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Great Han Empire
大漢帝國
Dài Hantchìgó
Haniflag
Hanicoa
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
十四的省, 一的人
Waro nan shou, isa nan tao
("Eight provinces, one people")
Anthem: 
大國愛
Daiguo-ai
("Grand Patriotic Hymn")
Oceania
Haniorthographic
Capital
and city
Hanyang
Official languages Han varieties, Sierran English
Religion Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity, Islam
Demonym Han
Government Unitary
semi-parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Empress
Li Meiyu
Tchang Shidao
Legislature National Diet
Senate
People's Assembly
Independence from Sierra
December 8th, 1941
February 2nd, 1944
September 2nd, 1946 to July 4th, 1949
February 2nd, 1987
Area
• Total
337,900 km2 (130,500 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
0.6
Population
• 2017 estimate
152,503,933 (8th)
• 2015 census
151,523,040 (8th)
• Density
271.4/km2 (702.9/sq mi) (23rd)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$7.326 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$48,040
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$5.405 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$35,448
Gini (2017) positive decrease 33.8
medium
HDI (2017) Green Arrow Up Darker 0.901
very high · 15th
Currency Han Qian ( or ¢) (HNC)
Time zone Han Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format mm-dd-yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +63
ISO 3166 code PH
Internet TLD .ph
Hani (大漢; tr. Dài Han), officially referred to as the Great Han Empire (大漢帝國; tr. Dài Hantchìgó), is a insular nation located in East Asia. It is comprised of eight main island groups (Taiwan, Beido, Chuudo, Nando, Sulu, Batanes, Caroline islands, Mariana islands), which collectively straddle the easternmost extremities of the West Pacific basin. An unitary semi-parliamentary constitutional monarchy, it is divided into three constituent states, with each being granted substantial autonomy in governing their own internal affairs under their devolved legislatures. It spans from the Taiwan Strait to the north, the Sulu Sea to the south, the South China Sea to the west, and the Han Sea to the east. It has a total number of 152.503 million residents (of which 91.05% is ethnic Han) distributed throughout an area of approximately 337,900 km2 (or 130,500 sq mi), ranking it the 71st-largest country by area and eighth-most populous country, with a population density of exceeding 1,200 people per square mile. It is bordered by South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Tanjung, and Hainan to the west, China to the north, and Indonesia and Papua New Guinea to the south.

The metatarsal of the Callao Man is the oldest known human remnant within the islands carbon-dated to 67,000 BC, predating the Tabon Man by 40,000 years. In 4,000 BC, Austronesian peoples arrived from Taiwan, displacing most earlier arrivals and forcing remnants upland. By the third century, port principalities and lowland fiefdoms known as barangay formed, engaging in large-scale overseas trade, and through amassing power through wealth, eventually coalesced into small feudalistic kingdoms by the ninth century. However, the usage of advanced agricultural techniques and the presence of ample amounts of arable land, coupled with relative peace and prosperity, facilitated an early yet vigorous population boom.

The most powerful of the early Han states was the Kingdom of Tondo, which following began to rapidly expand its territorial holdings inland into the Central Luzon basin and into the Ibalon peninsula by conquering and quelling local tribes. Through gaining preferential treatment by the Chinese, and attaining special rights via the isolationist Haijin ("maritime prohibition") policy, it established a monopoly on trading routes, with visiting merchants originating as far west as Arabia, and as far north as Japan. At its apogee in the late sixteenth century, it became a major thalassocratic regional power, overshadowing and dominating not only its immediate neighbours but competing with mainland powers, directly intervening in their affairs. The Battle of Maynila, initiated by Sultan Bolkiah, eroded its influence and vastly weakened its regional prestige, with aristocrats approaching Ming China for aid in-exchange for increased extraterritorial rights and more frequent tributary missions.

In 1565, a fleet of Spanish conquistadors landed off the city of Maynila, which was dismissed upon learning of their intent to claim the islands on behalf of Spain. This eventually led to a rivalry between the two expanionistic nations, with a reinvigorated Tondo establishing a confederation-style of rule over its former allies, which aimed to be the first step to regional integration and eventual unification. Tensions culminated in the Jasmine Wars, with the subsequent Treaty of Li Han forcing the Spanish to cede all their territorial holdings in the islands, and opening trade to unfavourable terms. The collapse of the Ming under the Qing enabled Tondo to assert its sovereignty and affirm its regional dominance, with its territorial legitimacy in newly acquired territories bolstered by the influx of two million Ming royalists (a majority of whom were young males and their extended families).

The seventeenth century oversaw the establishment of a centralized unitary state under the Li dynasty, in contrast to a decentralized federal monarchy, through curtailing many aristocratic privileges and subjugating other monarchies as subordinate cadet branches of the main royal lineage. The government endorsed various assimilationist policies in order to achieve the notion of ethnic homogeneity, uniting all lowlanders into a single ethnic identity. It established extensive trading relations with the West, becoming an affluent country exporting world-renowned luxury products; this was accompanied by an influx of silver bullion, underpinning a previously largely baseless economy and in-turn stimulated the development of internal commerce. Following British victory in the First Opium War, the isolationist Sarado policy was implemented, earning the country the nickname the "Hermit Kingdom". However, an increasingly lenient administration and lax laws on the attainment of aristocratic status led to the erosion of royal authority; political strife between competing aristocrats combined with rising regionalist and separatist movements culminated in the corrosive Lingayen Rebellion in the 1860s, further undermining national stability.

The arrival of the Spanish, and later the Sierrans, subjected the country to economic exploitation by Western imperialistic powers, being placed under various unequal treaties before ultimately annexed as a directly-administered colony following the Han–Sierran War. The Han National Revolution, through Japanese support, ousted Sierran colonial authorities and established a nationalist government based upon the ideals of Han statism, a movement with its origins lying in the Roaring Twenties. After suppressing the communists in the Han Civil War, Hani reinstated a policy of isolationism and pursued cooperation with the Soviet Bloc in order to counter Anglo–American domination.

The Heavy Industrial Drive, pioneered by Zhang Shuying kickstarted an economic miracle, which through massive inflows of foreign capital and a strong work ethic, equated to exponential growth which catapulted the country into developed status. Hani ranks fourth on the Human Development Index within Asia. Having a highly educated and skilled workforce, it wields the world's third-largest economy when measured in GDP (in both market exchange rates and power purchasing parity). It has the world's third-fastest internet speed and smartphone penetration. Additionally, it also ranks highly on ICT Development and on the Bloomberg Innovation Index. It is an influential member of numerous key organizations; it is recognized as a major regional power, an emergent great power, and a potential superpower.

Etymology

Hans refer to the country as Hani (Hanji: 丷二, Hanzi: 哈尼; historically 韩一). This is the simplified contracted form, used for informal occasions, with the full term being Harigoku no Hani (蒂国丿哈尼). Locals often say the two terms with a rising pitch (part of the language's prosodic pitch system) to convey respect to the country.

The first aforementioned name emanates from the word Han (), which had originally been used to refer to the Chinese diaspora and their mixed descendants; groups collectively known as Chuugwourin. The term was widely popularized to refer to the entirety of all sinicized peoples during the early Li dynasty, partly driven by assimilationist policies. It was also popularized after the ascension of the Qing in place of the Ming. As many of the Hans rejected the dynastic change, not showing the same amount of geniality to the Qing when compared to the Ming, Li Young, the first monarch of the current House of Li, styled the Li as the true successors of the Ming. However, while the Qing did not recognised this and continued to refer to the Li by their official name, however Hani quickly grew popular and the official name was reserved for formal situations.

History

Prehistory

Main article: Han pre-history

The earliest evidence of human habitation is the 67,000-year-old metatarsal of the Callao Man in the northeast Gaya governorate, and the Angono Petroglyphs. However, the most widely accepted hypothesis on the peopling of the islands is the Out-of-Taiwan model, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan (which themselves are descended from the neolithic cultures of the Yangtze River Valley, such as the Liangzhu culture) began pouring into the islands starting 4000 BC–replacing and absorbing earlier arrivals.

SaHuynh6

The Sa Huỳnh culture produced lidded jars as shown above to keep the cremated remains of their dead–a practice indigenous to their culture

The first known culture was the Batangas jade culture; whose presence was evident by exquisitely crafted jade artifacts. Other early cultures include the precursors of the Ifugao and Igorot peoples, who built the Banaue rice terraces. Sa Huỳnh sites were abundant in artefacts based on iron; as typified by axes, swords, spearheads, knives and sickles. In contrast, much of the region was still using bronze. An extensive trade network was also shown, as Sa Huỳnh beads were made of materials not found in the region, indicating they were imported. This culture also lived in the area now comprising South Vietnam (specifically the Mekong Delta), and may have been ancestral to the Cham minority.

Prehistoric Hans were split into four distinct groupings. The first were agricultural plutocrats residing in the mountains, hills hunter-gatherer tribes, and warrior societies that had a strict social strata and practiced ritualized warfare. The fourth and most important group were maritime societies that partook in trans–island trade.

