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Great Han Empire
帝国丿哈尼
Chigwo no Hani
Haniflag
Hanicoa
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
八丿省, 一丿人
Waro no shou, issou no rin
("Eight governorates, one people")
Anthem: 
大七ゝ了爱国小ゝ二
Dai nal aigwosan
("Great Patriotic song")
Oceania
Haniorthographic
Capital
and largest city
Hanyang
14°35′N 121°00′E
Official languages Han
Recognised regional languages Gayan, Solwounic, Shinan, Sukbo, Pangasinese, Bikolano
Ethnic groups (2010)
Demonym Han
Government Assymetric federal constitutional monarchy
• Empress
Li Meiyu
• Premier
Mao Zen
Legislature National Diet
Senate
National Congress
Independence from Sierra
• Hanyang Declaration
Feburary 2, 1945
Feburary 8, 1945 – September 5, 1948
• Royal promulgation
September 17, 1948
June 30, 1991
Area
• Total
337,900 km2 (130,500 sq mi)
Population
• 2016 estimate
? (9th)
• 2014 census
? (9th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 est. estimate
• Total
$5.76 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
?
GDP (nominal) 2016 est. estimate
• Total
$4.9 trillion (4th)
• Per capita
?
Gini (2015) positive decrease 38.5 (Medium)
Error: Invalid Gini value
HDI (2016) Green Arrow Up Darker 0.896 (Very high)
Error: Invalid HDI value
Currency Chang ( or ¢) (HNC)
Time zone Han Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ph (.哈尼)

Hani, officially known as the Great Han Empire (Han: 帝国丿哈尼, tr. Chigwo no Hani), is a sovereign state that consists of the Han home islands, Taiwan and other islands within its vicinity. An asymmetric federal constitutional monarchy, it is comprised of three territories and eight constituent states; each labeled as a governorate. Administrative power and wealth is mostly centralized in the Great Han core, comprising of the Hanyang metropolitan area and the Chuu plain; which account for half of the country's, and three-fourths of Lusong's population.

The metatarsal of the Callao Man is the oldest known human remnant within the islands, predating the Tabon Man by forty thousand years. However, modern Hans are descended from early Austronesian peoples (with an example being the Sa Huỳnh culture) from Taiwan, displacing and absorbing earlier arrivals. By the third century, port principalities known as barangay formed, and by at least the ninth century, groups of these had fused into feudalistic kingdoms. The most powerful of these was the Kingdom of Tondo, which capitalized on the Haijin policy of the Ming to monopolize regional trade routes. This allowed it to become a major thalassocratic power. Under Sultan Bolkiah, the Tondo–Bruneian War almost resulted in Tondo's capitulation until Ming intervention. It was subjugated as a protectorate, a decision partly forced by the Ming. Meanwhile, the power of the Lakandula, the ruling house, was greatly marginalized – becoming de facto vassals. However, over time the Ming relinquished its powers and allowed the local royalty to reassert authority.

In 1565, Spanish conquistadors, headed by explorer Miguel López de Legazpi landed off the city of Maynila. Treated hospitably at first, upon learning of their intent to claim the islands on behalf of Spain, the fleet was forced to leave. Tensions culminated in the Spanish–Han War, which ended in a Han victory. The Treaty of Li Han oversaw the establishment of clear maritime boundaries, and as such, Spanish oriental imperialism was restricted to Shonanmin and the islands south of it. During the mid-seventeenth century, thousands of refugees–mainly Ming royalists–migrated. These were known as Chuugwourin, the arrivals were not only influential in its development but also bolstered territorial legitimacy. However, this exacerbated the power struggle between the orthodox and reformist (who sought to impose Ming policies) factions, leading to the dissolution of Tondo and the start of the subsequent Warring States period.

By the eighteenth century, House of Li would establish the Li dynasty–styling it as the successor of the Ming. Under literati purges and the repression of noble privileges, the monarchy enjoyed little opposition. Its monarchs would establish a strongly meritocratic bureaucracy enforcing Confucian doctrines, leading to classical Hani's zenith. Capitalizing on the Canton system, it became a rich economy that focused on the exportation of lucrative goods like porcelain, silk, and tea. Due to high tariff and inflated prices, foreign traders developed a trading deficit but there was a sudden inflow of silver, making the dynasty disproportionately wealthy. However, the removal of repressive laws on the nobility (particularly the right to own private armies) posed a threat to the power of the imperial court. Furthermore, the Opium Wars resulted in the Qing opening more ports to European trade, reducing reliance on Hani to obtain Asian goods. To overcome internal problems, the isolationist Sarado policy was enacted.

Political strife among nobles competing for the favour of the monarch caused the Li Han Rebellion, a civil war that lasted for more than a decade. Extremely weakened, it was unable to resist European imperial powers. It would be subject to multiple unequal treaties before ultimately being annexed by Sierra following the Han–Sierran War. Hani would become a mere colony, with Sierran allies being given numerous concessions. Under the Great Depression, Sierran colonial authorities lost grip to two rival parties; the Grand National Party and the Han Worker's Party, with the former claiming to be the government-in-exile. The Hanyang Declaration formally asserted independence, however Japanese invasion threatened this. Inter-Han tensions eventually broke out in the First Han Civil War, with the peace treaties being nullified in several instances resulting in border skirmishes and war. However, the Suukbo Convention had resulted in the reunification of both governments and the establishment of a modern federal system.

Arising from the ashes of war, the Miracle on the Chuu plain catapulted the North (and later, the South) into developed country status. Hani ranks third on the Human Development Index within Asia. Having a highly educated and skilled workforce, it wields the world's third largest economy when measured in power purchasing parity. It has the world's third-fastest internet speed and smartphone penetration. Additionally, it also ranks highly on ICT Development and on the Bloomberg Innovation Index. It is an influential member of numerous key organizations; it is recognized as a major regional power, an emergent great power, and a potential superpower.

