Algerian War, and have since supported the Algerian government financially and politically, despite Algeria's cordial relations with the west.
Flag of Angola Republic of Angola1975Relations between Angola and Turkey have been friendly since the formation of the modern Angolan state, with Turkey sending logistical support to the MPLA in the Angolan Civil War. The Turkish government currently invests a large amount of money in Angola in exchange for Turkish commodities to be traded in Angola.
Flag of Benin Republic of Benin1960Turkey and Benin have maintained friendly relations stemming from Benin's days as a people's republic. Both nations have embassies in their respective capitals.
Flag of Botswana Republic of Botswana1966Turkish - Batswana relations were first established in 1966 after Botswana became independent. Relations improved dramatically when Turkish medical staff visited the country to educate children on HIV/AIDS in 1997 as well as offer treatment to those with the affliction, as well as the selling of Turkish goods to the country.
Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso1960Burkinabé - Turkish relations have been for the most part positive since Burkinabé former president Thomas Sankara met his Turkish counterpart Osman Bayraktar in 1985. Relations deteriorated but remained consistent after Blaise Compaoré overthrew Sankara. Since Compaoré himself was ousted from power relations between the nations remain in flux.
Flag of Burundi Republic of BurundiN/ADue to Burundi's primary foreign relations being centred around the regional security of their nation neither Kurdistan nor Burundi have expressed interest in opening foreign relations.
Flag of Cameroon Republic of Cameroon1960Both countries maintain embassies in their respective capitals. Relations are reportedly non - existent save for the trading of cheap Turkish commodities due to Cameroon's close alliance with the west.
Flag of Cape Verde Republic of Cape Verde1975Relations between the two nations has been said to be positive with Turkey helping fund infrastructure projects in Cape Verde in exchange for Cape Verde to invest in Turkish businesses.
Flag of Central African Republic Central African Republic1960Relations were started in 1960, but were severed in 1976 after Jean-Bédel Bokassa declared the existence of the Central African Empire. The overthrow of Bokassa saw relations restored, but they remained permanently strained. The recent the Central African Bush War and the recent conflicts have halted relations further.
Flag of Chad Republic of Chad1960Turkey recognised Chad upon its independence, but relations became poor after Turkey began to openly ally itself with the regime of Libya, which was opposed by the Chadian government. Relations improved somewhat after Idriss Déby overthrew Hissène Habré, with Chad having imported a large amount of Turkish goods since.
Flag of Congo-Kinshasa (1966-1971) United Republic of the Congo1991Relations with the Congo were first established after the ousting of Mobutu Sese Seko in 1991, with the Turkish government hoping that Laurent-Désiré Kabila (who had been trained by Che Guevara in the 1960's) would be able to see the DRC become a Marxist republic. However the instability in the region have relegated Turkey to withdraw aid from the nation.
Flag of Djibouti Republic of Djibouti1977Frequent trade between Turkey and Djibouti has left both nations to maintain good relations with each other as well as both being Muslim majority nations.
Flag of Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt1922Since Egypt became independent from Britannia both nations shared cordial relations. These relations soured after Turkey became a socialist republic, but improved following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. During the rule of Gamal Abdel Nasser relations were extremely positive, with Turkey providing military assistance in the Six Days War. Initially relations between Anwar Sadat and Turkey were positive, with Turkey providing military assistance in the Yom Kippur War. Even though Sadat pushed through many reforms that saw Egypt move away from the Second World, relations remained positive due to the leadership of the reformist Şükrü Coşkun. However the rise of Osman Bayraktar and the inauguration of Hosni Mubarak saw relations worsen. The end of the Cold War saw Turkey start a reconciliation policy with Egypt, with relations being positive until 2011. The appointment of Mohamed Morsi as president of Egypt almost instantly soured relations between the two countries, but since his removal from office both nations have started to engage in trade again.
Flag of Equatorial Guinea Republic of Equatorial Guinea1968 Relations between both Turkey and Equatorial Guinea have been reportedly good. Former Turkish UN delegate and foreign minister İsmail Yusuf has denounced western and UN criticism of Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.
Flag of Eritrea State of EritreaN/ATurkey does not recognise Eritrea as an independent state stating that it is part of Ethiopia and that Eritrean independence is illegal. Turkey has also called out Eritrea for its close relations with Israel.
Flag of Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia1912Turkey and Ethiopia maintain excellent relations with both nations frequently engaging in international trade and being economically and politically tied to each other. Relations began during the days of the Ottoman Empire and Abyssinia. The Republic of Turkey upheld these relations until 1936 when Turkish president Selahattin Yılmaz recognised Italy's claim over the country. Relations were re-established in 1946, but remained negative under the rule of Haile Selassie. Turkey enthusiastically supported the Derg regime under Mengistu Haile Mariam supplying the regime military aid during the Ethiopian Civil War. Despite Ethiopia's communist government being dismantled and Kurdistan offering asylum to members of the Derg, both countries still invest heavily in each others goods.
Flag of Gabon Gabonese Republic1960Turkey recognised Gabon upon its independence, but relations were sour in the Cold War due to Gabon's close relationship with the west. Following the end of the Cold War relations have improved.
Flag of Ghana Republic of Ghana1957Ghanian - Turkish relations have mostly been positive with Turkey having supported Kwame Nkrumah's efforts to secure independence for Ghana. The 1966 coup soured relations, but since 1979 both Turkey and Ghana have maintained amicable relations.
Flag of Guinea Republic of Guinea1958Turkey and Guinean relations have been positive since the latter's independence. Turkey was extremely supportive of the regime of Ahmed Sékou Touré, with relations having been stable since his death. The 2014 Ebola outbreak prompted Turkey to close its embassy in Conakry, and has sent limited medical assistance. Turkey currently refuses to let Guineans into the country.
Flag of Guinea-Bissau Republic of Guinea-Bissau1973Relations between the countries have been stable, with Turkey having supported the independence of Guinea-Bissau as a way of weakening the Estado Novo regime of Portugal.
Flag of Ivory Coast Republic of Côte d'Ivoire1960Due to Ivorian foreign policy being extremely pro-Western Turkey has limited formal diplomatic relations with the nation. The Kurdish embassy in Benin often serves as liaison between the two nations.
Flag of Kenya Republic of Kenya1964Despite there being trading relations between Kenya and Turkey Kenya's extremely pro-Western foreign policy has meant that the two nations have less them amicable relations. Turkish funding to Somali communists on the Kenyan boarder has especially soured relations between the two nations with Kenya calling Turkey an "aggressive state intent on undermining the stability of Africa".
Flag of Lesotho Kingdom of Lesotho1966Turkey reportedly has good relations with Lesotho since the end of the apartheid regime in neighbouring South Africa, with both nations often being involved with trade with each other. Turkey has sent medical aid to Lesotho to help combat HIV/AIDS.
Flag of Liberia Republic of Liberia1912The Ottoman Empire first established relations with Liberia in the early 20th century. Since then both the Republic and Democratic Republic of Turkey have maintained relations, although Liberia's close western alignment has meant relations have been minimal.
