Government is a method which a community, a civilization or a species used to maintain themselves. The process of policies making, maintaining or reformation of such government is called politics, while those take part in such activities are called politicians. A governmental form is the labyrinth of institutions and systems, which a government employs to maintain and rule its sovereign space. Majority of governmental forms, by the contemporary era, are either democracy or benevolent authoritarian (striking resemble to flawed democracy or hybrid regime); although other forms also exist. The study of governments, governance, and other related subjects is known as political science, a type of social science.
Governments exist across all known space, with perhaps exception in uncharted space or boundaries. A government could exists in all kind of natures; not all of them are benevolent. They could be as democratic as organized anarchies (Animal Planet, The Culture...) to autocratic monarchies or military dictatorships (Dorssia, Eurasiapact...). A government could also exist as a single polity (independent towns, villages, city-states...) and constrains to its own world, to a conglomeration of all different types, spanning over countless worlds and systems (spacefaring civilizations, meta-empires, some inter-universal governmental alliances...).
The majority of great powers - and subsequently most of universal community - employ UWE, a structural and well-maintained systems, to category and distinguish one polity to another. The system's type indicated for each government in this system is its general image. The Planetary Government tables describe characteristics of each government type by power structure or source.
Through out all known space, star nation (interstellar polity that accumulate at least one solar system) is the most popular form and standard one on spacefaring scale, while much larger-sized polity, such as pangalactic or polygalactic arrangements are reserved by only much smaller numbers of sovereign.
There's a vast differences in several factors between stellar polities:
- State polity exists in every corners of known space in planetary scale and beyond, while none-state or nearly non-state polity has been rising in subplanetary level.
- While some smallest star nations own only one star system, significant empires such as YMC, Oceania, or UGC could easily controls well over quadrillions galaxies of different sizes and populations. Large alliances like GACS own even more. In overall, by the time of current era, the most common form is that a star nation own its star system and - one way or another - most of directly connected ones.
- Most sovereign polities within charted, civilized space have well-established, usually stable political systems and backgrounds, while in unknown space, or like some called, the Wild Wild Space, anarchy and greedy corporations rule the galaxies, with the supports from religions, space piracy and fringe groups, indirectly or directly. The contradictions that define Civilized vs Uncivilized civilizations had been established and lasting since the dawn of new age.
- A state polity is an organized community that is managed and maintained under one common leadership (government). Usually such system is divided between subplanetary (smaller than a world), planetary (a world) and interstellar (multi-systems, to multi-galaxies) factions. A state polity also known as simply Polity, or State. Most polities are well-managed and divided between executive, legislative, and judiciary power structures.
- State polities exist throughout almost every corners of civilized known space. Some enjoy rising in power and prosperity, while others were ravaged by wars and internal conflicts, thus are forced to depend on larger polities. After two great wars, the number of star polities were greatly reduced. The NVC agreed for the disappearing of quadrillions of smaller and mid-sized star nations; some were absorbed by other great powers, many others were either disbanded or merged to former larger polities.
- On the other hand, non-governmental polity, also known as stateless polity, is a community that is organized and led by none, with little to non-existent central authority. The positions of authority within, even if exist, have extremely limit power. Most non-state civilizations employ widely-disparate economies and cultural organizational spheres. The triangle power structure -executive, legislative, judiciary- hold little to no meaning in these civilizations.
- Non-state societies enjoy booming popularity on subplanetary scale, even within great empires, especially after two great wars. For instance, since 8th era, the most common form on subplanetary units in various MWH's worlds or NHRE's systems are grand village, smaller than a city, but larger than a traditional village. That kind of unit is the closest to non-state system, with the chief or commanding council exists mostly for advisor's role only.
- On spacefaring level, however, non-state polities remain insignificance. Most anarchist-leaning star polities are constrained within one galaxy at largest extend. Beyond that, star empires have a well-defined government, although they had also been using various positive characters from non-state political system.
- A sovereign polity is a polity that is run by a central government, with sovereignty or at least has the ability to exert power over an area, star-faring or not. On interstellar scale, a sovereign polity could control one solar system as the smallest, to multi-galaxies, spanning over countless smaller units as the largest. Only a handful number of polities in known space are listed as multi-universes sovereign.