Etymology

Hans refer to the country as Hani (Hanji: 丷二, Hanzi: 哈尼; historically 韩一). This is the simplified contracted form, used for informal occasions, with the full term being Harigoku no Hani (蒂国丿哈尼). Locals often say the two terms with a rising pitch (part of the language's prosodic pitch system) to convey respect to the country.

The first aforementioned name emanates from the word Han (), which had originally been used to refer to the Chinese diaspora and their mixed descendants; groups collectively known as Chuugwourin. The term was widely popularized to refer to the entirety of all sinicized peoples during the early Li dynasty, partly driven by assimilationist policies. It was also popularized after the ascension of the Qing in place of the Ming. As many of the Hans rejected the dynastic change, not showing the same amount of geniality to the Qing when compared to the Ming, Li Young, the first monarch of the current House of Li, styled the Li as the true successors of the Ming. However, while the Qing did not recognised this and continued to refer to the Li by their official name, however Hani quickly grew popular and the official name was reserved for formal situations.

History

Prehistory

Main article: Han pre-history

The earliest evidence of human habitation is the 67,000-year-old metatarsal of the Callao Man in the northeast Gaya governorate, and the Angono Petroglyphs. However, the most widely accepted hypothesis on the peopling of the islands is the Out-of-Taiwan model, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan (which themselves are descended from the neolithic cultures of the Yangtze River Valley, such as the Liangzhu culture) began pouring into the islands starting 4000 BC–replacing and absorbing earlier arrivals.

SaHuynh6

The Sa Huỳnh culture produced lidded jars as shown above to keep the cremated remains of their dead–a practice indigenous to their culture

The first known culture was the Batangas jade culture; whose presence was evident by exquisitely crafted jade artifacts. Other early cultures include the precursors of the Ifugao and Igorot peoples, who built the Banaue rice terraces. Sa Huỳnh sites were abundant in artefacts based on iron; as typified by axes, swords, spearheads, knives and sickles. In contrast, much of the region was still using bronze. An extensive trade network was also shown, as Sa Huỳnh beads were made of materials not found in the region, indicating they were imported. This culture also lived in the area now comprising South Vietnam (specifically the Mekong Delta), and may have been ancestral to the Cham minority.

Prehistoric Hans were split into four distinct groupings. The first were agricultural plutocrats residing in the mountains, hills hunter-gatherer tribes, and warrior societies that had a strict social strata and practiced ritualized warfare. The fourth and most important group were maritime societies that partook in trans–island trade.

Early foreign accounts described the chiefdoms of the islands as being extremely skilled in metallurgy, and highly competent as farmers, practicing animal husbandry and engaging in wet rice farming. An abundance of fowl, grains, honey, among other products, was noted.

Formation of barangay

By at least the third century, chiefdoms organized themselves into barangay–small political units headed by a datu (chief), who was in turn, subordinate to the rajah (king), who headed the entire city-state. Each barangay typically consisted of a hundred families, with some of the largest reaching thousands of people. They typically straddled the fertile river valleys and coasts. Transmitted via trade, many adopted HinduBuddhist culture.

By the ninth century, these maritime city-states had grown to become competing feudalistic thalassocratic kingdoms. Some of these thalassocracies are briefly subjugated as vassals of greater regional powers such as Srivijaya, Majapahit and Brunei, and as the tributaries of the Song dynasty and the Ming dynasty.

Birth and growth of the Tondo dynasty

Main article: Kingdom of Tondo

As revealed by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, Tondo as a centralized state existed as far back the 9th century (at the least). However numerous barangay agglomerations have been found dating back a thousand years prior to that point. The legal document was written in the Kawi script, and mentioned a ruling monarch as well as three places all in or near the Hanyang Bay area. Tondo was observed to be a matrilocal society dominated by aristocrats that primarily followed Theravada Buddhism.

Due to the high rates of illiteracy, which ran rampant until the promulgation of the simple Babayin script in the 13th century, there were few historical documents from early Tondo. The already few written documents present were often burned by Li bureaucratic officials. Despite at the time being a confined city-state, Tondo still experienced favourable overseas trading relations, with Tagalog pottery skills being renowned regionally–especially in Japan; where they were called Ruson-tsukuri (lit. "Luzon-made"; 呂宋製 or 呂宋つくり). These vessels were not renowned for decorative purposes, but were also tea canisters greatly enhancing the fermentation process. This made it highly valuable and lucrative for foreign merchants.

Over time, Tondo exerted more influence over the barangay of the island, which was called Lusong after the Tagalog term for a "rice mortar". The thirteenth century, under Rajah Alon, oversaw the conquest of the lands to the north and to the south, greatly increasing the territorial extent of Tondo to encompass two-thirds of Ruzon. However, this was short-lived, as Majapahit eventually asserted suzerainty over the territories and rendered Tondo a mere vassal. Though some recent scholars argue this control of suzerainty was truly only ceremonial and it remained autonomous in virtually all its internal affairs. This relationship lasted until the Battle of Maynila in 1365, which oversaw a Tagalog victory and affirmed independence.

Shortly after independence, Tondo achieved a zenith in power. Having opened tributary relations with the Ming in 1371, it agreed on the monopolization of the regional trading routes and the sole right to distribute Chinese goods under the Haijin policy. In 1450, Dayang Kalangitan rose to power, and became the first recorded female Tagalog monarch (and the last monarch to follow animism). Using her prowess in diplomacy, she created a personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Namayan, and increased ties with Brunei to guarantee the security of the important monopoly.

Conflict with Brunei

By the sixteenth century, Tondo's monopoly on regional trade allowed it to grow excessively wealthy. In 1500, Sultan Bolkiah, the monarch of Brunei, sought to incorporate Tondo to inherit its trading rights and in-turn become affluent themselves. Bolkiah sent a group of envoys, seeking to marry one of monarch Dayang Kalangitan's nieces and establish a dynastic union upon her death. He also demanded the conversion of the ruling house, the Lakandula, into Islam. Rejecting the terms, she implemented heavy restrictions on Muslim missionary activities to limit Islamic influence.