Flag of Libya State of Libya1947 - 2011 (suspended)Intially relations between Turkey and the Kingdom of Libya were essentially non-exietnat due to Libya's poverty and western alliances. Following Muammar al-Gaddafi's coup against King Idris of Libya relations greatly improved with Libya being Turkey's most prominent ally in the Middle East. The Libyan revolution in 2011 saw Turkey support the Gaddafi regime, but this was not enough to stop the overthrow and execution of Gaddafi. Since then relations between the nations have almost instantly soured with the Turkish government deporting many Libyans from Turkey as a precautionary measure due to the mass immigration of Turkish persons from Libya who often face violence and discrimination in the country.
Flag of Mali Republic of Mali1960 Initially relations between Mali and Turkey were positive due to Mali's socialist leanings under Moussa Traoré and his Democratic Union of the Malian People's party, but Mali's increasingly pro-Western stances has left the nations to rarely engage in political and/or economic matters.
Flag of Mauritania Islamic Republic of Mauritania1960Mauritania and Turkey have relatively good relations due to economic ties alongside both being supportive of Western Saharan independence. Turkey has defended Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz stating his government is "a civilian cabinet, not a military junta".
Flag of Morocco Kingdom of Morocco1956Turkish support for the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has meant that limited relations currently exist with Morocco and Turkey. Turkey has repeatedly compared Morocco with Israel stating that Western Sahara is "Africa's Palestine".
Flag of Namibia Republic of Namibia1990Turkish - Namibian relations are extremely positive due to Turkish support to communist forces in the Namibian War of Independence providing the PLAN with weapons and logistical support. Since Namibian independence both nations have seen frequent economic, political and military support with each other with Turkey heavily investing in the Namibian economy.
Flag of Niger Republic of Niger1960 Niger and Turkey maintain neutral relations with each other, although trade between the nations has increased steadily since 2004. Niger's political instability mean that foreign affairs are conducted through the Burkinabé embassy in Ouagadougou - previously such relations took place in Tripoli.
Flag of Nigeria Federal Republic of Nigeria1960Turkey recognised Nigerian independence in 1960, but Nigeria's conservative outlook relegated relations to being limited. The outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War however saw Turkey support the federal government over Biafra - partly because the USSR had pledged support to the Federal government, partly because Turkey did not want to encourage Kurdish separatism in Turkey. Since then Turkey and Nigeria have maintained positive relations with Turkey having given logistical support to Nigerian forces fighting groups such as Boko Haram.
Flag of Rhodesia Commonwealth of Rhodesia1912The ottoman Empire established relations with Rhodesia in 1912 with the expressed hope of improving trade. However the modern Turkish government has since been critical of the Rhodesian government, stating it implements modern apartheid policies and is engaging in neocolonialist actions in Somalia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Flag of Rwanda Republic of Rwanda1962Recognising Rwanda's independence in 1962, relations took a blow after the anti-communist Hutu Juvénal Habyarimana took power. Turkey gave political support to the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front in the Rwandan Civil War. In October 1994 shortly after the Rwandan Genocide the Turkish government offered humanitarian aid to Rwanda. Since then relations have been for the most part positive.
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeN/ANo official relations exist between Kurdistan and São Tomé and Príncipe, possibly due to the latters close relations with the west. Possibilities of relations have been discussed since late 2014.
Flag of Senegal Republic of Senegal1960Both Turkey and Senegal have maintained trading relations since Senegals independence. Despite this the Turkish government has always criticised Senegal's relations with the west.
Flag of Sierra Leone Republic of Sierra Leone1961Initially relations between Sierra Leone and Turkey were minimal, before Turkey closed its consulate in Freetown after the outbreak of the Sierra Leone Civil War, supporting neither side. Turkey has stated that relations will not be established until the Ebola epidemic ends in Sierra Leone.
Flag of Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia1960 - 1991 (Central government)Turkey first established relations with Somalia when it was the Somali Democratic Republic. Following the collapse of the central government and the outbreak of the Somali Civil War Turkey evacuated their embassy in Mogadishu. Currently Turkey does not recognise any forces that claims to be the legitimate government of Somalia, stating that the Federal Government of Somalia is a "Rhodesian puppet".
Flag of South Africa Republic of South Africa1960Relations between Turkey and South Africa for a long time were strained thanks to South Africa's apartheid policies which Turkey opposed as well as Turkish involvement in the Namibian war for independence. The democratisation of South Africa, the fall of the National Party and the rise of the African National Congress has resulted in both South Africa and Turkey enjoying stable relations. There is a fairly large minority of black South Africans in Turkey who were granted asylum to the country during apartheid rule.
Flag of South Sudan Republic of South SudanN/ATurkey recognised South Sudanese independence in 2011, but has so far been unable to pursue any meaningful relations with the nation due to South Sudans political instability. Turkey has suggested the possibility of opening an embassy in Juba in 2015.
Flag of Sudan Republic of Sudan1956Turkey first estabilshed relations with Sudan following Sudan's independence. Initially Turkey supported the government of Gaafar Nimeiry, but since retracted that support when he abandoned Marxism. When Hassan al-Turabi dominated Sudanese politics relations were poor, but they improved following his removal of office. Since then Turkey has maintained fairly cordial relations with Sudan often overlooking the nations human right abuses in favour of keeping trade routes open.
Flag of Swaziland Kingdom of SwazilandN/ATurkey and Swaziland do not maintain relations with each other, with Turkey criticising the Swazi government as being archaic. Turkey has closed its boarders to Swazi citizens due to fears of spreading HIV/AIDS among those in Turkey.
Flag of Tanzania United Republic of Tanzania1964Tanzanian - Turkishrelations have been for the most part friendly with both nations encouraging trade amongst each other. Turkey avidly supported Julius Nyerere and his Ujamaa policies. Despite Tanzania having drifted away from socialism relations remain positive.
Flag of Togo Togolese Republic1960Relations between Togo and Turkey have been positive with both nations engaging in trade. Turkey has discouraged economic growth in Togo lest it hurt Turkey's previous stakes in the country.
Flag of Tunisia Tunisian Republic1956Relations between Kurdistan and Tunisia are currently considered to be stable. Initially relations were positive between Turkey and the government of Habib Bourguiba - however they started to deteriorate after Zine El Abidine Ben Ali took power. The Tunisian revolution saw Turkey supporting Tunisian revolutionaries stating that "this revolution may be the beginning of the people's rise against the fascist regime of the west and their pawns".
Flag of Uganda Republic of Uganda1962Turkey initially supported the government of Milton Obote after Uganda gained independence. Relations between the countries soon soured as Idi Amin took power. Following the Uganda–Tanzania War Turkey reopened relations with Uganda giving support to Obote once again, before relations were put on hold during the Ugandan Bush War. Since then relations have somewhat stabilised with recent Turkish - Ugandan relations have often being dominated by counter terror measures especially against the Lords Resistance Army.