Early foreign accounts described the chiefdoms of the islands as being extremely skilled in metallurgy, and highly competent as farmers, practicing animal husbandry and engaging in wet rice farming. An abundance of fowl, grains, honey, among other products, was noted.

Formation of barangay

By at least the third century, chiefdoms organized themselves into barangay–small political units headed by a datu (chief), who was in turn, subordinate to the rajah (king), who headed the entire city-state. Each barangay typically consisted of a hundred families, with some of the largest reaching thousands of people. They typically straddled the fertile river valleys and coasts. Transmitted via trade, many adopted HinduBuddhist culture.

By the ninth century, these maritime city-states had grown to become competing feudalistic thalassocratic kingdoms. Some of these thalassocracies are briefly subjugated as vassals of greater regional powers such as Srivijaya, Majapahit and Brunei, and as the tributaries of the Song dynasty and the Ming dynasty.

Birth and growth of the Tondo dynasty

Main article: Kingdom of Tondo

As revealed by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Tondo as a centralized state existed as far back the 9th century (at the least). However numerous barangay agglomerations have been found dating back a thousand years prior to that point. The legal document was written in the Kawi script, and mentioned a ruling monarch as well as three places all in or near the Hanyang Bay area. Tondo was observed to be a matrilocal society dominated by aristocrats that primarily followed Theravada Buddhism.

Due to the high rates of illiteracy, which ran rampant until the promulgation of the simple Babayin script in the 13th century, there were few historical documents from early Tondo. The already few written documents present were often burned by Li bureaucratic officials. Despite at the time being a confined city-state, Tondo still experienced favourable overseas trading relations, with Tagalog pottery skills being renowned regionally–especially in Japan; where they were called Ruson-tsukuri (lit. "Luzon-made"; 呂宋製 or 呂宋つくり). These vessels were not renowned for decorative purposes, but were also tea canisters greatly enhancing the fermentation process. This made it highly valuable and lucrative for foreign merchants.

Over time, Tondo exerted more influence over the barangay of the island, which was called Lusong after the Tagalog term for a "rice mortar". The thirteenth century, under Rajah Alon, oversaw the conquest of the lands to the north and to the south, greatly increasing the territorial extent of Tondo to encompass two-thirds of Ruzon. However, this was short-lived, as Majapahit eventually asserted suzerainty over the territories and rendered Tondo a mere vassal. Though some recent scholars argue this control of suzerainty was truly only ceremonial and it remained autonomous in virtually all its internal affairs. This relationship lasted until the Battle of Maynila in 1365, which oversaw a Tagalog victory and affirmed independence.

Shortly after independence, Tondo achieved a zenith in power. Having opened tributary relations with the Ming in 1371, it agreed on the monopolization of the regional trading routes and the sole right to distribute Chinese goods under the Haijin policy. In 1450, Dayang Kalangitan rose to power, and became the first recorded female Tagalog monarch (and the last monarch to follow animism). Using her prowess in diplomacy, she created a personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Namayan, and increased ties with Brunei to guarantee the security of the important monopoly.

Conflict with Brunei

By the sixteenth century, Tondo's monopoly on regional trade allowed it to grow excessively wealthy. In 1500, Sultan Bolkiah, the monarch of Brunei, sought to incorporate Tondo to inherit its trading rights and in-turn become affluent themselves. Bolkiah sent a group of envoys, seeking to marry one of monarch Dayang Kalangitan's nieces and establish a dynastic union upon her death. He also demanded the conversion of the ruling house, the Lakandula, into Islam. Rejecting the terms, she implemented heavy restrictions on Muslim missionary activities to limit Islamic influence.

The following year, an assassination attempt involving a radical Muslim convert Salih Abdullah (who was ironically executed via stoning, a verdict that mocked Sharia law) would leave the Queen extremely injured and incapacitated–which were worsened by her elderly age. Exploiting the power vacuum, Sultan Bolkiah sent his army to subjugate Tondo. The vassalized House of Sulayman was proclaimed to be the legitimate royal house of Tondo, and much of the loyalist aristocratic class in occupied areas were either purged or forcibly converted. Fortunately, Prince Salalila, the heir apparent helped hastily amassed government bureaucrats and relocated the seat of power to Bataan. With the former Queen relinquishing her powers (and choosing to abstain from being regent), Salalila was crowned as Rajah.

With the aid of the Ming, who felt that a Buruneian annexation of Tondo would undermine the isolationist Haijin policy and Chinese influence in the area, Rajah Salalila expelled the Bruneians from Maynila–thus crushing Sultan Bolkiah's imperialistic ambitions in Luzon. However, as part of the armistice, Brunei's influence over Palawan and Shonanmin were recognized.

Tondo as a Ming protectorate

Following the brief Tondo–Brunei War, Rajah Salalila enforced the ban on Muslim missionary activities, and implemented a cautious approach with the increasingly Islamicized Malay polities to the south. He also affirmed Tondo's tributary status and its preferential status on the tributary hierarchy, by sending biannual tributary missions. Over time, Tondo became a large source of revenue for the Chinese government. Lusong was notably rich in reserves of gold, silver, and copper bullion; many of which were mined and shipped to China to mitigate for its lack thereof.

After repeated instances of wokou raids on merchant vessels traversing between Fuzhou and Tondo (which threatened the flow of precious metals), Tondo was annexed as a protectorate within the first year of Emperor Zhengde's reign. As a result, the Rajah lost control over the country's suzerainty but by theory (not by-practice however), upheld internal autonomy. He was also obliged to send tributary missions three times annually. Furthermore, the establishment of an organized legislature, the Tondo state-council further weakened the royal powers bestown upon the House of Lakandula. The first years oversaw the implementation of many reforms–with court officials and the royalty being required to be clad in Chinese clothing, the implementation of the imperial examination and a meritocracy, as well as the standardization of Chinese scientific models and technological methods.

In 1516, a Portugese fleet led by Rafael Perestrello (a cousin of the famed Christopher Columbus briefly docked in Maynila (en-route to China). The fleet was warmly received by the locals, but negotiations failed to establish trading ties as the Chinese government refused to diverge from their isolationist policies. However, Tondo emerged as an intermediary between indirect trade with China and its European trading powers during under the reign of Emperor Jiajing.

In 1565, a fleet of Spanish conquistadors, headed by explorer Miguel López de Legazpi landed off the city of Maynila. Initially treated hospitably, upon of hearing their intent to claim the islands on behalf of Spain, Rajah Banaw was forced to dismiss the fleet. With Spanish silver being offered in larger quantities than the silver mined in Lusong, the Ming was torn being allowing Spanish imperialistic ambitions in its protectorate or ceasing its lucrative trading relationship with Spain. Starting in the reign of Emperor Longqing and the end of the Haijin policy in 1571, the Chinese began adopting a non-interventionist policy pertaining to Tondo; gradually returning administrative powers to the Tagalog royalty.

This sudden renouncement of Ming support, despite being compliant with Ming requests of tribute, galvanized Rajah Banaw. As a result, he centralized the imperial court through systematic purges among the literati, whilst also giving absolutist powers to the monarchy.

In 1575, the capitulation of Brunei (its erstwhile adversary) to the Spaniards prompted him to terminate tributary missions, and later the formal withdrawal from the Chinese tributary system later that year. Interestingly, the Rajah later fostered several armistices with wokou leaders, and some of them were appointed high positions within the royal navy; most notably skilled Admiral Limahong and Admiral Lin Daoqian. This decision was highly instrumental in guaranteeing autonomy, and utilizing the naval prowess of his two main collaborators, the Rajah organized raids on Chinese ports and Spanish colonial outposts, interfering in their bilateral trade and using the acquired bullion to fund these efforts.

In 1580, state-funded pirates kill Spanish commander Juan de Salcedo, who had been travelling in Pangasinan at the time. His fleet was also held hostage, a confrontation that would provide ruse of war on behalf of Spain. Already bothered by the disturbing resurgence of organized piracy directly caused by the anti–Chinese policies of Rajah Banaw, the Emperor Wanli secretly gave discretion for a Spanish punitive expedition for Tondo and an installation of a passive government.

Decline

Chuugwourinwomen

A painting showing two posing Chuugwourin women, or Hans of Chinese extraction.

By the closing decade of the Tondo dynasty, people identifying as Han Chinese comprised a tenth of the total population, with those having some kind of Chinese ancestry (who called themselves chuugwourin after the Han pronunciation of the characters "中国人") comprising as much as a third. However, due to assimilationist policies, many of these people were familiar with the culture and were often bilingual in both either Cantonese, Hokkien, or Mandarin, alongside Tagalog.