The following year, an assassination attempt involving a radical Muslim convert Salih Abdullah (who was ironically executed via stoning, a verdict that mocked Sharia law) would leave the Queen extremely injured and incapacitated–which were worsened by her elderly age. Exploiting the power vacuum, Sultan Bolkiah sent his army to subjugate Tondo. The vassalized House of Sulayman was proclaimed to be the legitimate royal house of Tondo, and much of the loyalist aristocratic class in occupied areas were either purged or forcibly converted. Fortunately, Prince Salalila, the heir apparent helped hastily amassed government bureaucrats and relocated the seat of power to Bataan. With the former Queen relinquishing her powers (and choosing to abstain from being regent), Salalila was crowned as Rajah.

With the aid of the Ming, who felt that a Buruneian annexation of Tondo would undermine the isolationist Haijin policy and Chinese influence in the area, Rajah Salalila expelled the Bruneians from Maynila–thus crushing Sultan Bolkiah's imperialistic ambitions in Luzon. However, as part of the armistice, Brunei's influence over Palawan and Shonanmin were recognized.

Tondo as a Ming protectorate

Following the brief Tondo–Brunei War, Rajah Salalila enforced the ban on Muslim missionary activities, and implemented a cautious approach with the increasingly Islamicized Malay polities to the south. He also affirmed Tondo's tributary status and its preferential status on the tributary hierarchy, by sending biannual tributary missions. Over time, Tondo became a large source of revenue for the Chinese government. Lusong was notably rich in reserves of gold, silver, and copper bullion; many of which were mined and shipped to China to mitigate for its lack thereof.

After repeated instances of wokou raids on merchant vessels traversing between Fuzhou and Tondo (which threatened the flow of precious metals), Tondo was annexed as a protectorate within the first year of Emperor Zhengde's reign. As a result, the Rajah lost control over the country's suzerainty but by theory (not by-practice however), upheld internal autonomy. He was also obliged to send tributary missions three times annually. Furthermore, the establishment of an organized legislature, the Tondo state-council further weakened the royal powers bestown upon the House of Lakandula. The first years oversaw the implementation of many reforms–with court officials and the royalty being required to be clad in Chinese clothing, the implementation of the imperial examination and a meritocracy, as well as the standardization of Chinese scientific models and technological methods.

In 1516, a Portugese fleet led by Rafael Perestrello (a cousin of the famed Christopher Columbus briefly docked in Maynila (en-route to China). The fleet was warmly received by the locals, but negotiations failed to establish trading ties as the Chinese government refused to diverge from their isolationist policies. However, Tondo emerged as an intermediary between indirect trade with China and its European trading powers during under the reign of Emperor Jiajing.

In 1565, a fleet of Spanish conquistadors, headed by explorer Miguel López de Legazpi landed off the city of Maynila. Initially treated hospitably, upon of hearing their intent to claim the islands on behalf of Spain, Rajah Banaw was forced to dismiss the fleet. With Spanish silver being offered in larger quantities than the silver mined in Lusong, the Ming was torn being allowing Spanish imperialistic ambitions in its protectorate or ceasing its lucrative trading relationship with Spain. Starting in the reign of Emperor Longqing and the end of the Haijin policy in 1571, the Chinese began adopting a non-interventionist policy pertaining to Tondo; gradually returning administrative powers to the Tagalog royalty.

This sudden renouncement of Ming support, despite being compliant with Ming requests of tribute, galvanized Rajah Banaw. As a result, he centralized the imperial court through systematic purges among the literati, whilst also giving absolutist powers to the monarchy.

In 1575, the capitulation of Brunei (its erstwhile adversary) to the Spaniards prompted him to terminate tributary missions, and later the formal withdrawal from the Chinese tributary system later that year. Interestingly, the Rajah later fostered several armistices with wokou leaders, and some of them were appointed high positions within the royal navy; most notably skilled Admiral Limahong and Admiral Lin Daoqian. This decision was highly instrumental in guaranteeing autonomy, and utilizing the naval prowess of his two main collaborators, the Rajah organized raids on Chinese ports and Spanish colonial outposts, interfering in their bilateral trade and using the acquired bullion to fund these efforts.

In 1580, state-funded pirates kill Spanish commander Juan de Salcedo, who had been travelling in Pangasinan at the time. His fleet was also held hostage, a confrontation that would provide ruse of war on behalf of Spain. Already bothered by the disturbing resurgence of organized piracy directly caused by the anti–Chinese policies of Rajah Banaw, the Emperor Wanli secretly gave discretion for a Spanish punitive expedition for Tondo and an installation of a passive government.

Decline

Chuugwourinwomen

A painting showing two posing Chuugwourin women, or Hans of Chinese extraction.

By the closing decade of the Tondo dynasty, people identifying as Han Chinese comprised a tenth of the total population, with those having some kind of Chinese ancestry (who called themselves chuugwourin after the Han pronunciation of the characters "中国人") comprising as much as a third. However, due to assimilationist policies, many of these people were familiar with the culture and were often bilingual in both either Cantonese, Hokkien, or Mandarin, alongside Tagalog.

However, due to their backgrounds (an overwhelming amount of these diaspora were merchants or bureaucrats), they comprised a disproportionate amount of the elite. As much as a third of the court members were of Chinese extraction, along with almost half of merchants. To pander to the growing Chinese minority (most of which were Ming royalists who were distraught over the Qing and the Aisin Gioro) and the increasingly sinicized elite and court, the Lankandula under King Arawa had formally adopted only their Chinese titles, whereas they upheld both, though favoured their Tagalog ones. King Arawa also abandoned Theravada Buddhism in-favour of converting into Confucianism, which also elevated as the state religion.