Partially recognised territories

Country Formal relations began Notes
600px-Flag of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.svg Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic2004Kurdistan recognised the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic in 2004. The Polisario Front manages a consulate in Kurdistan.
22x20px Republic of SomalilandN/ANo relations are established between Kurdistan and Somaliland with the Kurdish government stating that the Democratic Somali People's Authority is the legitimate government of the entirety of Somalia.


Country Formal relations began Notes
AntarcticaFlag2 Antarctica, Federated States of 1993Relations between Antarctica and Kurdistan have been minimal due to the Antarctic governments concern over Kurdistans poor human rights record. The most high profile interaction between the countries was in 1998 when famed Kurdish scientist Izzadine Nawroz and 5 colleagues studied the countries geology along with Russian scientists on a joint Russo-Kurdish mission to Antarctica.


Country Formal relations began Notes
Flag of Afghanistan Islamic Republic of Afghanistan1923Turkey firs opened relations with Kabul in 1923 with Afghanistan having been the second country to recognise the Republic of Turkey. Since then the nations have enjoyed a close bond, with Turkey having supported the Republic of Afghanistan and the Saur Revolution. During the Soviet - Afghan War Turkey supported the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, and continued to send aid even after the end of the Cold War. The overthrow of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan and murder of Mohammad Najibullah by the Taliban saw Turkey break relations with Afghanistan refusing to recognise the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, especially after the Turkish ambassador was murdered by the group. In 2001 Turkey supported international action into Afghanistan that helped to oust the Taliban. Although stating the current government is little more then a US puppet Turkey has nevertheless continued to hold close relations with Afghanistan, with Turkey assisting in numerous infrastructure and humanitarian projects.
Akitsuflag Empire of Akitsu1992Main article: Akitsu-Turkey relations
Turkish-Akitian relations have always been poor thanks to Turkish support of the Workers' Party of Akitsu, named a terrorist organisation by the Akitian government. Turkish support of China in the Gusuku Islands, refusal to give humanitarian aid to the country in the Sakamoto nuclear disaster and the sheltering of Akitian communists following the Shigaki Assassination Incident has resulted in relations reaching a nadir.
Flag of Armenia Republic of Armenia1991Turkey has remained an enemy to the Armenia since the countries independence from the Soviet Union, having never officially recognising the Armenian genocide. Turkish support for Azerbaijan was prevalent in the Nargorno-Karabakh war, with the Turkey government reportedly supplying anti-Armenian groups in Azerbaijan with weapons and refusing to recognise the sovereignty of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Flag of Azerbaijan Republic of Azerbaijan1991Turkey and Azerbajian's strong cultural and political ties date centuries, with Azerbaijan being along with Russia Turkey's foremost ally. Turkey first established relations with Azerbaijan after the latter declared independence from the Soviet Union, and has since supported them in the Nargorno-Karabakh war.
Flag of Bangladesh People's Republic of Bangladesh1971Both Bangladesh and Turkey have embassies in their capitals of Dhaka and Ankara. Relations have been positive as Turkey was an early supporter of Bangladeshi independence and has provided the country with humanitarian aid during the 2007 South Asian floods.
Flag of Bhutan Kingdom of BhutanN/ANeither Turkey nor Bhutan have sought to establish international relations with each other, and maintains no known informal relations.
Flag of Brunei Nation of Brunei, the Abode of PeaceN/ATurkey does not have any relations with Brunei. In 2010 Turkish leader Şahnaz Uzun stated that relations with Brunei would be handled through Turkey's embassy in Beijing.
Flag of Cambodia Kingdom of Cambodia1953Turkey and Cambodia first established relations when Cambodia became independent from France. Initially relations were minimal until the Khmer Rouge took power and oversaw the creation of Democratic Kampuchea with Turkey starting to oppose the new government due to its poor relations with North Vietnam.Following the Vietnamese invasion Turkey recognised the Vietnamese/Lao puppet state of the People's Republic of Kampuchea as the legitimate government of Cambodia. Since then relations have been strained thanks to Turkish support to the Vietnamese/Lao war against Cambodia.
Flag of the People's Republic of China People's Republic of China1949Turkey started to aid the Chinese Communist Party from the start of the Chinese Communist Revolution in 1946 during the Chinese Civil War. Following the declaration of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong in 1949 Turkey immediately recognised the state. The rise of Şükrü Coşkun within Turkey and the Sino-Soviet split saw Turkish-Chinese relations deteriorate. The Cultural Revolution however saw Turkey launch a similar movement in its own boarders with Turkey expressing interest in reaffirming relations with China. Turkey came out in support of China in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 and began to forge closer relations with China following the Revolutions of 1989. Since then Turkey has supported China's territorial claims in the South, Yellow and East China seas as well as its boarders with India and Bhutan. China is one of the largest importers of Turkish goods.
Flag of Georgia Georgia1991Following the fall of the Soviet Union relations with Georgia were initially strained, but not necessarily negative. They continued to deteriorate during the presidency of Eduard Shevardnadze but took a turn for the worse following the Rose Revolution and the inauguration of Mikheil Saakashvili who was quickly decried as a fascist by the Turkish press. Turkish-Georgian relations became extremely poor thanks to Turkish support to the Russian government in the Russo-Georgian War. Currently Turkey recognises the territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia as independent states. The Turkish government has also reportedly funded terrorist activities against the Georgian government, which Turkish president Şahnaz Uzun referred to as "being as morally bankrupt as the Zionist [Israeli] regime"
Flag of India Republic of India1947Turkey recognised the independence of India early after its declaration in 1947. An early supporter of Jawaharlal Nehru's Indian National Congress socialist government, Turkey aided India in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, as well as taking a neutral position Sino-Indian War. The 1990's and liberalisation of the Indian economy initially saw relations flown into a flux, but since then Turkey has tried to maintain good relations.
Flag of Indonesia Republic of Indonesia1946Turkey recognised Indonesia's independence in 1946 and gave tepid aid to the anti-Western government of Sukarno, giving political support to the Communist Party of Indonesia. During the communist purge starting from 1965 saw relations instantly be broken between Turkey and Indonesia. The inauguration of Suharto and the establishment of the New Order saw relations deteriorate further, with relations reaching a nadir during the East Timorese occupation with Turkey housing many Indonesian communists. The fall of Suharto has led to the mending of relations with Indonesia being an exporter of Turkish goods.
Flag of Iran Islamic Republic of Iran1926Turkey has often held close cultural ties with Iran, which it often described as the "Turko-Persian tradition". A Treaty of Friendship was signed in 1926 with a further treaty in 1932 reaffirming the centuries old boarder between the nations. Iran served as a base for Britannian and Soviet troops during World War Two in the Turkish Campaign. Following the Soviet occupation of Turkey relations started to falter, before they reached a nadir following the 1953 Iranian coup d'état with Turkey being highly critical of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Relations following the Iranian Revolution were also negative due to Turkey being perceived as a pawn to the USSR which Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini coined as the "lesser evil" (to the "greater evil" that was the USA) with Turkey allegedly funding Iraqi forces in the Iran–Iraq War. However following the war and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc Turkey started to establish better relations with Iran especially under Mohammad Khatami. Relations were expected to deteriorate after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad took power, although following both Turkey's and Irans labelling as part of an Axis of Evil relations grew closer due to both adopting an even harsher anti-US policy. Relations have improved since the election of Hassan Rouhani although Iran remains suspicious of Turkey's increasing regional influence and Pan-Turkic ambitions.
Proposed flag of Iraq (first proposal, 2008) Kingdom of Iraq1919Turkey has often had a turbulent relationship with Iraq, which was previously part of the Basra, Mosul and Baghdad Vilayets being separated from the Ottoman Empire and placed under Britannian control in World War One. Relations were cordial with Iraq during the 1930's with the two nations signing the Treaty of Saadabad in 1937, with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk maintaining a friendship with Iraqi king Ghazi bin Faisal. Iraq was used as a springboard against Turkey in the Turkish Campaign during World War Two by Britannian forces. Following the war relations deteriorated as Iraq, Iran and Pakistan formed Baghdad Pact which was explicitly anti-Soviet. The Iraqi 1958 coup saw relations start to improve between the nations, which substantially improved following the further Ba'athist coup in 1968. Turkey followed the Soviet policy of supporting the Ba'athist government under Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and later Saddam Hussein. In the Iran-Iraq War Turkey allegedly funded Iraqi forces, and was known to have supplied some of the chemical weapons used in the Halabja chemical attack and the Al-Anfal Campaign. In the Gulf War Turkey participated in the coalition to help oust Iraqi forces from Kuwait after starting to create stronger relations with Iraq's rival Syria. After the war Turkey supported Iraqi Turkmen insurgents that fought against Kurdish separatists in order to weaken both the Ba'athist government and the regional Kurdish government. The 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq was heavily criticised by the Turkish government, who saw it as a precursor to a regime change in Turkey, which subsequently saw Turkey create tentative relations with Iraq. Since then the Turkish government have allegedly supported Nouri al-Maliki and his Islamic Dawa Party as well as several Shiite and Iraqi Turkmen militia's. The escalation of violence in Iraq following the Arab Spring caused Turkey to advocate joint military exercises with Iraq to prevent terrorist forces. In 2015 following Turkey's invention into Syria the Turkish government has indicated that it could help reclaim parts of Iraq for the government from the ISIL and Kurdish separatists.
Flag of Israel State of IsraelN/AThe Turkish government do not recognise the legitimacy of the Israeli government, stating that Israel is "using its special status as a Jewish state to impose its own holocaust onto the Palestinian people whilst receiving support from the Great Satan". The Turkish government has stated that the Zionist regime is fundamentally against the Turkish state.