However, due to their backgrounds (an overwhelming amount of these diaspora were merchants or bureaucrats), they comprised a disproportionate amount of the elite. As much as a third of the court members were of Chinese extraction, along with almost half of merchants. To pander to the growing Chinese minority (most of which were Ming royalists who were distraught over the Qing and the Aisin Gioro) and the increasingly sinicized elite and court, the Lankandula under King Arawa had formally adopted only their Chinese titles, whereas they upheld both, though favoured their Tagalog ones. King Arawa also abandoned Theravada Buddhism in-favour of converting into Confucianism, which also elevated as the state religion.

This disparity and the sudden change in attitude of Tagalog royalty provided the ideological platform for the orthodox faction of the imperial court; who sought the reinforcement of traditional doctrines and customs derived from Tondo's Hindu and Buddhist past. Initially, the members of the orthodox faction had only desired some sort of law promoting multiculturalism (rather than favouring Chinese culture), and pushed for the reintroduction of dual-titles and religious freedoms. However, the two sides eventually radicalized, and the country had split into two distinct sides; a royalist north, primarily the area comprising Hanyang and its periphery, the Lingayen Gulf, and the Gaya valley, and were exposed to sinicization; and the secessionist south.

In an incident known as the "First Literati Purges", members of the orthodox faction were purged from the imperial court by King Arawa and his advisors, prompting the faction into further radicalization. The imperial court quickly became not only fractured, but dysfunctional and unable to perform their duties. As a result, many provincial bureaucrats became largely autonomous and broke off from the King.

Capitulation and Na period

In 1575, the Jayadeva clan under head Chakar led an army from Zambales (now, the contemporary Sambaka province), to Lingayen. With much of the south in political strife, Hanyang was unable to send reinforcements, and Lingayen (a historical stronghold for the sinicized faction) capitulated to his forces. Following this, he proclaimed that the House of Jayadeva are the successors of the House of Lakandula, and was crowned the King of the Na dynasty.

While the loss of the Lingayen Gulf (the main port area used for trade with China), the main blow was when national treasury (in particular silver bullion) had become depleted in his decades-long effort to defend its Taiwan colony against the Qing. As a result of the newly implemented Sarado policy (which while isolationist, was distinct from the policy during 19th century Li dynasty that bore the same name), the imperial court refused to import Spanish silver, and instead relied on copper coinage. However, copper cannot be proven without being broken, and thus many coins were counterfeited. Also, the abundance of copper meant that the coinage had lacked in value, prompting rural merchants to resort to barter trade as a medium for transactions. Lacking the finances to exert control, central rule disintegrated, and the Lakandula were able to practice their powers in Hanyang and its periphery.

Utilizing this, King Chakar sought to gain the loyalty of various independent warlords (collectively known as mihariga, after the warrior caste) that had emerged from previous provincial governments, promising to provide resources in-exchange. However, many were deterred by the fact that they had to perform prostration before him, alongside his orthodox views. Nevertheless, many conservative mihariga accepted this and the Na dynasty grew to become a legitimate, albeit also weak, rival to the Tondo dynasty.

Warring States period

Early Li period

Consolidation of royal rule

Yi Chang

An early 18th-century royal portrait depicting Li Young, dressed in his royal clothing and sitting upon his throne.

During the early years of the Li dynasty, the first monarch, Li Young sought to legitimize and consolidate royal power, purging mihariga lords and establishing a highly centralized court system. He abandoned the title of wang (; "King"), and instead adopted the title of chi (; "Emperor") which nominally upheld his status to the equivalent to the Chinese Emperor. He also changed the country's name to Dai Han (大汉), which meant "Great Han".

He also abolished the tradition of imperial examination in 1706, and instead chose bureaucratic positions via imperial appointment. While this allowed him to secure a base of support within the imperial court and to restrict the amount of dissidents within the government, this also prompted numerous cases of corruption and incompetence. Li Young had also created a national census system, and a tracking system based on wooden tags to effectively collect taxes and monitor the movement of people. However, in 1717, Li Young had fell ill to malaria. With his death seemingly preeminent, he was coerced into picking a heir apparent early by his wife. He picked his third and youngest child, Princess Li Rin, a selection which was strikingly controversial as she was a female (typically male heirs are prioritized, and she had two elderly brothers). Furthermore, she was not even within the age of maturity, just being merely seventeen at the time she was chosen. A result, many had (wrongfully) assumed she was incompetent and ill-fitted to rule.

Initially, the court was forced to comply or face with the prospect of being purged. However, as Li Young succumbed to his disease and Li Rin was coronated as the Empress shortly after, the court became vocal about their concerns and rejected her authority. Two opposing sides were drawn; those who had sided with Li Rin, and the opposition that wished to instate Prince Li Wei (the eldest of the former monarch's children) as the Emperor. Surprisingly, many of his supporters were high-ranking officials that had been favoured by the former Emperor. Seeing the polarization of her court as a threat to her power, she initiated the "Second Literati Purges", where she ordered the systematic execution of the oppositional faction and their proponents under charges of treason.

This decree galvanized the oppositional faction, forcing them to act preemptively. Li Wei brought a thousand-man army comprised of peasants (mostly volunteers accepting bribes) on the gates of the imperial residences in attempt to force the Empress to step down from her position. Placing a body-double temporarily and de jure in-charge, she and supportive court members fled the palace and travelled to southern Li Han. She came back after a week, discovering that her palace has been ransacked and her body-double had been exposed and subsequently killed. Exploiting her absence and the resultant power vacuum, Li Wei had placed himself on throne. She eventually poisoned him posing as one of his royal consorts.

Reign of Li Rin

See also: Li Rin
Yi Hyorin

A special portrait of Li Rin in 1774, two years prior to her death, painted by a visiting Englishman.

Once regaining her throne, Li Rin implemented laws that meant to cement the royal legitimacy of the House of Li. While she reluctantly reestablished a rather strained tributary relationship with the Qing, she refuted the their position as the legal successor of the Ming, as much as to revise family records to support her claim. She also adopted the Mandate of Heaven, and briefly claimed sovereignty over China. Noticing how her aristocratic subjects had polarized after her father's death, she switched to a policy of maintaining support among the commoners. Corvée labour was outlawed and instead replaced it with a head tax system used to hire labourers. As a result, the serf caste was abolished, with serfs subsequently emancipated into the peasantry. As part of the land reform, former serfs were given parcels of land.

In 1720, she and her scholar court formulated and enforced an assimilationist policy that coerced minorities to submit under Han culture. A law was passed that pointed out that only those of Han ancestry were eligible to be appointed bureaucratic positions. She also declared the Hanyang dialect of the Han language as the lingua franca (over Mandarin which had been previously standardized by chuugwourin diaspora), an edict facilitiated by the promulgation of Hanji (which had been banned previously) and the first grammatical conventions. However, her early rule was marked by financial strain. Initially, she maintained the isolationist policy and instead seized properties to fill the depleting national treasury. After attempting to rely on copper coinage and low-value paper money, she instead was forced to forge cordial trading relations with European trading powers, mainly its erstwhile adversary Spain. After negotiations, the port of Shinan was declared a free trade zone between the two. Reinvigorated foreign trade remonetized what was previously a stagnant economy, and the medium of transactions shifted to silver coinage.

Hanyangyidynasty

A painting dating to 1796, depicting the shores of Hanyang proper where the embassies of many foreign partners are built.

Lidecadence

With luxury consumption being patronized by the state, alongside an excessive abundance in both silver and copper coinage and bullion, Li society was perceived as decadent and overtly luxurious by many foreigners.

However, foreign trade had only boomed until the Qing enacted the Canton policy in 1756, which restricted all maritime trade affairs to Guangdong. The Li, being a tributary, was exempted and was given preferential trade status. As a result, Li Rin capitalized on this and sold lucrative goods (such as tea, silk, manufactures and porcelain) at lower prices than what was offered in China. Being an autarky, this resulted in a wide trading surplus in-favour of the Li, as a result, the national treasury had reported a wealth and excess in silver bullion. Vigorous trade had also permitted the spread of Columbian Exchange, with maize, chili peppers, and corn being introduced cultivate en-masse in large communal plots of land. While the enlarged role of commercial market and merchant guilds (which had began to acquire political influence) troubled the court, the heterodoxy popularized by Li Rin had introduced an accommodating attitude which was crucial in deterring a reemergence in isolationism.

In 1768, at the age of sixty-eight and after fifty years of holding the title as Empress, Li Rin choose to abdicate from the throne in anticipation of her death. The eldest child out of her four children, and the designated heir apparent, Li Chang, was coronated as the Crown Prince. As he was still at the tender age of fifteen, Li Rin took the role as regent. However, she continued to exert large influence over the state-council and national policies, thus maintaining de facto rule.

Reign of Li Chang and Li Dang

The reign of Li Chang saw the continuation of the success under Li Rin.