This disparity and the sudden change in attitude of Tagalog royalty provided the ideological platform for the orthodox faction of the imperial court; who sought the reinforcement of traditional doctrines and customs derived from Tondo's Hindu and Buddhist past. Initially, the members of the orthodox faction had only desired some sort of law promoting multiculturalism (rather than favouring Chinese culture), and pushed for the reintroduction of dual-titles and religious freedoms. However, the two sides eventually radicalized, and the country had split into two distinct sides; a royalist north, primarily the area comprising Hanyang and its periphery, the Lingayen Gulf, and the Gaya valley, and were exposed to sinicization; and the secessionist south.

In an incident known as the "First Literati Purges", members of the orthodox faction were purged from the imperial court by King Arawa and his advisors, prompting the faction into further radicalization. The imperial court quickly became not only fractured, but dysfunctional and unable to perform their duties. As a result, many provincial bureaucrats became largely autonomous and broke off from the King.

Capitulation and Na period

In 1575, the Jayadeva clan under head Chakar led an army from Zambales (now, the contemporary Sambaka province), to Lingayen. With much of the south in political strife, Hanyang was unable to send reinforcements, and Lingayen (a historical stronghold for the sinicized faction) capitulated to his forces. Following this, he proclaimed that the House of Jayadeva are the successors of the House of Lakandula, and was crowned the King of the Na dynasty.

While the loss of the Lingayen Gulf (the main port area used for trade with China), the main blow was when national treasury (in particular silver bullion) had become depleted in his decades-long effort to defend its Taiwan colony against the Qing. As a result of the newly implemented Sarado policy (which while isolationist, was distinct from the policy during 19th century Li dynasty that bore the same name), the imperial court refused to import Spanish silver, and instead relied on copper coinage. However, copper cannot be proven without being broken, and thus many coins were counterfeited. Also, the abundance of copper meant that the coinage had lacked in value, prompting rural merchants to resort to barter trade as a medium for transactions. Lacking the finances to exert control, central rule disintegrated, and the Lakandula were able to practice their powers in Hanyang and its periphery.

Utilizing this, King Chakar sought to gain the loyalty of various independent warlords (collectively known as mihariga, after the warrior caste) that had emerged from previous provincial governments, promising to provide resources in-exchange. However, many were deterred by the fact that they had to perform prostration before him, alongside his orthodox views. Nevertheless, many conservative mihariga accepted this and the Na dynasty grew to become a legitimate, albeit also weak, rival to the Tondo dynasty.

Warring States period

Early Li period

Consolidation of royal rule

Yi Chang

An early 18th-century royal portrait depicting Li Young, dressed in his royal clothing and sitting upon his throne.

During the early years of the Li dynasty, the first monarch, Li Young sought to legitimize and consolidate royal power, purging mihariga lords and establishing a highly centralized court system. He abandoned the title of wang (; "King"), and instead adopted the title of chi (; "Emperor") which nominally upheld his status to the equivalent to the Chinese Emperor. He also changed the country's name to Dai Han (大汉), which meant "Great Han".

He also abolished the tradition of imperial examination in 1706, and instead chose bureaucratic positions via imperial appointment. While this allowed him to secure a base of support within the imperial court and to restrict the amount of dissidents within the government, this also prompted numerous cases of corruption and incompetence. Li Young had also created a national census system, and a tracking system based on wooden tags to effectively collect taxes and monitor the movement of people. However, in 1717, Li Young had fell ill to malaria. With his death seemingly preeminent, he was coerced into picking a heir apparent early by his wife. He picked his third and youngest child, Princess Li Rin, a selection which was strikingly controversial as she was a female (typically male heirs are prioritized, and she had two elderly brothers). Furthermore, she was not even within the age of maturity, just being merely seventeen at the time she was chosen. A result, many had (wrongfully) assumed she was incompetent and ill-fitted to rule.

Initially, the court was forced to comply or face with the prospect of being purged. However, as Li Young succumbed to his disease and Li Rin was coronated as the Empress shortly after, the court became vocal about their concerns and rejected her authority. Two opposing sides were drawn; those who had sided with Li Rin, and the opposition that wished to instate Prince Li Wei (the eldest of the former monarch's children) as the Emperor. Surprisingly, many of his supporters were high-ranking officials that had been favoured by the former Emperor. Seeing the polarization of her court as a threat to her power, she initiated the "Second Literati Purges", where she ordered the systematic execution of the oppositional faction and their proponents under charges of treason.

This decree galvanized the oppositional faction, forcing them to act preemptively. Li Wei brought a thousand-man army comprised of peasants (mostly volunteers accepting bribes) on the gates of the imperial residences in attempt to force the Empress to step down from her position. Placing a body-double temporarily and de jure in-charge, she and supportive court members fled the palace and travelled to southern Li Han. She came back after a week, discovering that her palace has been ransacked and her body-double had been exposed and subsequently killed. Exploiting her absence and the resultant power vacuum, Li Wei had placed himself on throne. She eventually poisoned him posing as one of his royal consorts.

Reign of Li Rin

See also: Li Rin
Yi Hyorin

A special portrait of Li Rin in 1774, two years prior to her death, painted by a visiting Englishman.

Once regaining her throne, Li Rin implemented laws that meant to cement the royal legitimacy of the House of Li. While she reluctantly reestablished a rather strained tributary relationship with the Qing, she refuted the their position as the legal successor of the Ming, as much as to revise family records to support her claim. She also adopted the Mandate of Heaven, and briefly claimed sovereignty over China. Noticing how her aristocratic subjects had polarized after her father's death, she switched to a policy of maintaining support among the commoners. Corvée labour was outlawed and instead replaced it with a head tax system used to hire labourers. As a result, the serf caste was abolished, with serfs subsequently emancipated into the peasantry. As part of the land reform, former serfs were given parcels of land.

In 1720, she and her scholar court formulated and enforced an assimilationist policy that coerced minorities to submit under Han culture. A law was passed that pointed out that only those of Han ancestry were eligible to be appointed bureaucratic positions. She also declared the Hanyang dialect of the Han language as the lingua franca (over Mandarin which had been previously standardized by chuugwourin diaspora), an edict facilitiated by the promulgation of Hanji (which had been banned previously) and the first grammatical conventions. However, her early rule was marked by financial strain. Initially, she maintained the isolationist policy and instead seized properties to fill the depleting national treasury. After attempting to rely on copper coinage and low-value paper money, she instead was forced to forge cordial trading relations with European trading powers, mainly its erstwhile adversary Spain. After negotiations, the port of Shinan was declared a free trade zone between the two. Reinvigorated foreign trade remonetized what was previously a stagnant economy, and the medium of transactions shifted to silver coinage.