Turkey was initially neutral in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, although it refused to recognise Israel to appease Turkey's largely Muslim population. Turkey also was neutral in the Six-Day War, but began a campaign of anti-Israeli rhetoric shortly afterwards, denouncing the Israeli government as a "American puppet". Turkey alongside the Soviet Union and Cuba financial support to Egypt in the War of Attrition as well as provide military support to Arab forces in the 1973 October War. Turkey condemned the Camp David Accords and subsequently started to support the PLO giving financial support to various terrorist acts committed by groups such as Hamas against the Israeli government.

Israeli products are banned in Turkey, with boarders permanently closed off to all Israeli citizens. Anti-Semitism is rife within Turkey, although Britannian diplomat Joseph Dumfries has stated that "Anti-Semitism in Turkey stems theoretically more from feelings of resentment towards the Israeli state and its western allies - after all, the government actively teaches the holocaust in schools as a lesson against fascism, so it isn't in the same situation as Iran". Turkey is one of the most active propagators of the comparison between Israel and apartheid South Africa.

Flag of Japan State of Japan1890The Ottoman Empire first established relations with the Empire of Japan in 1890 following the Ertuğrul icident, which was seen as the beginning of friendly relations with Turkey. Japan opened an embassy in Ankara in 1925, with the two nations establishing the Japan-Turkey Society a year later which had the intention of furthering Japanese - Turkish relations. Turkey supported Japan in World War Two. Following the war relations deteriorated between the two countries, which were slightly improved after reformist Şükrü Coşkun took power in Turkey. Since the end of the Cold War Turkey has sought to improve trade relations in Japan, and support the Japanese community in Turkey - however relations remain strained.
Flag of Jordan Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan1946Turkey recognised Jordan as an independent state in 1946. Relations were always tentative due to the conservative Jordanian monarchy's alliance with its former colonial master Britannia. Turkey became increasingly critical of Jordan following Black September, but relations remained stable until Jordan signed a series of peace treaties with Israel, a move widely condemned by Turkey. Since then relations between Jordan and Turkey have been tense.
Flag of Kazakhstan Republic of Kazakhstan1991Since the breakup of the Soviet Union Turkey has remained a key ally with Kazakhstan with the former being the first state to recognise the latter's independence. As both nations share a common Turkic heritage and see each other as being part of the wider Turkic community, with both promoting to further relations with other Turkic states. Turkey and Kazakhstan are both members of the Turkic Council, and Turkey's desire to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation has been supported by the Kazakh government.
Flag of South Korea Great Korean Empire1999Kurdistan has poor relations with Korea which it sees as a pawn to the United States. The Korean government has criticised the Kurdish government for housing communists persecuted in Korea.
Flag of Kuwait State of Kuwait1985Kuwaiti - Kurdish relations are one of mutual respect partly due to Kurdish opposition to the Iraqi government and Kuwaits previous stable relationship with the Soviet Union and its allies.
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz Republic1991Kurdistan maintains amicable relations with the Kyrgyz government thanks to ethnic ties among the Turkic populations of both countries. Kurdistan has invested in Kyrgyz energy and Kyrgyzstan in Kurdish goods.
Lanna Kingdom of Lan Na2009Main article: Lan Na-Kurdistan relations
Due to concerns over the "Stalinisation of the Kurdish government resulting in human right abuses from Lan Na relations remain tense between both nations, with the Lan Na government advising citizens not to travel to Kurdistan.
Flag of Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic1980Lao-Kurdish relations have been consistently friendly with both countries enjoying frequent trade with each other. Kurdistan has often been supportive of the Lao economy, but has expressed concern over "revisionist" economic reforms enacted by the Lao government.
Flag of Lebanon Lebanese Republic1985Lebanese - Kurdish relations have been stable since the end of the Lebanese Civil War despite Kurdish support of Syria in the conflict. Kurdistan has stated that it wishes to "defend Lebanon from Zionist threats", investing in the Lebanese military. Critics often state that Kurdistan is trying to push Lebanon into its sphere of influence.
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia1985Kurdistan has traditionally encouraged cooperation between it and Malaysia who are both trading partners with each other. The Kurdish government has commended the Malaysian government over their support for Palestine.
Flag of Maldives Republic of Maldives2010Kurdistan and the Maldives established official relations in 2010 as part of Kurdish policy to forge greater links with Muslim nations.
Flag of Manchuria Manchu People's Republic1980Relations with Manchuria stretch back to Manchuria's communist regime. Since then relations with Manchuria have been varied, with the current government trying to distance itself from the Kurdish government despite both being trading partners.
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia1980Due to Mongolia being a people's republic until 1991 Kurdistan has always maintained an embassy in Ulan Bator. Relations are mostly friendly with the Kurdish government looking to forge greater economic links between the nations.
Flag of Myanmar Republic of the Union of Myanmar1996Myanmar and Kurdistan enjoy stable relations. Prior to 1990 Kurdistan had supported the Communist Party of Burma's insurgency in Myanmar, but ought closer relations with the pariah state after the Cold War. The Kurdish government criticised the democratic reforms to Myanmar, stating that a transition to a Marxist-Leninist state would have been more beneficial.
Flag of Nepal Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal2008Kurdistan has long been an ally of the Communist Party of Nepal supporting the group in the Nepalese Civil War. Kurdistan welcomed Nepal's transition into a republic and have since sought to forge closer relations.
Flag of Oman Sultanate of Oman2008Traditionally Kurdish - Omani relations have been cold, primarily due to the latters reluctance to associate itself with communist nations. Nevertheless both nations have sought to promote peace in the Middle East as well as support Palestinian independence.
Flag of Pakistan Islamic Republic of Pakistan1985Both Pakistan and Kurdistan maintain embassies in their respective capitals. Relations between the two nations is usually friendly with Kurdish forces supporting the Pakistani military in clearing out the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan out of Pakistan. Kurdistan recognise Pakistani claims to Kashmir.