Later Li period

Political strife

Sarado policy

Unequal treaties with Europe

Li Han Rebellion

Huang reforms

Han–Sierran War

In 1898, Emperor Li Huang, who headed the progressive faction of the imperial court, passed away. As a result, Empress consort Mei Ling became the regent, receiving administrative powers in-place of their seven-year old son. As she was a major proponent of the conservative faction, she ceased modernization programs and expelled foreign influence from Hani; reestablishing the isolationist policies of the past while nullifying several key unequal treaties with foreign powers, but in-practice they remained in-place.

Seeking rapprochement with its erstwhile client state, Sierra sent emissaries to Hanyang to sort out relations. Having trespassed and ignored the new isolationist policy, the Empress executed the emissaries alongside a thousand martyred Christian converts, some of which are foreign missionaries. This received international condemnation, and thus, Hani faced numerous trade sanctions that crippled its export-based economy. The few journalists that had documented the atrocities also helped fuelled anti–Han sentiment among the Sierran public, and helped the Sierran government review its approach with the increasingly hostile pariah state.

HanSierranWar

Sierran soldiers escorting displaced Hans to concentration camps

Sierra eventually listened to public pressure, launching an invasion which came to be known as the five-year long Han–Sierran War. Regent Mei Ling used the war effort as an excuse to purge the imperial court of political dissidents; mainly members of the progressive faction. Initially maintaining a firm stalemate, over time, Sierran forces managed to seize important ports. Whilst Hani experienced a substantial degree of industrialization, it still lacked the ability to mass-produce weaponries, and instead was coerced to rely on its trading powers for weaponries. Furthermore, the national treasury became drained of bullion reserves to peg its floating currency, which experienced chronic hyperinflation and forcing the government into effective bankruptcy. However, the Great Han core, had not faced any incursions until the final two years of the campaign.

In 1905, the regent Mei Ling committed suicide alongside two other prominent leaders General Fu Jin and General Cheng Wan, after failing to preserve Hanyang. As a result, twelve-year old Li Min ascended to the throne with full administrative powers. The collapse of the bureaucratic institutions, coupled with the delegitmization of royal power, triggered the mass-scale capitulation and defection among the Han army. Li Min's uncle temporarily assumed title as regent; signing his abdication papers and under the Emperor's approval signing the Han Treaty of Capitulation, concluding the conflict.

Sierran colonial period

Sierranoccupation

A picture depicting Sierran colonial officials shooting peasants that had been protesting for forceful seizure of land without payment.

In 1905, following the lengthy Han–Sierran War, Sierra successfully annexed Hani under the Han Treaty of Capitulation. However, the legality of the treaty had been disputed, with many Han bureaucrats treating it as invalid as the monarch (the recently deceased Empress Dowager Mei Ling) did not apply the royal seal.

One of the first reforms was the abolishment of the caste system, which triggered the outflow of Han bureaucrats to Japan and China. This power vacuum allowed the Sierran colonial authorities to easily seize power. Furthermore, the taxation system was heavily revamped, with large tracts of land being stolen from former bureaucrats and with tenant farmers being evicted. Apart from the introduction of initial reforms, the first stage of the Sierran colonial period was focused on the integration of the House of Li. Albeit with vastly reduced powers, they were kept as the de jure head of state. However, members of the house were placed under house-arrest in the Naragi palace in Hanyang, and had to receive formal permission to exit the premises. In addition, the members were often separated and barred from being placed within the same room apart from special occasions and the shooting of Sierran political films.

In 1909, four years into colonial rule, the colonial government launched an attempt to fuse the Han royalty as a subordinate cadet branch of the Sierran House of Columbia. These intermarriages were widely publicized, but those who had resisted the offer were forcefully ripped of their titles. Many royals thus reluctantly married at a young age, and practiced strict endogamy to preserve the purity of the royal bloodline. In 1914, the selected heir apparent, Crown Princess Li Qin, announced her marriage to a Sierran royal. This sparked wide criticism, but domestically and within Sierra. Many also accused of the marriage of being an orchestrated imperialist plot to terminate the royal lineage, as documents were leaked of his infertility.

April7thmovement

About an estimate five million Hans had participate in protests. About two million activists were jailed, with fifty thousand activists executed.

This triggered the independence rallies and strikes, culminating in the largely peaceful April 7th Movement in 1915. In face of the protests, the Sierran government forcefully ousted them out of the Imperial Palace; which was then symbolically burnt to ashes and replaced with a garden commemorating Sierran history. Many of the activists were jailed and tortured, with thousands publicly hanged. The House of Li subsequently found refuge in China and Japan where they were granted special status. In Japan, many members adopted Japanese citizenship and even were absorbed into their imperial family. Shanghai, which was host to a large Han diaspora, became a base of many Han independence activists

Roaring Twenties and Great Depression

During the First World War, Sierra had used Hani to occupy German colonial holdings in the Pacific, and therefor increasing control over the Pacific. As part of the Treaty of Versailles, the Caroline islands were transferred from Germany to Sierra. The period also saw the cementation of the Sierran Cultural Revolution (which turned Sierra from a monolithic to a fusionist culture), as many Hans emigrated to Sierra to study or to work.

The Roaring Twenties which quickly followed the war saw the softening of Sierran colonial rule, facilitated by the appointment of many pro–Sierran collaborationist Hans into the colonial government. Hanji, which was previously banned, was instated as the national script alongside romanji, or the usage of the Latin alphabet to transcribe Han. However, the latter was often preferred, with the former being marginalized in many texts. This coincided with the spread of modern education and literacy, which allowed literature and fiction to flourish. Christianity also grew rapidly in the number of adherents, facilitated by vigorous missionary activities conducted by Sierra, as well as its efforts to undermine its traditional Confucianist following.

From 1923 until 1931, Hans were also granted universal suffrage and were allowed to vote among specific pool of preliminary candidates to comprise their increasingly autonomous colonial government. However, the unanimously approved Peace Preservation Law was also enacted to target political groups that were counted as radical or detrimental to national security. The law also not only prescribed overtly harsh penalties on dissidents, but also justified the usage of brutality on them.

As a result of lax political freedoms combined with increased education attainment levels, interest Han nationalism and national historiography resurfaced, which had been present in an organized form since the late 19th century, but only had been popularized by the publishment of Rishun Hani ("History of Hani"), by author Bi Shang in 1924. Despite the book being banned and its author being jailed (later pardoned), it was still widely distributed covertly. Inspired by this, the Grand National Front (the precursor to the Grand National Party) was established under chairman Haru Meijing (which later became the first Premier of Hani). In the more industrialized South, the Han Communist Party was formed by disgruntled worker unions and orchestrated sporadic revolts in mainly Shinan and Zambwōn. Having been born out of a mutual ideology, and having the common goal of overthrowing Sierran rule, the two main revolutionary groups forged a tenuous alliance and partitioned the archipelago into two with Senban agreed as a future demarcation point.

Han Revolutionary War

The Great Depression in the early thirties hastened the progress of the Han state towards complete independence and decolonization. Labour unions bitterly opposed to the inflow of low-cost yet relatively high-quality goods into mainland Sierra, which effectively competed with Sierran-made products. This, along with the financial burden of having to support a colony perceived to be capable of self-government, the public realization of the atrocities coinciding with the Sierran occupation of the islands, and other factors mounted to growing public opposition to continued Sierran presence.

However, the Sierran government was still reluctant to lose its grip over the Pacific, as it saw its Han colonies to be a major source of revenue, and a bulwark against perceived Japanese imperialist ambitions, especially after the Japanese conquest of Manchuria following the infamous Mukden Incident. To satisfy the calls of the public, the Sierran Parliament passed the Han Absorption Act in 1934, which aimed to incorporate Hani as a constituent state within ten-years, maintaining assimilationist policies and implementing trade tariffs between the two. Whilst drafted with the aid of collaborationist Hans, the general Han public rejected it.

In 1936, two groups pro-independence groups; the Socialist Party, and the Nationalist Party, briefly unified into a single coalition. Initially wielding insufficient resources, it attracted a massive number of defectors from the Sierran colonial army. It also received funding and monetary donations from pro-independence households. From its declared seat of government at Kafuga, the Grand National Party incited rebellion through radio broadcasts alongside the distribution of leaflet pamphlets promoting disobedience among colonial subjects.

In December of that year, the Nationalist Army, comprised of three-hundred thousand volunteers and defectors, declared war against the the waning grip of Sierran rulers. Within weeks, the army overran defences and occupied the entirety of Beido north of Hanyang. Seeking to avoid humanitarian damage, as had occurred in the Han–Sierran War, the Governor–General declared Hanyang to be an open city, with defending forces withdrawing to the Bataan peninsula before finally retreating to Corregidor. Striving to later stage a naval offensive, the weak supply lines sapped strength, and eventually the defending forces were ousted from the islands.

Overwhelmed, the Sierran government reluctantly agreed to Han terms of surrender as stated by the Hanyang declaration, concluding the Han Liberation War. Whilst the colony was granted full and unconditional independence, and both maintained relations (under the common goal of containing Japan), Hani allowed the concession of Palawan and Cuyo to persist; as over 32-years of rule had radically modified its socio-economic climate.