Hanyangyidynasty

A painting dating to 1796, depicting the shores of Hanyang proper where the embassies of many foreign partners are built.

Lidecadence

With luxury consumption being patronized by the state, alongside an excessive abundance in both silver and copper coinage and bullion, Li society was perceived as decadent and overtly luxurious by many foreigners.

However, foreign trade had only boomed until the Qing enacted the Canton policy in 1756, which restricted all maritime trade affairs to Guangdong. The Li, being a tributary, was exempted and was given preferential trade status. As a result, Li Rin capitalized on this and sold lucrative goods (such as tea, silk, manufactures and porcelain) at lower prices than what was offered in China. Being an autarky, this resulted in a wide trading surplus in-favour of the Li, as a result, the national treasury had reported a wealth and excess in silver bullion. Vigorous trade had also permitted the spread of Columbian Exchange, with maize, chili peppers, and corn being introduced cultivate en-masse in large communal plots of land. While the enlarged role of commercial market and merchant guilds (which had began to acquire political influence) troubled the court, the heterodoxy popularized by Li Rin had introduced an accommodating attitude which was crucial in deterring a reemergence in isolationism.

In 1768, at the age of sixty-eight and after fifty years of holding the title as Empress, Li Rin choose to abdicate from the throne in anticipation of her death. The eldest child out of her four children, and the designated heir apparent, Li Chang, was coronated as the Crown Prince. As he was still at the tender age of fifteen, Li Rin took the role as regent. However, she continued to exert large influence over the state-council and national policies, thus maintaining de facto rule.

Reign of Li Chang and Li Dang

The reign of Li Chang saw the continuation of the success under Li Rin.

Later Li period

Political strife

Sarado policy

Unequal treaties with Europe

Li Han Rebellion

Huang reforms

Han–Sierran War

Shortly after the Spanish–Sierran War in 1898, Emperor Li Huang, the leader of the progressive faction of the imperial court, died under mysterious circumstances. As a result, Empress consort Mei Ling became the regent, governing for their seven-year old son. As she was a major proponent of the conservative faction, she ceased modernization programs and sought to expel foreign influence from Hani; reestablishing the isolationist policies of the past. She also nullified several key unequal treaties with foreign powers, but in-practice they remained in-place.

Seeking rapprochement with its erstwhile client state, Sierra sent emissaries to Hanyang to sort out relations. Having trespassed and ignored the new isolationist policy, the Empress executed them alongside a thousand martyred Christian converts, some of which are foreign missionaries. This received international condemnation, and thus, Hani received numerous trade sanctions that crippled the dynasty's export-based economy. This also fuelled anti–Han sentiment within the Sierran public, who demanded a punitive expedition launched against Hani.

HanSierranWar

Sierran soldiers escorting displaced Hans to refugee camps.

Sierra launched an invasion of Hani in 1900, which later came to be known as the five-year long Han–Sierran War. Initially maintaining a firm stalemate, regent Mei Ling used the war effort as an excuse to purge the imperial court of political dissidents; mainly members of the progressive faction. However, over time, Sierran forces captured important ports; which drained Hani access of weapons from the United Commonwealth and Japan. The national treasury also became steadily drained of bullion reserves to peg the chang (the Han currency), and thus was forced to float it. This made the government effectively bankrupt. However, it was not until 1904, following the official withdrawal of Japanese and Hoosier interference, when the Great Han core was finally penetrated by the Sierran coalition.

In 1905, the regent Mei Ling committed suicide alongside two other prominent leaders General Fu Jin and General Cheng Wan, after failing to defend Hanyang. As a result, twelve-year old Li Min ascended to the throne with full powers. This resulted in the collapse of the highly centralized bureaucratic government and the delegitimization of royal power, triggering the mass-scale capitulation and defection among the Han army. Li Min's uncle temporarily assumed title as regent; signing his abdication papers and under the Emperor's approval signing the Han–Sierran Protectorate Treaty.

Sierran colonial period

Sierranoccupation

A picture depicting Sierran colonial officials shooting peasants that had been protesting for forceful seizure of land without payment.

In 1905, following the lengthy Han–Sierran War, Sierra successfully annexed Hani under the Han Treaty of Capitulation. However, the legality of the treaty had been disputed, with many Han bureaucrats treating it as invalid as the monarch (the recently deceased Empress Dowager Mei Ling) did not apply the royal seal.

One of the first reforms was the abolishment of the caste system, which triggered the outflow of Han bureaucrats to Japan and China. This power vacuum allowed the Sierran colonial authorities to easily seize power. Furthermore, the taxation system was heavily revamped, with large tracts of land being stolen from former bureaucrats and with tenant farmers being evicted. Apart from the introduction of initial reforms, the first stage of the Sierran colonial period was focused on the integration of the House of Li. Albeit with vastly reduced powers, they were kept as the de jure head of state. However, members of the house were placed under house-arrest in the Naragi palace in Hanyang, and had to receive formal permission to exit the premises. In addition, the members were often separated and barred from being placed within the same room apart from special occasions and the shooting of Sierran political films.

In 1909, four years into colonial rule, the colonial government launched an attempt to fuse the Han royalty as a subordinate cadet branch of the Sierran House of Columbia. These intermarriages were widely publicized, but those who had resisted the offer were forcefully ripped of their titles. Many royals thus reluctantly married at a young age, and practiced strict endogamy to preserve the purity of the royal bloodline. In 1914, the selected heir apparent, Crown Princess Li Qin, announced her marriage to a Sierran royal. This sparked wide criticism, but domestically and within Sierra. Many also accused of the marriage of being an orchestrated imperialist plot to terminate the royal lineage, as documents were leaked of his infertility.