Flag of Palestine State of Palestine1980Since the creation of modern Kurdistan the Kurdish government has been extremely active in the promotion of Palestinian independence. Favouring a two state solution the Kurdish government maintain full diplomatic relations with the Palestinian Liberation Organisation with a Palestinian embassy being established in Diyarbakır. The Kurdish government has also given limited support to Hamas stating that "any group that fights for the independence of Palestine that does not threaten Kurdish people should receive our aid".
Flag of Qatar State of Qatar1988Qatari - Kurdish relations have for the most part been stable with both countries enacting anti-Israel policies. Kurdistan criticised Qatar after the country announced it would permit Israel to compete in the 2022 FIFA World Cup should it apply, stating that if Israel did apply then Kurdistan would boycott the games.
Flag of Russia Russian Federation1991The Russian Federation has always been described as "Kurdistans strongest and oldest ally", with the former USSR supporting the PPK coup that helped create Kurdistan. Since then the USSR provided Kurdistan with military support, as well as set up trade links between the nations. Kurdistan voluntarily acted as the USSR's main buffer state in the Middle East, helping secure oil from Iraq during the Cold War. Russia and Kurdistan's relations fluctuated when Boris Yeltsin took power, with Kurdistan struggling to adapt with Russia's new government. However since Vladimir Putin was appointed as president of Russia relations have improved substantially, with current President Şahnaz Uzun stating that Putin is a "model leader". Reportedly both Putin and Uzun maintain a personal friendship. Kurdistan publicly supported Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, stating that Crimea was culturally and ethnically more Russian then Ukrainian. Kurdistans energy imports primarily come from Russia, as well as a large amount of its exports being traded in Russia. Russia maintains a large military bases in Kurdistan.
Flag of Saudi Arabia Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaN/ACurrently neither Kurdistan nor Saudi Arabia maintain any official relations in their countries, with Kurdistan often decrying the Saudi government as being repressive, medieval and to closely aligned with the USA. Kurdistans close relations with Iran has further hampered any potential relations.
Flag of Sharqistan Republic of Sharqistan1991Main Article: Kurdistan-Sharqistan relations
Sharqi - Kurdish relations were first established after the countries independence from the Soviet Union supporting the first president of Sharqistan Alighsandr Samanaev. The 2013 ousting of the People's Party of Sharqistan have resulted in relations taking a downwards turn, although trade is still consistent between the two nations.
Flag of Singapore Republic of SingaporeN/ASingapore does not retain formal relations with Singapore, with neither country seeing economic, political or military incentive to open up any relations.
Flag of Sri Lanka Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka1992Kurdish support for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam during the Sri Lankan Civil War has made relations between the countries poor. According to high ranking Sri Lankan officials the Kurdish government have housed and trained members of the LTTE in guerilla tactics. The Kurdish government has denied these accusations, and have since cut trade relations with Sri Lanka.
Flag of Syria Syrian Arab Republic1980Syrian - Kurdish relations have been considered excellent. The first diplomatic relations were established when the modern founder of Kurdistan Abdullah Öcalan and Syrian president Hafez al-Assad, who gave military aid to the Kurdish Workers Party during the Kurdish-Turkish war. The death of Hafez and the neoliberal policies enacted by his son and successor Bashar al-Assad damaged relations, but they remained firm until the Arab Spring. The Syrian Civil War has seen the Kurdish government continue to support Assad regime.
Flag of Tajikistan Republic of Tajikistan1991Typical of a Central Asian nation Tajikistan and Kurdistan have good relations with each other, mainly stemming back to the Soviet period. Both nations often engage in trade and economic assistance. Kurdish intelligence has worked with the Tajikistani government to help cull extremist Islamic groups in the country.
Flag of Thailand Kingdom of Thailand1991Relations between the Thai and Kurdish governments have been minimal despite Kurdistan maintaining an embassy in Bangkok. Most relations are centred around trade with ASEAN nations.
Flag of East Timor Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste1999Kurdistan was one of the first nations to recognise East Timor. Since then Kurdish-Timorese affairs are handled in Jakarta.
Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan1991Unlike the rest of Central Asia Kurdistan's relations with Turkmenistan is less warm possibly due to Turkmenistan's policy of neutrality. Relations stagnated during the presidency of Saparmurat Niyazov, but have improved somewhat since Niyazov's death in 2006.
Flag of United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates1991Relations between Kurdistan and the UAE have been mostly focused around trade. The UAE's policy of refusing to interfere with the internal politics of other nations has allowed it to turn a blind eye to some of Kurdish human rights abuses towards Arabs, although the Emirati government has state it opposes the "systematic persecution of any group in any country".
Flag of Uzbekistan Republic of Uzbekistan1991Uzbek and Kurdish relations are stable with both nations engaging in frequent trade with each other. Most trade is focussed around natural resources.
Flag of Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam1980The Kurdish government remains an ally to the North Vietnamese government sharing economic, military and political ties. Upon Kurdistans creation president Abdullah Öcalan recognised North Vietnam as the sole legitimate government of Vietnam, with Kurdistan provided military support for the Lao/Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia. Economic reform in North Vietnam (deemed to be "revisionist" by the Kurdish government) has hampered relations somewhat, but both countries continue to keep up strong relations with each other.
Flag of South Vietnam Republic of South VietnamN/AAs of 2015 Kurdistan refuses to recognise South Vietnam as the legitimate government of Vietnam, with the Kurdish government labelling it as a secessionist state. Kurdistan supports Vietnamese reunification under a communist government, and denounces the south as being a pawn to the USA and Sierra.
Flag of Yemen Republic of Yemen1991Kurdistan initially had no relations with North Yemen, but was closely aligned to the Soviet-supported South Yemen. Yemeni unification caused trade relations between the countries to fall. Despite retaining close relations with each other cooperation has never reached pre-1990 levels.