- Sovereign polity is usually defined by following characters: Autonomous; Independence; and Self-governing. They're also categorized as Standard --> Great --> Super --> Hyper Powers. - On the other hand, non-sovereign polity is one with little to non-sovereignty over a geographic and/or astrographic region at all.
- Non-sovereign polity has opposite characters with sovereign one. They're normally categorized as client states in different forms, or minor powers, or in rare cases of conflict, occupied states.
Across the vastness of known space, governmen's power exists in countless forms, scopes or levels. Some are constrained to as tiny as one village or one station with dozens sentients, to as vast and expansive as polygalactic empires. While on microscale, most governments are anarchical and more open, on vast scales such as interplanetary or polygalactic, labyrinths of standardized agreements and institutions constrain and make sure the whole ruling systems are running smoothly, while maintaining their own internal affairs.
In general, the power sphere of government divided into 4 groups:
- Minor power: Micro to minor polities, some aren't expanded even beyond a village or a mountain region. Usually weak, poor, has no defined ruling system or even standing armed forces, have to depend on other greater nations, but live depending mostly on nature, being free and enjoy simple lives.
- A Minor Power could be either independent (category as sovereign polity) or not independent (categorized as client state) from most aspects of governance. A non-free minor power is defined based on its level of distance from associated powers; a member state is usually the most free, basically govern their own internal affairs, only depend on external or protection, while a puppet state is the least free, entirely depended upon other powers in all matters, or at least modded by external empires.
- Standard power: Mid-sized powers, or standard powers, are normally world-states or equivalent; although some aren't cover their own planets, even their own continents. Standard powers usually have a defined government, economy, military, society and everything inbetween. However, standard powers, while usually achieving full independent from outside bigger forces, are also in depend on some aspects of other greater powers. A Standard Power is usually in control of at least one solar system, on interstellar scale.
- There's a distinctive difference between APAC-AFRICA's and EUROPA-AMERICA's star nations: The general form in APAC-AFRICA spaces is (Federal) Parliamentarian Republic, while in EUROPA-AMERICA is Imperial (Constitutional) Monarchy. NON-ALIGNED space is the only one that doesn't have single general form of its standard powers, instead contains some of the most complex systems.
- Major power: A star polity is classified as major power if it exerts highly powerful political, cultural and economical influences over polities and civilizations around and across known space. Characteristics include the ability and expertise to exert influence on pan- or poly-galatic scale, to the highest, multiversal scale, or possessing military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which would make smaller powers to consider their opinion, before taking action of their own.
- A major power could be divided into: Regional, Great and Superpower.
- A Regional Power, or a Pocket Empire, is a single polity, or a bloc of civilizations acts as one, that hold excessive influences and power within a region, usually a galaxy or a space quadrant. Being a regional power is not mutually making such polity or alliance become a greater power immediately, despite the opposite is true. The majority of them exert a strategic degree of influence over smaller civilizations mostly within that region, and has often an important role in universal affairs outside of its region too.
- What is referred to as Great Power is one that having highly influences and powers over lesser civilizations. A Great Power could be considered as Regional Power and vie versa, although the lines are usually quite blurry. By the standards of new age, a great power doesn't always need to be politically & militarily mighty, but more on economic, trade dominion and soft powers. A star polity or alliance is called Great Power when its sphere extend beyond its own galaxy or space quadrant.
- A Super Power is Great Power's upgrade, expanding far beyond its own interstellar spheres. Traditionally, Super Power is preeminent among the great powers. In theory and de facto, superpowers are empires with dominant positions in pan-universe relations, characterised by their unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on multi-galaxies scale. Such powers achieve through the combined-means of Hard (technology, military...) and Soft (cultural, diplomatic...) influences.
- Hyperpower: The highest level of government's influences in known space is Hyperpower. A Hyper Power is a political unit that held far greater dominion over every single polity and civilization across its own sphere, regardless of size or might. Basically a Hyperpower force is a step higher than Super Power, one with complete domination of every spheres of activity.By contemporary eras, there are only 8 organizations that achieve standards fit the categories: The Sphere in APAC. The Ecumene in EUROPA. The Alliance in AFRICA. The Commonwealth in NON-ALIGNED. 4 multidivisional alliances: The Civilization, the UAN, the ComEmps and the UUF. In recent time, however, others such as AMERICA's Conference has expanded their spheres rapidly; thus become direct rising competitors for those eight hyperpowers.