World War II

Cold War

Han Civil War

Initial isolationism

After the Han Civil War, the government of Hani was virtually bankrupt due to the disastrous war campaign (as the government initially refused aid from interested foreign parties). Despite efforts by the government to crush down leftist dissent, it still persisted, mainly based within the Hanyang metropolitan area and the liberalized leftist southern provinces.

In July 6, 1950, Premier Jin Li died under natural causes at the age of seventy. His death left a power vacuum. The ensuing political chaos prompted First Deputy Gou Miao to assume the role of acting Premier, imposing a state of martial law and abolishing habeas corpus; which enabled him to jail and execute several political opponents, which included associates of the former head of government. He passed through several constitutional amendments which made the Premier an indirectly-appointed position, as well as abolished the established two-term limit. A provisional government was established to secure a smooth transition, but was dismantled after the 1951 parliamentary elections.

Premier Gou Miao severed all formal foreign relations, causing the withdrawal of foreign aid and capital flight en-masse; causing the economy to experience an unprecedented downturn. This was excarbated by the lack of reserves to stabilize the value of the Han currency, resulting in hyperinflation. In response, his administration drafted an economic policy of autarky-oriented import substitution-industrialization. Whilst he minimalized the role of the state in economics–adopting a laissez-faire approach, he implemented further land reform by distributing out parcels of previously government-owned cultivatable land.

Due to increasingly repressive and authoritarian measures taken to surpress communism, coupled with poor economic policies resulting in widespread destitution, the public began to lose faith within the administration. The 1955 parliamentary elections was suspected to be rigged in-favour of the then-incumbent administration, as the administration had won by a landslide and all its members being re-elected. In contrast, most independent polls and voting counts clearly displayed the opposite.

In March 18, 1958, a military coup occurred.

Rapprochement with the West

The Morihua Revolution (known in the West as the Jasmine Revolution), spearheaded by Major General Tchang Shuuying ousted the former administration, putting an end to its increasingly lenient and plutocratic style of rule. Convinced that the poor socio-economic conditions caused by inadequate and underfunded reconstruction programs would cause the country to lapse into communism, Tchang Shuuying utilized his newly-acquired authority to dissolve the powerless National Assembly, and a coalition of military officers was established to serve as a substitute legislative body.

The military junta declared that anti-communism would lay the basis of a new national foreign policy, ending a decade of pursued self-imposed isolationism. It severed ties with anti-American states including the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China in-favour of reestablishing cordial relations with the members of the Conference of American States, normalizing its diplomatic relationship with Sierra via the Treaty on Basic Relations in-exchange for reparations for atrocities and damage inflicted during the colonial era (including forced labour and the seizure of property without consent)–a sum of approximately $2.400 billion (in 1958 dollars), or approximately $20.3 billion in modern monetary value. Asides from financial compensation, Sierra promise to grant free college tuition to scholars for the next eight years, facilitating the reversal of the human capital flight experienced during the turmoil of the fifties, and the creation of a highly-skilled and Western-friendly labour force.

Tchang Shuuying reinstalled a civilian government two years succeeding the implementation of military rule. He held free elections and supported government transparency, winning by a wide margin of fifty percent over the opposition leader. However many leftist politicians were purged during the preceding two year interim period, leaving most leftover politicians to be former military officers. Following his landslide victory, he instituted a parliamentary system (instead of the semi-presidential system pioneered by the previous government), and removed restrictions on term length, guaranteeing him a life-long presidential tenure. Since he viewed the monarchy as a threat to his power, he repressed their powers and rendered them as marginalized figureheads, exploiting them as to provide stability to the fledgeling government.

Heavy Industrial Drive

The administration constructed a centrally-planned export-oriented market economy based upon the practices of East Asian capitalism. Hani utilized the abundance of cheap yet abundant labour as the catalyst for economic development; which were laid out through various economic plans prioritizing the development of heavy industries. In addition, it was rich in human capital, already holding a relatively high educational attainment, especially for the region and compared to countries espousing a similar level of socio-economic development. Hani for example, displayed universal primary schooling and a majority literate population. Financial capital was considered also a pre-requisite for such rapid and ambitious development, so the regime graciously allowed direct-foreign investment and eagerly accepted the influx of financial aid. Furthermore, a select group of businesses engaged primarily in heavy industries were selected by the government. These businesses were granted low-interest loans and numerous tax benefits from the banking sector (monopolized and nationalized by the state-owned Han Central Bank), and under government supervision and guidance grew into large international business conglomerates known as Qianzu, which were mainly family-owned and privatized.

As a result, the Second Economic Plan yielded favourable results, consistently breaching goals in spite of allegations of deliberate inflation of the results. The industrial sector rose rapidly, aided by the massive demand for labour-intensive manufactured goods in Western and Japanese markets. Workers began to congregate in urban areas (particularly the emerging Hanyang megacity) where the majority of industrial facilities and employment opportunities were situated in, causing a massive brain drain within rural communities. In order to facilitiate the modernization campaign, the Confucianist work ethic was instilled, with many workers serving long working hours as a result. To maximize labour participation, women were encouraged to work as well, which coincided with the two-child policy and the breakdown of traditional family roles. These and other efforts promoting the full usage of idle resources maximized gross economic output.

However, despite rapid economic overhaul under the capitalist model and attempts to restrict and censor leftist material, pro-socialist movements began growing in popularity by the late 60s, becoming a minuscule but vocal minority. This was in response to growing social and regional wealth disparities, as the agrarian southern provinces often lagged in development and failed to achieve comparable gains made by the northern provinces. The government's legitimacy was also challenged by its deep involvement in the Vietnam War; while the government saw this as an opportunity to prove loyalty to Sierran politicians skeptic of Han cooperation, and to justify an increasingly militaristic foreign policy, many also viewed it unnecessary to intervene in Indochinese affairs especially when Hani itself has just finished reeling itself from its own civil war. In response to mounting public scrutiny, the majority of active Han forces serving in Vietnam withdrew in 1973, a move mirroring the policy of Vietnamization pioneered by Anglo–America. In face of the ramifications of a communist victory and the newly-asserted Pawnee Doctrine, Hani was additionally encouraged to soften its image to the communist China, eventually normalizing bilateral relations, and establishing a consulate (then a full-fledged embassy) situated in Fuzhou. As part of the agreement, Hani recognized their independence and supported their membership in the League of Nations, in-spite of the continued Han recognition of Hainan as a separate polity.

Political turmoil

By 70s, the public, for the most part, became increasingly ambivalent to politics, while the administration grew to become increasingly factionalized and divided. While the executive branch remained faithful to the commands of Prime Minister Tchang, the legislative branch became infiltrated by leftist elements and grew to dislike the increasingly authoritarian regime. In 1972, the Constitutional Convention occurred, with Prime Minister Tchaang seeking to establish a one-party government, with candidates of the Nationalist Party and its minor affiliates only being able to run for elections. However, an overwhelming majority of the legislature voted against this, leading to the declaration of martial law in September 27, 1972, with the subsequent suspending of the constitution. Meanwhile, the implementation of habeas corpus enabled him to arrest his political opponents, and in extreme cases he hired hitmen to assassinate them. He dissolved the National Diet and thereby assumed total control of the legislative process, passing and abolishing laws at whim. Public surveillance, and other efforts to monitor the movement of people, such as compulsory identification tags, were also implemented.

The 1973 Oil Crisis revealed the flaws of such an export-oriented economic model, as the Han economy began to falter after contracting financial contagion from its Western markets (which suffered coinciding recession and inflation, later called stagflation). However, growth persisted and even accelerated under authoritarian rule. In order to maintain such stellar growth, more interest-free loans and credit were handed out. However, such a liberal fiscal policy led to the rise of chronic inflation, with many consumers unable to purchase goods other than basic necessities, capping the domestic market. It also resulted in a rise in non-performing loans and mounting bad debt. This also troubled foreign investors, which threatened to withdraw their financial support should their loans not be repaid. Wary of financial collapse caused by the sudden retraction of foreign capital, the government increased tax rates while simultaneously cutting down unnecessary government projects and abolishing extraneous ministries. Utilizing this increased tax revenue, the government covertly paid off these debts.

Establishment of '87 constitution

Post-reunification period

Geography

Hani is an archipelago comprised of numerous islands. It is bordered by the East China Sea to the north, the Han sea (East Han Sea) to the east, the South China Sea (West Han Sea) to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred miles southwest while China is located directly to the northwest. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest. The Han home island islands, otherwise known of Hani proper (comprised of three island groups; Beido, Chuudo, and Namdo), has a total of 7,107 islands with a total area of 300,000 km2 (115,831 sq. mi).

Mount-apo

Mount Apo, an active stratovolcano, is currently the second highest point in Hani, and the highest within Hani proper.