Partially recognised territories

Country Formal relations began Notes
Flagabkazi Republic of Abkhazia2008Following Kurdish involvement in the Russo-Georgian War Kurdistan has officially recognised Abkhazian independence. A consulate in Diyarbakır serves as a liaison between the nations.
Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh.svg Nagorno-Karabakh Republic1991Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union Kurdistan pledged support for the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, participating in the Nagorno-Karabakh War against Azerbajianian forces. Currently a consulate located next to the Kurdish embassy in Yerevan in Armenia serves as the main liaison between both nations.
Download (1) Republic of South Ossetia2008Following the Russo-Georgian War in 2008 Kurdistan established relations with South Ossetia. Kurdistan was the second LN nation to do so after Russia.


Country Formal relations began Notes
Flag of Albania Republic of AlbaniaN/ADespite both being Muslim majority nations Albania and Kurdistan have no diplomatic relations. Under Enver Hoxha Kurdistan was deemed "revisionist", and since the fall of communism Albania has been quick to distance itself from so-called authoritarian regimes like Kurdistan
Flag of Andorra Principality of AndorraN/AAndorra and Kurdistan have no formal diplomatic relations, possibly due to Andorra's small international standing. Foreign affairs if any are carried out in the Kurdish embassy in Madrid.
Flag of Austria Republic of Austria1991Kurdistan and Austria currently have strained relations, owing partly to Austria's membership in both the European Union and NATO, and its large population of ethnic Turks who make up 3% of the Austrian population. From 2013 onwards Austria closed its boarders to Kurdistan citing an "endless wave of displaced Turks have now fled to this country."
Flag of Belarus Republic of Belarus1991Despite Belarus becoming more critical of Kurdistans long time ally Russia relations between Belarus and Kurdistan remain close. Both countries have entered in frequent trade with each other as well as being politically tied. Kurdistan maintains an embassy in Minsk and Belarus in Diyarbakır.
Flag of Belgium Kingdom of Belgium1991 - 2014Belgian - Kurdish relations have traditionally been minimal with the Belgian government criticising Kurdistans human rights record. The Flemish Revolution saw the Kurdish embassy in Brussels closed in 2015 after the Belgian government stated that "Kurdistan may have had a hand in igniting the more extreme of the socialist rebels".
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and HerzegovinaN/AThe Bosnian government have often been in opposition to Kurdistan, stemming from Kurdish support to the Yugoslav government in the Bosnian War.
22x20px Commonwealth of Britannia1991Relations between Britannia and Kurdistan have been strained with the British government criticising Kurdistans human rights record. Discontent lies within British communities against Kurdish and Turkish refugees who experience discrimination in Britannia. Trade although limited does exist between the nations, although the Kurdish government bans the sale of British products to Kurdish citizens stating that they encourage revisionist ideals.
Flag of Bulgaria Republic of Bulgaria1980 - 2015Relations between Kurdistan and Bulgaria were very positive when Bulgaria was an Eastern Bloc nation with the Bulgarian government giving military aid to Kurdistan during the Kurdish-Turkish war. However following the fall of communism relations worsened with Kurdistan erecting barbed wire fences across the Kurdish - Bulgarian boarder. Kurdistan's embassy in Sofia was stormed by nationalists in the 2015 Bulgarian Revolution under accusations that Kurdistan had housed members of the Red Guard of Bulgaria.
Flag of Croatia Republic of CroatiaN/ALimited Kurdish support towards Serbian forces in the Croatian War of Independence has permanently soured relations between Croatia and Kurdistan as well as general Kurdish support for the Serbian government.
Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic1991Prior to the Velvet revolution and the dissolution of Czechoslovakia Kurdistan and Czechoslovakia (modern day Czech Republic and Slovakia) had friendly relations. The fall of communism has weakened these relations although both nations still do maintain very limited trade.
Flag of the Kalmar Union Kalmar Union1995Kalmar maintains an embassy in Diyarbakır whilst Kurdistan maintains one in Stockholm. Relations are tense due to Kalmar's opposition to the Kurdish governments human rights abuses.
Flag of Emilia People's Republic of Emilia1985Main article: Kurdistan-Emilia relations
Kurdistan and Emilia have stable relations thanks to consistent trade links between the two countries, although president Simonetta Saliera has questioned Kurdistans human rights abuses.
Flag of Estonia Republic of Estonia1992Following Estonia's independence from the Soviet Union the Kurdish and Estonian governments have largely had poor relations due to Estonia's alignment with the west.
Flag of Gaul Gaulish RepublicN/AGaul has refused to hold relations with Kurdistan stating that Kurdistans poor human rights record and consistent failure to reform means that the Gaulish Republic "cannot accept let alone condone the actions of the Kurdish government"
German Empire German Empire1991Previously Germany maintained excellent relations with Kurdistan's predecessor Turkey, with many Turkish workers emigrating to West Germany after World War II. Following the establishment of Kurdistan relations were severed with West Germany with Kurdistan instead forging close ties with East Germany. Following German reunification the German government have been harsh critics of the Kurdish regime with concerns raised over the treatment of Turks in Kurdistan, with Turks making up the largest minority in Germany.
Naval Ensign of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1970) Kingdom of Hellas1980 - 1985Kurdistan and its predecessor Turkey have often been staunch rivals to the Kingdom of Hellas stemming back to the nations independence from the Ottoman empire. In the Kurdish-Turkish war the Hellen government tentatively gave extremely limited support to Kurdish fighters hoping they would end Turkish occupation of the northern half of the island of Cyprus which was de jure part of Hellas. However support was withdrawn in 1985 when the Kurdish government announced the creation of the Autonomous Democratic Republic of Cyprus. A brief boarder war erupted with an armistice line drawn.

Since the end of the Kurdish-Turkish war relations have worsened between the two nations. The Kurdish government has funded various terrorist movements in Hellas ranging from Macedonian nationalist, Islamic fundamentalist, Neo-Nazi and communist movements. Kurdistans policy on Cyprus has changed from advocating a "Northern Cypriot state for displaced Turks" to cleansing the entire island of Hellen influence. The Kurdish - Hellen boarder is heavily fortified with Hellan people being barred from entering Kurdistan and vice versa. According to some sources Hellan people in Kurdistan face institutionalised racism with many being incarcerated in concentration camps or contained in small tacts of land reserved for Hellan people that have compared to Bantustans. Greek is banned in Kurdistan with those speaking it being punished harshly by the Kurdish state. Similarly all Hellan products are banned in Kurdistan with those found is possession or smuggling such items being subject to long prison sentences. Contact with Hellan people's brand one as an enemy of the state.