April7thmovement

About an estimate five million Hans had participate in protests. About two million activists were jailed, with fifty thousand activists executed.

This triggered the independence rallies and strikes, culminating in the largely peaceful April 7th Movement in 1915. In face of the protests, the Sierran government forcefully ousted them out of the Imperial Palace; which was then symbolically burnt to ashes and replaced with a garden commemorating Sierran history. Many of the activists were jailed and tortured, with thousands publicly hanged. The House of Li subsequently found refuge in China and Japan where they were granted special status. In Japan, many members adopted Japanese citizenship and even were absorbed into their imperial family. Shanghai, which was host to a large Han diaspora, became a base of many Han independence activists

Roaring Twenties and Great Depression

During the First World War, Sierra had used Hani to occupy German colonial holdings in the Pacific, and therefor increasing control over the Pacific. As part of the Treaty of Versailles, the Caroline islands were transferred from Germany to Sierra. The period also saw the cementation of the Sierran Cultural Revolution (which turned Sierra from a monolithic to a fusionist culture), as many Hans emigrated to Sierra to study or to work.

The Roaring Twenties which quickly followed the war saw the softening of Sierran colonial rule, facilitated by the appointment of many pro–Sierran collaborationist Hans into the colonial government. Hanji, which was previously banned, was instated as the national script alongside romanji, or the usage of the Latin alphabet to transcribe Han. However, the latter was often preferred, with the former being marginalized in many texts. This coincided with the spread of modern education and literacy, which allowed literature and fiction to flourish. Christianity also grew rapidly in the number of adherents, facilitated by vigorous missionary activities conducted by Sierra, as well as its efforts to undermine its traditional Confucianist following.

From 1923 until 1931, Hans were also granted universal suffrage and were allowed to vote among specific pool of preliminary candidates to comprise their increasingly autonomous colonial government. However, the unanimously approved Peace Preservation Law was also enacted to target political groups that were counted as radical or detrimental to national security. The law also not only prescribed overtly harsh penalties on dissidents, but also justified the usage of brutality on them.

As a result of lax political freedoms combined with increased education attainment levels, interest Han nationalism and national historiography resurfaced, which had been present in an organized form since the late 19th century, but only had been popularized by the publishment of Rishun Hani ("History of Hani"), by author Bi Shang in 1924. Despite the book being banned and its author being jailed (later pardoned), it was still widely distributed covertly. Inspired by this, the Grand National Front (the precursor to the Grand National Party) was established under chairman Haru Meijing (which later became the first Premier of Hani). In the more industrialized South, the Han Communist Party was formed by disgruntled worker unions and orchestrated sporadic revolts in mainly Shinan and Zambwōn. Having been born out of a mutual ideology, and having the common goal of overthrowing Sierran rule, the two main revolutionary groups forged a tenuous alliance and partitioned the archipelago into two with Senban agreed as a future demarcation point.

Han Revolutionary War

Cold War and division

First Han Civil War

Initial isolationism

Rapprochement with the West

Miracle on the Chuu plain

Post-reunification period

Geography

Hani is an archipelago comprised of numerous islands. It is bordered by the East China Sea to the north, the Han sea (East Han Sea) to the east, the South China Sea (West Han Sea) to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred miles southwest while China is located directly to the northwest. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest. Hani's main island group, Hani proper (comprised of three island groups; Lusong, Bisayo, and Shonanmin), has a total of 7,107 islands with a total area of 300,000 km2 (115,831 sq. mi).

Mount-apo

Mount Apo, an active stratovolcano, is currently the second highest point in Hani, and the highest within Hani proper.

The highest point in Hani is Beibuundoku; located on the island of Solwoun, it measures up to 3,952 meters (12,966 feet) above sea level. In contrast, Galathea Depth in the Han Trench is the deepest point in Hani and is the third deepest point in the world with a depth of more than 10,540 metres (34,580 feet). The trench is located in the Han sea. The longest river is the Gaya river which is located in the Gaya governorate. Its basin measures at a 27,280 km2 (10,533 sq. mi) while having a total length of 505 km2 (314 sq. mi). Ansan Bay, which is next to the capital city of Hanyang, is connected to its largest lake, Chagong Bay, via the Min River.

Hani is situated on the Western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, and as a result, Hani experiences common seismic and volcanic activity, with up to twenty earthquakes registered daily. Fortunately, an overwhelming majority of these earthquakes are too weak to be felt or to pose a threat to the island's safety. Not all geographic features are so violent or destructive, an example of one of the most serene legacies of the geologic disturbances is the Grand Parawoun Subterranean River, which is one of the new Seven Wonders of Nature. The surrounding area is a major target of conservation efforts, as it is one of the few largely untouched places in Hani, and contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and a high endemism rate.

Being located in the tropics, most of the islands, with the notable exemption of Lusong (which is dominated by flatlands and urban agglomerations), are covered in thick tropical rainforest and are mainly volcanic in origin. As a result of its volcanic nature, Hani has the world's second-largest gold deposits, one of the largest copper deposits, but is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Hani is the world's largest geothermal producer, providing roughly a fifth (approximately eighteen percent) of the country's electricity demand.

Government and politics

Hani features a asymmetric federal multi-party representative democratic constitutional monarchy. The monarch is the head of state, but wields little actual political power and serves more as a ceremonial figurehead, whose role is to embody the Han people. The majority of real political power is held by the Premier, who also leads the executive branch; he or she is appointed by the monarch, but designated by people through a popular vote. Although the monarch appoints the Premier, its constitution explicitly states the monarch must appoint whoever the majority of voters designated in the elections.

Hani's legislative body is the National Diet, seated in the capital city of Hanyang. The National Diet is bicameral, consisting of two chambers; the Senate (with five elected from every constituent state) and the National Congress (a total of 300 seats). The members of the National Diet are elected through popular vote, and is dissolved once every six years. All adults eighteen and above have universal suffrage, with a secret ballot for all elected offices. All members of the government, excluding the monarchy, are elected by the people of Hani.