The highest point in Hani is Mount Yushan; located on the island of Taiwan, it measures up to 3,952 meters (12,966 feet) above sea level. In contrast, Galathea Depth in the Han Trench is the deepest point in Hani and is the third deepest point in the world with a depth of more than 10,540 metres (34,580 feet). The trench is located in the Han sea. The longest river is the Gaya river which is located in the Gaya governorate. Its basin measures at a 27,280 km2 (10,533 sq. mi) while having a total length of 505 km2 (314 sq. mi). Hanyang Bay, which is next to the capital city of Hanyang, is connected to its largest lake, Lake Baiya, via the Pashigi River.

Hani is situated on the Western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, and as a result, Hani experiences common seismic and volcanic activity, with up to twenty earthquakes registered daily. Fortunately, an overwhelming majority of these earthquakes are too weak to be felt or to pose a threat to the island's safety. Not all geographic features are so violent or destructive, an example of one of the most serene legacies of the geologic disturbances is the Puerto Princessa Subterranean River, which is one of the new Seven Wonders of Nature. The surrounding area is a major target of conservation efforts, as it is one of the few largely untouched places in Hani, and contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and a high endemism rate.

Being located in the tropics, most of the islands, with the notable exemption of Beido (which is dominated by flatlands and urban agglomerations), are covered in thick tropical rainforest and are mainly volcanic in origin. As a result of its volcanic nature, Hani has the second-largest gold deposits globally, one of the largest copper deposits, but is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Hani is the world's largest geothermal producer, providing roughly a fourth (approximately twenty-four percent) of the country's electricity demand.

Climate

Hani has a tropical maritime climate, and is usually hot and humid. Temperatures usually range from 21ºc (70ºf) to 32ºc (90ºf) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.

Altitude typically is the most significant factor in regional variations in temperature, rather than location in terms of latitude or longitude. For example, the average yearly temperature in Kafugwai, which is at an elevation of around 1,5000 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level is 18.3ºc (64.9ºf). In contrast, the average yearly temperature at sea level is about 26.6ºc (79.9ºf).

Situated directly upon the typhoon belt, the archipelago receives yearly torrential rains and thunderstorms during the wet season, which lasts from July to October. An average of nineteen typhoons enter the Han area of responsibility annually, with about eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.

Climate data for Hani
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.3 25.3 26.1 27.0 27.3 26.8 26.5 26.3 26.3 27.3 26.0 25.5
Precipitation mm (inches) 147.8 99.4 97.2 93.3 188.4 235.9 286.6 273.1 269.4 273.7 257.7 226.7 2,449.2
Source: Han Institution for Climate and Meteorology

Administrative divisions

Hani proper, a region comprising the Han archipelago, is divided into eight constituent states known as governorates, which are in turn divided into prefectures, component cities, and special cities (which serve as the administrative capitals for their respective governorates). All of these prefectures and equivalent prefecture-level equivalents are further divided into sub-entities including counties, districts, towns, neighbourhoods, villages, and hamlets.

Governorates enjoy a degree of autonomy in internal affairs and decisions, but are subject under the constitution and may be reorganized or dissolve per the discretion of the legislature. Each governorate is led by an elected Governor, who is obligated to enforce both federal and local laws. Prefectures and prefecture-level equivalents are headed by the Lead Chairman, which is the highest attainable rank in the municipal council.

Hanyanggei

Taiwan

Parawan

Little Netherlands

Hobun

Bosan

Kagaya

Haiban

Sukubo

Kienan

Mushilin

Government and politics

The Great Han Empire is a asymmetrically-federal one party-dominant representative democratic constitutional monarchy espousing a semi-presidential system; in which the monarch is the designated head of state, while the Prime Minister serves as the head of government (leading the executive branch) as well as being a member of the legislative branch. However, the Prime Minister is elected through popular vote (instead of electoral college), with a fixed term length of six years with a maximum tenure of three terms, as opposed to commanding the confidence of the Parliament. Upon breaching this limit, the Prime Minister is barred from holding office.

The legislative body is the bicameral National Diet, which consists of two chambers: the Senate (with a total of eighty seats) and the National Congress (a total of three-hundred seats). Voting is compulsory, with all adults aged twenty-one and above being granted universal suffrage. All congressmen are elected through popular vote (with a secret ballot for all elected offices), however senators are appointed by the Prime Minister. The National Diet dissolved once every six years, with all its members applicable for term renewal.

The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court. While it is the highest court in the country, it only has appellate jurisdiction over appeals cases relating to general and criminal law. The Constitutional Court has original jurisdiction surrounding any cases that involve constitutionality, having also additional powers on deciding cases regarding administrative legislation.

Monarchy

The Han royal status is passed hereditarily through both patrilineal and matrilineal lines. He/she have constitutional limitations placed on their power. However, he/she is still granted privileges associated with the royal prerogative, including the right to declare war, negotiating and ratifying treaties (under the discretion of the Premier, of course), issue passports, and create or dissolve government offices. In addition, the monarch may exercise the act of assent (which is essential for bills from Parliament to pass) and the issuance of edicts. Wielding the crown, Han royalty also represents the embodiment of the Han people and their will; a concept that plays an instrumental role within Han nationalism.

The royal house of Hani is the House of Li, which was established in by General Li Young, but it was forced to abdicate by the end of the Han–Sierran War in 1905. They were restricted under house arrest and were afterwards forcibly expelled, until anti-colonial movements manifesting in the Han Liberation War and the Hanyang Convention resulting in their reestablishment as the royal house. However, it was not until the end of the First Han Civil War that they had been officially coronated. The current monarch is Empress Li Meiyu, who is also its seventeenth sovereign. The designated royal residences is the Han Imperial Palace in Hanyang, though they own five other palaces, with other minor palaces previously under their ownership being designated as publicly-owned national sites.

Military capabilities

Hani wields the fourth-most powerful military in the world according to both the Military Power Index and the Global Firepower Index. It traditionally has been non-interventionist and defence-oriented, though the Second Cold War has prompted it to increase military intervention abroad. The national annual military budget comprises about three percent of its gross domestic product, with the prime focus being on the manufacturing of aircraft, missile, and naval technology. While it has signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, it has newly developed nuclear weaponry and owns a small stockpile. However, this is used as a deterrent rather than a tactical weapon.

The Ministry of Defense and Public Security is responsible for the coordination of Hani's defence and military capabilities, and is based, with all federal government branches, in the Imperial district of Hanyang. The armed forces of Hani is divided into four branches; the Han People's Army, the Han People's Air Force, the Han People's Navy, and the Han People's Coast Guard, all of which are collectively known as the Han Crown Armed Forces. As the role of the monarchy is to embody state, the members of the Han military swear loyalty and allegiance to the monarch as well as the Han people.

Military service is a voluntary manner, but conscription occurs during times of war. During times of war, all able-bodied and men between the ages of 20 and 22 are automatically drafted. Those who have moral objections may receive other options, such as being a medical personnel or engineer. As of today, Hani has over two million combined active military and reserve personnel. The reserve personnel of Hani predominantly consists of ex-conscripts with an obligation to undertake three days of training annually.

Foreign relations

It is the founding member of the League of Nations and is its most influential Southeast Asian member, even applying for permanent membership in the United Nations security council. Hani is also active in other organisations, representing the interests of the Han people. It has membership in, but not limited to, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation, the East Asia Summit, the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and holds observer status within the Conference of American States. Most embassies and diplomatic missions are in Hanyang and the areas surrounding it, though consulates are dispersed among Hani's major cities.

Hani also has military and defense pacts with nations, mostly with members of the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, though it, until the turn of the twenty-first century, has been largely interventionist in global military affairs. Even now, instead of participating directly in conflicts as a different side, it just sends aids that act under the wing of a separate polity.

Economy

Hanyang

The skyline of Hanyang; Hani's capital and most populous city.

Hani is designated as a highly developed economy, graduating from its status as a newly industrialized country in the eighties. It has a strong credit rating, though it is prone to damage due to a recent strain in West–Han relations and regional instability. According to estimates from the World Bank Organization, Hani's economy at power purchasing parity stood at roughly $5.76 trillion whilst its economy at market exchange rates stood at $4.9 trillion. This would make it ranked third and fourth globally according to which method is chosen. It is the largest economy within Southeast Asia, and the second-largest in Asia. A major economic power, it is a member of many economic organisations, including G20, G7, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), World Trade Organization (WTO), and the the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Hani's economy is driven by the production and exportation of high-tech precision goods such as consumer electronics, semiconductors, fine machinery, and petrochemicals, and is the world's third-largest exporter after China and Germany. Despite its wide-scale economic involvement in other regions, it is a well-known practicer of protectionism, placing high tariffs and has trading quotas on foreign imports to limit competition with domestically produced goods. It also practices some unfair trading practices, including currency manipulation to keep exports cheap. However, this does not stop it from being the fifth-largest importer as its economy relies on lots of petroleum, raw materials such as coal, timber, and agricultural goods to meet local food demands. Its main trading partners include members of the Conference of American States (mainly Sierra, and the United Commonwealth), China, and the European Union.

