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The following page is an outline of government and politics in the Roman Republics.
List of emperors
- Romulus Augustus (31 October 475 – 4 September 476) - last Western Emperor.
Eastern (Byzantine) Empire:
- Constantine XI Palaeologos (6 January 1449 -29 May 1464)
Later Palaeologos dynasty:
- Justinian III ( - also considered to be the last Byzantine Emperor.
- Islamicus I (Gaius Justinian Palaeologus Islamicus)
- John IX (John Gaius Palaeologus)
- Justin III (Justin John Palaeologus)
- Baldus (Baldus Claudius Maximus)
- Silvanus (Silvanus Baldus)
- Leo VII (Leo Silvanus Baldin)
- Justinian X - current Emperor.
The term "magistrate" is used to refer to a wide range of executive offices. The Emperor, as well as the Consuls are magistrates, through to the very lowest rank of censor. Any person who receives a title prefixed with "pro-" means they have the powers of that office, however, do not occupy it. This is usually for temporary placeholders or honorary appointments. Examples include "Procensor" and "Protribune."
List of magisterial ranks (highest to lowest):
- Emperor, same level can include: Dictator, Triumvir,
- Consul, same level can include: Consular Tribune,
- Praetor, same level can include: Governor, General, Legate, Tribune of the People
- Tribune, same level can include: Governor, General, Legate
- Censor, same level can include: Quaestor, Aedile
List of legislative ranks (highest to lowest):
- Emperor (Senate, Popular Assembly)
- Consul (Popular Assembly, Senate)
- Senator (Senate)
- Tribune of the People (Popular Assembly, Senate)
- Tribune (Popular Assembly)
The Senate is the de facto national legislature of the Republics, however, has no official law-making power, and may only pass recommendations or advisories. The Popular Assemblies, however, do usually enact these measures to ensure a good relationship with the Senate. The Senate is regarded as the most prestigious and final office a commoner can attain, just short of consul. Because there are no laws governing the Senate, the body can consist of any person elected to that office, however mostly consists of magistrates, as much of the current senate consists of praetors and governors. They are, however, known as senators in this capacity, and many of them choose to make "Senator" their primary title. The four Tribunes of the People (two for each republic), also sit on the senate, and each has veto power over the recommendations of Senate. These Tribunes, in their normal capacity, chair the Popular Assembly (as Chair and Vice Chair), and represent the interests of the commoners.