The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court of Hani; while it is the highest court in the country, it only has appellate jurisdiction over appeals cases relating to general and criminal law. The Constitutional Court of Hani has original jurisdiction surrounding any cases that involve constitutionality, having also additional powers on deciding cases regarding administrative law.

Monarchy

Being a constitutional monarchy, Hani has a hereditary monarchy that assumes the role as the head of the state. Asides from practicing powers associated with the royal prerogative, the Han monarchy maintain a marginal role in every-day politics, making them mostly figureheads rather than actual leaders, a role assumed by the Premier. Wielding the Crown, the Han monarchy also represents the embodiment of the Han people and their will; a concept that plays a key role within Han nationalism.

The royal house of Hani is the House of Li, which was established in 1676 by General Li Young, but was forced to abdicate by the end of the Han–Sierran War in 1905. They were restricted under house arrest, until anti-colonial movements manifested in the Hanyang Convention and their de facto reestablishment as the royal house. However, it was not until the end of the First Han Civil War that they were coronated. However, today, they lost their absolute powers and are confined by the limits established by the Constitution. The current sovereign is Li Luna, who is also the seventeenth sovereign of the royal house. The designated royal residence is the Li Imperial Palace in Hanyang, though they historically owned numerous palaces.

Political parties

Hani is most commonly described as a one-party dominant state, having been dominated by the socially conservative, centrist Grand National Party since the fifties whilst other parties are marginalised and excluded from mainstream politics. The Grand National Party runs its campaigns based on the promotion of Confucian values, collectivism, conformity, with an elitist streak, as well as maintained socioeconomic and military expansion that is seen as a necessity to retain Hani's sovereignty.

Recently however, the ousting of the military junta in the seventies and the end of the persecution of political dissidents has allowed minority parties have flourished and grown in number, though none are large enough to threaten the preeminence of the Grand National Party. The second largest party in Hani is the leftist [[|Worker's Party of Hani|Han Worker's Party]], while the third largest party is the Han Unitary party, which advocates for a unitary system in place of the current federal model. Other parties in Hani are often single-issue parties, basing their campaigns on a single issue. However, these type of parties has never had a significant influence on Han politics.

Administrative divisions of Hani

Hani proper, a region comprising the Han archipelago, is divided into eight governorates (sho, ), while outside regions outside Hani proper are directly governed by the federal government. Governorates are further divided into prefectures (jwou, ), component cities (chengshi, 쳉시), and special cities (jingshi, 징시). All of these prefectures and equivalent prefecture-level equivalents are further divided into sub-entities including counties (shan, ), districts (chwi, ), towns (jen, ), neighbourhoods (rinri, 린리), villages (suum, ), and hamlets (suumjoung, 슴정).

Each governorate is led by the governor, and he or she is tasked with enforcing both national and local law in their governorate. Meanwhile, prefectures and prefecture-level equivalents are led by the lead chairmen, which is the highest rank in the municipal council. As Hani is a federal state, governorates enjoy partial autonomy in internal affairs and decisions. However this autonomy is restricted in some fields, for example, there is a set of core laws that are designated by the federal government, and governorates may be reorganised or dissolved per the discretion of the National Diet.

A growing portion of the National Diet (which is the legislative body of Hani) has advocated for the replacement of the current federal system in favour for the creation of a unitary state. This move is meant to combat separatism and regionalism among Han governorates. Opponents have said that the cost of creating and maintaining provincial boundaries would be a financial burden, and that the separatist movements and regionalism would only be amplified by the decision.

Military

Hani wields the fourth-most powerful military in the world according to both the Military Power Index and the Global Firepower Index. It traditionally has been non-interventionist and defence-oriented, though the Second Cold War has prompted it to increase military intervention abroad. The national annual military budget comprises about three percent of its gross domestic product, with the prime focus being on the manufacturing of aircraft, missile, and naval technology. While Hani has signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, it has developed nuclear weaponry and owns a small stockpile. However, this is used as a deterrent rather than an actual weapon used in war.

The Ministry of Defense and Public Security is responsible for the coordination of Hani's defence and military capabilities, and is based, with all federal government branches, in the Imperial district of Hanyang. The armed forces of Hani is divided into four branches; the Han People's Army, the Han People's Air Force, the Han People's Navy, and the Han People's Coast Guard, all of which are collectively known as the Han Crown Armed Forces. As the role of the monarchy is to embody state, the members of the Han military swear loyalty and allegiance to the monarch as well as the Han people.

Military service is a voluntary manner, but conscription occurs during times of war. During times of war, all able-bodied and men between the ages of 20 and 22 are automatically drafted. Those who have moral objections may receive other options, such as being a medical personnel or engineer. As of today, Hani has over two million combined active military and reserve personnel. The reserve personnel of Hani predominantly consists of ex-conscripts with an obligation to undertake three days of training annually.

Civil rights

Gay rights

Gay rights in Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Gays allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Haniflag Hani Yes Legal
(No laws against same-sex sexual activity has ever existed in the country)
Yes Yes (since 2003) Yes Yes Yes Bans all hate crimes and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender

Women's rights

Historically, women had a lot of civil rights, being considered equal (even superior) to men and had a central role in government and religion as nobles and shamans of Han traditional religion (men were only permitted to be shamans if they wore female clothing).

During the late Tondo period and the Li period however, the role of women within society declined due to the influence of Confucianism. They were revoked of their right to be the head of households (unless in the occasion of the male doing mandatory service, or when it is a single-gender household), encouraged to do house-work instead of working in the fields, and while still taxed, they were taxed at a rate half that of males (indicating less economic worth). However, in comparison to their male chauvinistic neighbours, women still enjoyed a lot of flexibility.