Forms of Government
Throughout all known space, star polities are divided among 6 major structures: Confederation, Federation, Monarchy, Republic, Hegemony and Empire.
- Main article: Confederation
A Confederation is an interstellar political entity with a very loose relationship among several lesser political units. In some cases, a confederacy is little more than an alliance between independent states.
Confederations are generally more connected than inter-species organization, with proper government, armed forces... and everything. Yet they remain weakest among the six. Secessionism is normally strong within confederation, and keeping all members together for the common interest or whatever, is viewed as one of main targets for central authority.
Most of the time, confederations formed by independent star polities or civilizations, in common defense or economic interests.
- Main article: Federation
A Federation, also known as Federal State or Federated Nation, is an interstellar political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states under a central (federal) interstellar government.
Federation is characterized as more closely and efficient than Confederation, but also result in less freedom of actions among member states, since the central government hold more power.
- Main article: Monarchy
A Monarchy, or a Monarch, is a government that is led by one individual or family, ruling by birthright, grounding their legitimacy in lineage (absolute or feudal monarchies), or through constitutions (constitutional or ,in uncommon cases, composite). The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Such individual or family is usually referred as nation's embodiment.
- Main article: Republic
A Republic is a sovereign entity in which people are ruled by elected representatives and elected leader, instead of a monarch or ruling family. Both Republic and Monarchy are normally also known as Unitary nation, in a sense that they have strong central government, yet remain weaker than Hegemony or Empire, making them more efficient than either Federation or Confederation.
The majority of both Republican-styled and Monarchican-styled governments on spacefaring scale have a high level of separation of powers and guiding legal and governmental documents.
- Main article: Hegemony
A sovereign polity is called a Hegemony, or Hegemon, when its controls over cultures, politics, economies or militaries are pre-dominant over all of other nations under its spheres. On interstellar scale, a star nation is a Hegemon when it extends astropolitical and cultural predominances over others.
A Hegemony is noted for having strong centralized government, strong policies that direct the entire sectors or states, and a strong disregard for local/planetary differences. Hegemons usually are seen as borderline between Unitary state and Authoritarian, of which several function as such.
- Main article: Empire
An Empire is defined as "a conglomeration of massive number of different races and communities, ruled over by a single ruler or other powerful sovereign or government, usually including one core member and its (interstellar) far-stretching territories". Empires differ from other nations that they hold supreme controls over other polities. An empire could be made of continuously territories (non-star-faring scales), or of territories far remote from home worlds, such as an interstellar empire.
Notably empires of known space focus mostly in EURAPAC, thus making them the center power of known universe, and AFRICA-NON-ALIGNED space, to some extend. Empires that are well-known actively expanding their power and sovereign including the likes of WINB, RTF, Alpinas, MEN, Fusou, VSE or CIS.
Structures of governments
The power's structures in all known space are vary and uncountable in number. However, there are four main structures that exist through out almost every corners of known multiverse, by current era:
- Star nations ruled by small groups in power.
- Military Oligarchs
- T.E.D. (Technologically Elevated Dictator)
- Triarchy (also known as Triumvirate)
- Various others
- Star nations ruled by elected (fully or partially) representatives.
- Democratic republics
- Limited monarchy (crown republic) or Constitutional Monarchy
- Parliamentary Democracy
- Various others.
- Star nations ruled by large groups of entities.
- Collegial Democracy
- Directorial or True Democracies (A form of democracy in which people decide policy directly)
- E-Democracy, also known as Net-based Democracy (A form of democracy that uses advanced communications technology to encourage direct policy decisions from a populace)
- Representative Democracy or Indirect Democracy (A variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people)
- Stochocracy (also known as closely Demarchy)
- Various others
- Star nations ruled by everyone. Somewhere between directorial democracy and organized anarchy.
- Organized Anarchy
- Various others
Other nation's types
- Countless other types exist, only much less common, throughout most of known space.
- Among them, Chaos (Barbarism) and Autocracy have most potentials to challenge major forms.
* These information are based directly from The Traveller universe, which is one of the most influential universes that form current pan-multiverse society.
- Main article: Techno-Magological Achievement Tiers
A Techno-Magological Achievement Tier, usually just Tier, is a system learned from Halo universe, with modifications based on Kardashev scale and magical advancement, used as a categorization's level to assess the technological or magical advancement of civilizations.