The Han market economy is considered to follow the East Asian model of capitalism. It is a centrally-planned economy, with certain central sectors being fully nationalised and publicly-owned. The secondary sector is dominated by privately-owned large-scale business conglomerates known as chanzu, which are similar to the chaebol of Korea and the keiretsu of Japan. Meanwhile, the tertiary sector is dominated by privately small to medium-sized corporations. The nationalized Han Central Bank is the sole legal bank, lowering or raising the national interest rate to control inflation and unemployment.

Economic history and growth

From its founding until the military coup d'état in the late fifties, Hanyi operated under a strict command economy that pivoted around the policy of self-reliance. However, during the sixties, the economic policy shifted to an export-led industrialization model, which, coupled with unequal protectionist policies promoted the balance of payments. Two of the most critical and earliest reforms included the dismantlement of agricultural collectivization, and reorganization of many state-owned enterprises into privatized family-owned conglomerates. Initially facing a severe lack of funds, the Han economy began to receive a massive inflow of reparations from Sierra following the normalization of foreign relations, as well as receiving direct-foreign investment from foreign companies.

Economic development was organized under five-year economic plans, which emphasized the development of the heavy industrial sector, including the steel, shipbuilding, automobile-manufacturing, and petrochemical industries. To facilitiate economic expansion, banks (which were nationalized and publicly-owned) handed out interest-free loans and cheap credit. It also included the expansion of human capital (especially education), basic infrastructure, and full efficient utilization of all available and idle resources. This led to a prolonged economic boom–referred to the Miracle on the Chuu River–which lasted well after the ousting of the repressive military junta. This period oversaw an average of seven percent economic growth, rapidly catapulting Hanyi into the status of a developed country and a major economic juggernaut.

The severity upon it was hit during Asian Financial Crisis revealed structural weaknesses in the Han economy, including the rigidity of central planning and a weak social welfare system, as well as signalled a shift to consumption-based growth. These problems manifested on the aftermath of the Global Recession, while Hanyi avoided economic contraction, it did not escape an economic slump as the rate for economic expansion began to mature and slow amid troubles with a domestic credit troubles coupled with weakening international demand for its exports.

Trade

Infrastructure

Labour

Hanworker

A Han worker working in a semiconductor factory owned by the Han conglomerate Sanbit.

Workers' rights are both enshrined and entrenched in the Han Constituition, and as a result, Han labourers enjoy one of the highest working standards and wages within the region. The Han minimum wage is at $7.5 every hour, or $15,000 annually, and with the exception of temporary workers, receive benefits that include health insurance and subsidised tuition fees for their children (if they have any).

Working hours are traditionally long; an excess of more than 1,800 hours annually (or eight hours per day), with the working week being from Monday to Friday. This long working time is a result of the government's attempt to facilitate economic expansion–despite increased labor costs and a decline in the working-age population–through heightened productivity per worker, higher employment, and the mechanisation of non-skilled labour. However, in response to several key problems brought by this long working period, the current administration has established a campaign that aims to lower working hours to 1,200 (a decrease of 1/3) hours a day within a 10-year transitionary period.

Many problems stem from the long working hours, including reported incidences of deaths in which workers were pushed to suicide or heart attacks/strokes brought by stress, an issue also prevalent in nearby Korea, Japan, and South Vietnam. It is also largely responsible for the country's low birth rate, prompting the government to introduce efforts to facilitate child rearing by subsidising child care services.

Currency

The Han chan (Sign: or ¢; Code: HNC) is the official currency of Hani. It is divided into zen by a ratio of 1/100, and further divided into mun by a ratio of 1/1,000. The chan is largely issued in the form of banknotes, with coins becoming increasingly obsolete due to their low value coupled with rising consumer prices. A result of Hanyi's miraculous economic expansion, the chan has emerged as the world's third-most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the American dollar ($) and the Euro (€). A low inflation rate and value has led to its candidacy as a potential global reserve currency and is currently going further internationalisation in case either dollar or the euro crashes.

Demographics

Population

Ethnic composition 1990 2000 2010 2015
Han
86.8% 86.7% 86.6% 86.8%
Musilin
5.0% 5.0% 5.0% 5.1%
Yifugao
2.2% 2.0% 1.8% 1.7%
Liumade
1.0% 1.1% 1.2% 1.3%
Chinese
1.2% 1.2% 1.0% 1.0%
Other
1.8% 2.9% 2.4% 2.1%
Foreign expatriates
or permanent-residents
2.0% 2.2% 2.0% 2.0%
Hanyang

Hani is an urbanized country, with approximately eighty percent of its population residing in urban centres, including Hanyang (pictured above)

Han women cheongsam

Two Han women wearing cheongsam, a popular straight close-fitting dress whose origins were in China, but were developed in Hani during the the Roaring Twenties

In 2012, the Han National Census Bureau has officially-counted a total of 149,075,917 residents, rising marginally to an estimated 151,121,525 residents in 2017; both the figures include citizens and foreign-born permanent residents. The population is highly centralized on the island of Liusong, which is home to above a hundred million people, with three-quarters (about 78 million) residing within the Greater Chuu plain. The largest ethnicity are the Hans which comprise roughly six-sevenths of the total population.

In addition, there are over three million foreign expatriates (comprising almost three percent of the total population); the largest enclaves are found in the territories of Palawan, Buhuru, and Little Netherlands, with the rest evenly-dispersed among major cities. However, this is attributed to historical Sierran settlement rather than recent immigration, as restrictive emigration policies have stalled repatriation attempts. Many eventually assimilated and became recognized as naturalized permanent residents; albeit reduced to the legal status of second-class citizens. Due to the recent laxity and liberalization of immigration laws, there has been an influx of a second wave of migrants, most of which are either mail-order brides or domestic workers from mainland Asia.

Citizenship and nationality are determined through the policy of jus sanguinis (right of blood); under Han law, any person with at least one legal parent of Han ancestry, regardless of place of birth and nationality can apply for citizenship. Introduced in the eighties, dual citizenship is typically reserved for foreign-born Hans that have resided within the country for a period of two years or more.

Vital statistics

In 1500, the archipelago had a recorded population of eight million, half of Japan's. Contemporary Hani has approximately almost twenty percent more people than Japan; with around 150 million people (almost a nineteen-fold increase) it is ranked eighth globally, ahead of Russia but behind Bangladesh.

Hani has chronic issue regarding low fertility rates; during much of the nineteenth century, it hovered between three to four births per woman. Even during the baby boom of the fifties, the fertility rate average was lower than the global average of five at the time. However, even this was higher than the replacement rate, which, coupled with low death rates, yielded high population growth during the nineteenth and early twentieeth centuries. During the early sixties, the population growth rate was very favourable, at over two per cent per annum. However, as urbanization occurred, the situation reversed. During the fifties, the fertility rate was five births per woman, in 2009, it reached a mere 1.08 births per woman–the lowest recorded of any major country. Fortunately pro-natalist policies has raised the fertility rate to 1.55 births per woman by 2017; lower than the French but higher than either the Japanese or the Germans. The current growth rate is roughly 0.3 percent per annum, but is predicted to start to stabilize by the late 2020s.

The low birth rate and a high life expectancy (an average of 82.5 years in 2016) has also contributed to rapid ageing, with the average age of a Han being forty years. About a tenth of Hans are elderly (being older than 65 years), but the proportion could rise to near 40 per cent by 2050. Hani has a high rate of centenarians (people 100 years old or older), with 47 centenarians per 100,000 people.

Language

The Han language is the official language and the lingua franca of Hani. Virtually all Hans have the ability to speak the said language (or its derivative varieties) and to write in the Hanji script with a high degree of fluency. Another twenty percent speak another Hannic language. The official global regulatory body of the Han language is the Commission on the Han language, which governs the proper usage of the Han language.

English is the second most prominent language as words of English origin are often incorporated into signs and media. While it is mandatory in secondary and postsecondary education, and most Hans have attained basic skills in English, its public usage is rather minimal. Other languages spoken within Hani are Ilocano, Bikolano, Tagalog, Igorot, but these are largely restricted to ethnic groups of their origin.

Religious affiliation

HanConfucianists

Confucianists performing a ritual; Confucianism has been repressed during Sierran colonial rule, in-favour of Christianity

According to its constitution, Hani is a secularized state with no officially-recognized state religion; instead it actively supports the separation of church and state and guarantees the free exercise of religion. The state legislature, the National Diet, is prohibited to pass any legislations regulating or promoting religious practices.

Confucianists are the majority, comprising almost three-fourths (approximately seventy percent) of the population; it is a nontheistic faith and pivots around a set of philosophical and ethical teachings developed by the philosopher Confucius. It is humanistic and rationalistic, and its beliefs are based upon the notion that humans are fundamentally benevolent; perfectible through both personal and communal endeavour. Buddhism is the second-largest faith, comprising seventeen percent of the population or constituting about twenty-five million adherents. While the three major branches–the Mahayana, Vajrayana, and Theravada sects–each have a notable presence, the latter is the most predominant.