British diplomat Joseph Dumfries commented that "Hellenophobia in Kurdistan is comparable to Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany with Hellans often blamed for Kurdistans social, financial and political problems. Even before the imprisonment, torture and killings carried out by the government Hellan people in Kurdistan have to be segregated performing the most menial tasks. Reports show that Hellan people have been attacked in the street and stoned to death by Kurdish citizens". Human Rights Watch criticised Dumfries reports of the stoning of Hellan people in Kurdistan, but have stated that the situation for Hellan people in Kurdistan is "bleak".

Flag of Hungary Hungary1980Although relations between the two countries were excellent during the communist period, relations since then have soured with the rise of the right wing in Hungary stalling relations between the two nations.
Flag of Ireland Republic of IrelandN/ALike Iceland no official relations exist between Ireland and Kurdistan, with neither nation having political, economic, or military ties.
Flag of Italy Italian Republic1991Relations between Italy and Kurdistan have been strained with the Italian government criticising Kurdistans human rights record. Thrace and the Southern coast of Anatolia remain popular tourist destinations for Italian holiday makers.
Flag of the Tsardom of Kamenia Kingdom of KameniaN/ALack of interest in opening any meaningful ties with the Tsardom has meant that Kamenia and Kurdistan hold no formal relations.
Flag of Latvia Republic of Latvia1992Like the other Baltic States Latvia did not receive recognition from Kurdistan until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since then relations have been poor with Kurdistan having been reported of arresting some Latvian tourists without charge in 2007, only to release them a month later.
Flag of Liechtenstein Principality of LiechtensteinN/ASimilar to other European microstates Lichtenstein and Kurdistan hold no formal relations between each other.
Flag of Lithuania Republic of Lithuania1992Despite declaring its independence in 1991 it was only a year later did Kurdistan formally recognise Lithuania. Since then relations have been very poor due to the Kurdish regimes close alignment with Russia.
Flag of Luxembourg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg1991Luxembourg maintains an embassy in Diyarbakır. Contention has arisen due to 200 Turkish refugees in Luxembourg are recognised as political dissidents of the Kurdish regime.
Flag of Malta Republic of MaltaN/ALike other microstates such Kamenia, Liechtenstein, and Andorra Malta and Kurdistan have no formal relations with each other.
22x20px Republic of Meskheti1980Although relations between Kurdistan and Meskheti were positive during the Cold War, Meskheti's subsequent democratisation and privatisation has strained relations. Kurdistan has called Meskhetian treatment of Slavs as "tantamount to the Holocaust".
Flag of Moldova Republic of Moldova1992Relations with Moldova and Kurdistan are poor, possibly due to Kurdistan's alleged support of the breakaway state ofTransnistria, an accusation Kurdistan denies.
Flag of Morocha Morochan People's Republic1991Relations between Morocha and Kurdistan are stable with both reportedly supporting Russian separatists in Ukraine in the War in Donbass as well as recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
Flag of Monaco Principality of MoldovaN/AAlthough Monaco recognised Kurdistan in 1995 no meaningful relations have been established between the two countries.

North America

Country Formal relations began Notes
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and BarbudaN/ADue to Antigua and Barbuda's geographical and political insignificance to Kurdistan there exists little formal diplomatic relations between the two.
Flag of Bahamas BahamasN/ASince Kurdistan restricted the right for its citizens to travel abroad the Bahamas and Kurdistan have had little in the way of meaningful relations.