Abrahamic religions that have notable followings include Christianity and Islam.

Christianity is the third-largest religion, comprising about eight percent of the total population or constituting about twelve million adherents. Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination, succeded by the non-trinitarian Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. Protestantism is not mainstream, with the Presbyterianism, Evangelicalism, and the Baptist tradition being the three largest Protestant churches. Church attendance rates are relatively high; with about two-thirds of registered Christians attending church on a weekly-basis, and virtually all attending on at least a monthly-basis.

Islam is a plurality within the south, comprising about three percent of the total population, translating to about roughly four million adherents. Most Muslims are followers of the Shafi'i branch of the Sunni sect.

The remaining two percent (or three million) have described themselves as either; spiritual but not religious, irreligious, agnostic, and/or atheist.

Family structure and law

According to the government census, the majority of Hans are either married or co-habitated (eighty-five percent). Two percent were widowed, six percent were divorced, and the remaining seven percent are currently not engaged in any sort of long-term relationship.

Family structure revolves around the deeply-rooted concept of a nuclear family, and is treated as the second most important societal unit after the collective community. Hani is traditionally a matrilocal society, and households are jointly-led by a matriarch and patriarch who exert similar levels of power. In the past, clans lived within the same proximity of each other, and the residents of each house represented up to four generations. However, urbanization has led to the growing irrelevance of clan relations, and the incidence of smaller families.

Marriage is traditionally described as a monogamous union between a man and a women, though the notion has been challenged recently by same-sex couples. Marriages revolving around incest, including cousin marriage (though relations between second cousins are permitted in special cases), is strictly forbidden. Polygamy is similarly outlawed and strictly-enforced laws regarding adultery and extramarital sexual affairs are in-place. All of these are classified as felonies by federal law, with felons receiving up to life imprisonment for breaking these offences.

Culture

Hani is sinicized, and thereby considered part of the East Asian cultural sphere. Historically, a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual region, a series of staunchly-enforced assimilationist policies has led to a vastly heightened level of cultural uniformity. As a result of resistance to Western colonialism (and introduced liberal or perceived immoral beliefs) and to counterbalance regionalism or secessionism, there is a rooted perception of a ancestry-based ethnic identity and patriotism, which rejects notions of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism, and strives for the stringent compliance to standard societal norms and expectations.

Han culture is often analyzed as staunchly authoritarian (thus espousing a considerable degree of elitism), socially-conservative, and humanistic. The bulk of its beliefs stem heavily from Confucianism, specifically the neo–Confucianist branch, a more secular form shedding spiritualistic elements adopted from Daoism and Buddhism. The ideology itself is based upon the notion that humans are inherently perfectible, with perfection being attainable through self-imposed or communal determination. Three main principles provide the underlying basis of Han culture. Firstly, the adherence to a strict moralistic and ethical code based on five revered virtues (collectively known as the Five Constants); sincerity, altruism, collectivism, filial piety and propriety. Secondly, promotion of societal order via the establishment of a explicitly-defined social hierarchy. And lastly, the emphasization of the four bonds (ruler to ruled, friend to friend, parent to child, and eldest to youngest).

In addition to the mainstream culture of Hani, there are various distinct subcultures, with the most prominent being the culture of Palawan, a specially-administered region which until recently, been a Sierran colony. Palawan culture is noticeably more heavily liberalized and cosmopolitan, as a result of cultural amalgamation with immigrants of other races and ethnicities.

Mass media

Television and radio

Han mainstream media is dominated by three major broadcasting companies: the state-owned National Broadcasting Service (NBS), and the privatized Hanyang Arts Corporation (HAC) and Hibiscus Network Company (HNC). Around 120 million Hans are subscribed to a cable, satellite, or other forms of television broadcasting. On average, a Han spends about two hours a day watching television programs (excluding time spent on computers, tablets, or other mobile devices). The number of hours is significantly higher among younger age cohorts, reaching as high as four hours among the 13–18 age group. Conversely, while the average Han only spends thirty minutes listening to radio programming, Hans use music-streaming services quite often with usage among younger Han reaching six hours.

Important genres of television include; romantic and historical dramas, news programs, documentaries, and variety and game shows. Shopping channels have become quite popular in recent years as well, and the models sometimes put on entertaining acts during product pitches. There is frequent censorship, and many foreign programs (notably Sierran television and Japanese anime) are banned to air on public television, with those permitted often designated to occupy late time-slots.

Print

Internet usage

Hani is a renowned world leader in internet connectivity and penetration, having the world's second-highest average internet connection speed at twenty megabits per second. It is the second country to achieve over fifty-percent broadband penetration per capita, and also to complete full conversion from dial-up to broadband. Since its launch, Hani has consistently ranked within the top five for the ICT Development Index. A poll conducted in 2014 showed that Hans spent approximately four hours online, additionally, according to a 2007 study, over ninety percent of Hans, or about 135 million people, utilize the internet on at least a weekly-basis.

The top level domain (cctld) for Hani is .hn, with the most popular websites in Hani (excluding search engines and web portals) in 2013 being the social media sites Whistler and Sumi, alongside the video-streaming site Viewer. Mainstream Western sites including Youtube and Facebook are seldom used, as much of their contents are either blocked (especially those critical of the regime) or unable to attract public attention.

Cinema

Music

Until the eighties, conservative trot and ballads dominated the music scene. However, the relaxation of restrictions implemented upon cultural imports resulted in the emergence of contemporary Han popular music (otherwise known as H-pop). The nascent genre was heavily influenced by J-pop, Europop, electropop (including other derivative forms of synth-pop), dance-pop, bubblegum pop and EDM. It is characterized by an abundance of audiovisual elements, performers and artists are typically part of a same-sex group (boy or girl bands) rather than being solo artists or duos.

The major music-recording companies in Hani are (listed in amount of revenue): Hanyang Entertainment (HYE), Southern Star Entertainment (SSE), and Chutsu Entertainment (CTE). Most music artists typically debut at a young age (ranging between sixteen to twenty-one), and undergo at least two years of vigorous training alongside their normal daily schedule.

Cosmetics and beauty standards

Han beauty standards are a distinctive part of Han culture, with Hanyi having the highest rate of cosmetic surgeries per capita. About a fifth of women aged 21–49 has had cosmetic surgery (with the most popular procedures being nose augmentation, jaw reduction, and rib removal), with men only comprising a tenth of clientele. Examples of Han beauty criteria include; a high-bridged nose, a small soft v-shaped face, double eyelids, and pale clear skin. Most of these features are thought to exemplify innocence and chastity.

It is a social norm for both and men to spend a lot on cosmetic products. Popular products include blemish balm creams, colour correction creams, essences, serums, exfoliating scrubs, and facial masks (which are intended to serve a lot of purposes). Many Han beauty products contain ingredients that are not included in Western products; including, tea tree oil, green tea extract, and snail cream. In addition to cosmetic products, beauty is said to be achievable through certain dietary or therapeutic practices, which are largely derived or influence from Chinese traditional medicine or local animist tradition.

Literature, philosophy, and the arts

Cuisine and dining

Han cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its humble origins to become highly fusionist, incorporating numerous Chinese (particularly the regional cuisine found in Guangdong and Fujian), Spanish, Indian and Japanese elements that had been adapted to locally-produced ingredients and palate. Seasoning is used heavily to add flavours; for example, garlic is used to enrich the taste and mask the scent of dishes utilizing entrails, while coconut milk and peppers are used in creamy dishes. Spices commonly used are ginger, chili peppers, and powdered black pepper. Other seasonings include soy sauce, oyster sauce, vinegar, salt, sugar, and rice wine. With the exception of coriander and spring onions, which are merely used as garnish, there is little to no usage of herbs.

Similar to other Asian countries, rice enjoys status as the staple grain and formulates the basis of a standard Han diet. However, sweet potatoes and maize, which have been introduced as part of the Columbian Exchange, has emerged as widely-used crops as well. Pork and chicken alongside seafood are the most heavily consumed meats, although Han cuisine readily uses any edible meats; including entrails, offal, and molluscs. Fruits including mangoes, bananas, avocados, and dragonfruit are rarely added into dishes, and instead consumed separately raw, while vegetables are typically boiled or stewed prior to consumption.

Dining is traditionally considered an important social activity that reinforces familial relations. Western-style utensils are seldom used, and instead dishes are consumed with the use of chopsticks, or when consuming the liquid contents of soups or stew, a Chinese-style spoon. Main course dishes are typically eaten with a variety of side-dishes, with confectionaries or sweet-drinks concluding meals. Alcoholic beverages may be ingested during meals, with spirits or beer consumed casually, while wine is typically reserved for formal settings.

Public holidays and celebrations

Footnotes

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