South America

Historic relations

Country Formal relations began/end Notes
Flag of Afghanistan (1980-1987).svg Democratic Republic of Afghanistan1980 - 1992Relations with Kurdish and Afghan government under the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan were mostly friendly, especially under the leadership of Babrak Karmal. Pans were made to build a Kurdish embassy in Kabul - however continued fighting against the Mujahideen in the Soviet–Afghan War made this prospect more bleak as the war dragged on. After Dr Mohammad Najibullah became president and led the country into a more Islamic direction relations started to strain, although the Kurdish government continued to support them politically under the Taliban executed Najibullah and destroyed the communist regime.
Flag of Albania (1946-1992).svg People's Socialist Republic of AlbaniaN/ADue to Enver Hoxha's strictly anti-revisionist policies and opposition to other nations in the Soviet sphere relations were non-existent between Kurdistan and Albania. Hoxha's successor Ramiz Alia continued this policy, with Kurdistan doing little to stem the end of communism in Albania like they did in Romania and the Soviet Union.
Flag of Angola People's Republic of Angola1985 - 1992Relations with the Angolan and Kurdish governments when the former was a socialist state were positive with the Kurdish government militarily supporting People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola in the Angolan Civil War.
1024px-Flag of Benin (1975-1990).svg People's Republic of Benin1985 - 1990Kurdistan estabilshed relations with communist Benin opening an embassy in the capital Porto-Novo. Relations were fair between the nations, although they did not go much further beyond some immigration to Kurdistan by Beninese workers.
Flag of Bulgaria.svg People's Republic of Bulgaria1980 - 1989Relations between Kurdistan and communist Bulgaria were excellent with the Bulgarian government sending troops to aid Kurdistan in its battle for independence, despite Bulgaria's stable relations with Hellas. The ousting of Todor Zhivkov on November 10, 1989 effectively ended relations between the two nations.
Flag of socialist Burma/Myanmar Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma/Union of Myanmar1985 - 2011Relations with the Burmese military junta and Kurdistan were non-existence due to the isolationist policies of the Burmese. After the end of the Cold War Kurdistan supported the junta and criticised Burmese human rights activist Aung San Suu Kyi as being a "western puppet".
PROKFlag1979-1989.svg/Flag of State of Cambodia People's Republic of Kampuchea/State of Cambodia1985 - 1993Shortly after Kurdistan's independence the Kurdish government recognised the North Vietnamese and Lao supported Cambodian state along with other members of the Eastern Bloc. The Kurdish government heavily criticised the regime of the Khmer Rouge, and western nations recognition of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea.
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Socialist Republic1980 - 1989Czechoslovak - Kurdish relations were positive with the Czechoslovak's secret police the StB training Kurdish secret services (along with the KGB and Stasi) as part of a pre-emptive measure to prevent something similar to the Prague Spring.
Flag of Ethiopia (1975–1987).svg/1200px-Flag of Ethiopia (1987–1991).svg Derg/People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia1980 - 1990Kurdistan supported the socialist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam giving his administration aid during the Ethiopian Civil War and the Eritrean War of Independence. Although Kurdistan claimed to give relief to the Ethiopian famine critics claim such money in fact used to fund government death squads.
800px-Flag of East Germany German Democratic Republic1980 - 1989Relations between the German Democratic Republic (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR) and Kurdistan were for the most part positive with Stasi agents training those of the Kurdish security forces. The Kurdistan Workers Party's staunch opposition to perestroika and glasnost gained the respect of Erich Honecker who worked closely with the Kurdish government to preserve the socialist system. The ousting of Honecker and the attempted stabilisation efforts of Egon Krenz saw the last relations between the DDR and Kurdistan begin to break down even before the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Flag of Germany Federal Republic of Germany1980 - 1989West German - Kurdish relations were strained, partly due to Kurdish support of the DDR. After the Warsaw Pact occupation of Kurdistan some West German citizens were deported to the DDR rather then West Germany, which caused outrage among the West German government. The citizens were returned to West Germany, but relations never recovered. In response to this the West German government gave refuge to many Turkish dissidents.
Flag of Hungary (1949-1956).svg Hungarian People's Republic1980 - 1989Relations between communist Hungary and Kurdistan were positive with Hungary being among the Warsaw pact nations that supplied military aid to Kurdistan in the Kurdish - Turkish war. János Kádár actively encouraged trade between the nations, although his moderate approach saw some opposition from the Kurdish government.
Flag of Iraq (1991-2004).svg Iraqi RepublicN/ARelations between Iraq under Saddam Hussein and Kurdistan were poor with neither having any formal relations. Initially Saddam supported the PKK in the hopes of destabilising Turkey which he considered to be a regional rival. However relations started to sour during the Iran–Iraq War where Kurdistan covertly funded certain Kurdish militia groups such as the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party. Following Bloody Friday Kurdistan granted refugee to several Kurdish leaders. Kurdistan supported the US-led coalition in the Gulf War which saw the Kurdish region of Iraq torn into civil war, causing Kurdistan to occupy the region ostensibly on the orders of the Iraqi government so it could "stabilise" it. This in turn caused an ongoing war in the region between the Iraqi and Kurdish governments. Although Kurdistan condemned the Invasion of Iraq as American Imperialism, it did support the dismantlement of the Ba'athist party's dominance of the government.
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya1985 - 2011Relations between Kurdistan and Muammar Gaddafi's Libya were established at the end of the Kurdish - Turkish War with the Libyan regime financially supporting the Kurdish government. Libya after the Soviet Union was the biggest supplier of oil to Kurdistan until 2008 when Kurdistan started to tap into their own oil reserves. In 2011 Kurdistan gave support to the Gadaffi regime in the Libyan Civil War until Gadaffi's death in October 2011.
Communist Manchuria flag Democratic People's Republic of Manchuria1980 - 1989Relations with socialist Manchuria and Kurdistan were positive with Manchuria being one of the first to recognise the Kurdish government. Kurdistan was one of the main trading partners with Manchuria during its communist days, and supported the communist regime during the Orchid Revolution.
TatarstanSSR People's Democratic Republic of Meskheti1980 - 1989Relations between communist Meskheti and Kurdistan were positive with Kurdish leadership being partly inspired by Meskhetian general secretary Rusiko Zhorzholiani's authoritarian style of leadership.
Flag of Mongolian PR Mongolian People's Republic1980 - 1989Mongolia recognised Kurdistan shortly after the latter gained independence, but did not send aid to the country due to the underdeveloped nature of the Mongolian economy. Nevertheless relations between the two countries were excellent throughout the Cold War with Mongolia being one of the first nations to establish an embassy in Diyarbakır.
Flag of Nepal Kingdom of Nepal1985 - 2008Relations with the Nepalese monarchy were at first minimal with Nepal recognising Kurdistan in 1985. The eruption of the Nepalese Civil War saw Kurdistan support the Maoist Communist Party of Nepal with financial and political aid.
900px-Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Socialist Republic of Romania1980 - 1989Despite Romania's frosty relations with other Eastern Bloc nations both it and Kurdistan shared a prosperous foreign relations with the Kurdish state using the similar policies to that of Nicolae Ceaușescu such as a powerful secret police, less dependence on other Eastern Bloc nations and a centralised cult of personality. Reportedly Kurdish secret services tried to grant sanctuary to Ceaușescu and his wife Elena in the Romanian Revolution but Kurdish secret service forces where unable to reach Ceaușescu before his execution.
Flag of Pavlodaristan People's Republic of Sharqistan1991 - 2013Kurdistan maintained very positive relations with Sharqistan when it was under the single party rule of the People's Party of Sharqistan, with Kurdish leader Kazım Ataç maintaining a close relationship with Sharqistans first president, Alihsandr Samanaev. Kurdistan was one of the only nations Sharqistan maintained relations with up until 2007. According to members of the Sharqistan Movement of Freedom Kurdistan allegedly tried to fund members of the People's Party to launch a counter coup against president Nurzhan Temirov and maintain the socialist regime in the 2013 Sharqistan conflicts.
Old South Africa flag Apartheid South AfricaN/ARelations with South Africa under the National Party and Kurdistan were extremely negative with the Kurdish regime funding various anti-Apartheid organisations such as the ANC/MK, SWAPO, and SACP as well as supporting all LN sanctions on South Africa.
Flag of Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics1980 - 1991Relations between the Soviet Union and Kurdistan were at first overwhelmingly positive with the USSR moving approximately 250,000 troops into Kurdistan during the Kurdish-Turkish war to support Kurdish fighters. The USSR was the main arms supplier to Kurdistan and helped rebuild the infrastructure of occupied Kurdish territory during the war. The premierships of Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko saw extremely positive relations with the two nations with Kurdistan recovering from the war by 1985 due to Soviet support.

The accession of Mikhail Gorbachev and his subsequent saw relations between the USSR and the newly created Kurdistan sour. Due to Kurdistans brief existence it was able to reform its economy to suit the interests of countries such as China and rely less on the Soviet Union. The Kurdish government was still heavily dependent on the USSR, and supported the Gang of eight who participated in the August coup. The dissolution of the Soviet Union saw economic recession in Kurdistan.

Flag of Somalia Somali Democratic Republic1985 - 1991Relations with Somalia under Mohamed Siad Barre and Kurdistan were strained due to Kurdistan's close alignment with the Soviet Union and communist Ethiopia. Nevertheless Kurdistan gave political aid to Barre's regime until its collapse in 1991.
125px-Flag of South Yemen.svg People's Democratic Republic of Yemen1980 - 1990Kurdistan had close relations with the Soviet-supported communist government of South Yemen with both having a vibrant trading relationship. However the onset of the South Yemen Civil War saw relations start to break down with Kurdistan closing its Yemeni embassy in 1989.
Flag of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia1980 - 1992Yugoslav - Kurdish relations were for the most part friendly until the latters breakup in 1992. Yugoslavia was along with South Yemen, Manchuria, Libya and Syria one of the only non-Warsaw Pact member that Kurdistan allowed its citizens to travel to until the end of the Cold War.
744px-Flag of Zaire.svg Republic of Zaire1985 - 1997Zairian - Kurdish relations were almost always cold in the formers existence. Due to Zairian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko's closer alignment to the US due to his support of UNITA in the Angolan Civil War, the Zairian government aided Turkey during the Kurdish-Turkish war only recognising Kurdistan after Kurdish victory. Relations remained poor during the rest of the Zairian states existence with Kurdistan eventually supporting the coalition forces that eventually overthrew Mobutu.

International Organisations