Foreign relations

It is the founding member of the League of Nations and is its most influential Southeast Asian member, even applying for permanent membership in the United Nations security council. Hani is also active in other organisations, representing the interests of the Han people. It has membership in, but not limited to, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation, the East Asia Summit, the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and holds observer status within the Conference of American States. Most embassies and diplomatic missions are in Hanyang and the areas surrounding it, though consulates are dispersed among Hani's major cities.

Hani also has military and defense pacts with nations, mostly with members of the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, though it, until the turn of the twenty-first century, has been largely interventionist in global military affairs. Even now, instead of participating directly in conflicts as a different side, it just sends aids that act under the wing of a separate polity.

Economy

Hanyang

The skyline of Hanyang; Hani's capital and most populous city.

Hani is designated as a highly developed economy, graduating from its status as a newly industrialised country in the nineties. It has a strong credit rating, though it is prone to damage due to a recent strain in West–Han relations and regional instability. According to estimates from the World Bank Organization, Hani's economy at power purchasing parity stood at roughly $5.76 trillion whilst its economy at market exchange rates stood at $4.9 trillion. This would make it ranked third and fourth globally according to which method is chosen. It is the largest economy within Southeast Asia. A major economic power, it is a member of many economic organisations, including G20, G7, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation, World Trade Organization, and the the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Hani's economy is driven by the production and exportation of high-tech precision goods such as consumer electronics, semiconductors, fine machinery, and petrochemicals, and is the world's third-largest exporter after China and Germany. Despite its wide-scale economic involvement in other regions, it is a well-known practicer of protectionism, placing high tariffs and has trading quotas on foreign imports to limit competition with domestically produced goods. It also practices some unfair trading practices, including currency manipulation to keep exports cheap. However, this does not stop it from being the fifth-largest importer as its economy relies on lots of petroleum, raw materials such as coal, timber, and agricultural goods to meet local food demands. Its main trading partners include members of the Conference of American States (mainly Sierra, and the United Commonwealth), China, and the European Union.

Hani's market economy is considered to follow the East Asian model of capitalism. It is a centrally planned economy where all major economic sectors, save for the services and industrial sector, are fully nationalised and publicly owned. However, the industrial sector is instead dominated by privately-owned large-scale business conglomerates known as the changsu, which are similar to the chaebol of Korea and the keiretsu of Japan. Meanwhile, the services sector is dominated by privately small to medium sized corporations. The Han Central Bank is Hani's only bank, lowering or raising the national interest rate to control inflation and unemployment.

Labour

Hanworker

A Han worker working in a semiconductor factory owned by the Han conglomerate Sanbit.

Workers' rights are both enshrined and entrenched in the Han Constituition, and as a result, Han labourers enjoy one of the highest working standards and wages within the region. The Han minimum wage is at $7.5 every hour, or $15,000 annually, and with the exception of temporary workers, receive benefits that include health insurance and subsidised tuition fees for their children (if they have any).

Working hours are traditionally long; an excess of more than 1,800 hours annually (or eight hours per day), with the working week being from Monday to Friday. This long working time is a result of the government's attempt to facilitate economic expansion–despite increased labor costs and a decline in the working-age population–through heightened productivity per worker, higher employment, and the mechanisation of non-skilled labour. However, in response to several key problems brought by this long working period, the current administration has established a campaign that aims to lower working hours to 1,200 (a 33% decrease) hours a day within a 10-year period.

Many problems stem from the long working hours, including reported incidences of deaths in which workers were pushed to suicide or heart attacks/strokes brought by stress, an issue also prevalent in nearby Korea, Japan, and South Vietnam. It is also largely responsible for the country's low birth rate, prompting the government to introduce efforts to facilitate child rearing by subsidising child care services.

Currency

The Han chang (Sign: or ¢; Code: HNC) is the official currency of Hani. It is divided into seng by a ratio of 1/100, and further divided into muun by a ratio of 1/1,000. The chan is largely issued in the form of banknotes, with coins becoming increasingly obsolete due to their low value coupled with rising consumer prices. A result of its miraculous growth, the chang has emerged as the world's third-most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the American dollar ($) and the Euro (€). A low inflation rate and value has led to its candidacy as a potential global reserve currency and is currently going further internationalisation in case either dollar or the euro crashes.

Demographics

Hanyang

Most Hans, about ~81%, live within urban areas – pictured above is the northern district of Hanyang.

Han women cheongsam

Two Han women wearing cheongsam, a type of clothing introduced from China during the Qing dynasty, and is among the most popular dresses in Hani. Taken during the seventies.

In 2016, the Han Census Bureau counted a total of 150 million people in Hani, a figure that includes citizens and foreign-born permanent residents, but excludes nonpermanent residents (defined as those who have lived in Hani for under a year) and tourists.

Hani is one of the most ethnically heterogenous societies, with its largest ethnic group being the Hans, which comprise eighty percent of the total population. Nineteen percent are comprised of ethnic minorities such as the Ilocanos, Pangasinese, and the Bikolanos, mainly concentrated outside of the Greater Hanyang governorate. The remaining percent are foreign expatriates; most of which are either mail-order brides or domestic workers from mainland Asia. The largest foreign immigrant enclaves are found in Hanyang and the rest are dispersed evenly among the rest of Hani's major cities. The lack of a substantial foreign population is attributed to strict immigration policies, though recently the rise of Han pop culture overseas has initiated the relaxation of these policies and the resulting rise in immigrants.

Citizenship and nationality are determined through jus sanguinis (right of blood); under Han law, any person with at least one legal parent of Han ancestry, regardless of place of birth and nationality can apply for citizenship. Introduced in the eighties, dual citizenship is restricted to foreign-born Hans that has lived in their host country for at least five years.

Growth and fertility

In 1500, Tondo had a recorded population of eight million, half of Japan's. Contemporary Hani has approximately 150 million people (a nineteen-fold increase from 1500), ranking 8th globally ahead of Russia, but behind Bangladesh. The population is highly centralized on the island of Ruzon, which is home to 100 million people, with three-quarters (about 75 million) living within the Greater Chuu plain.

High birth rates coupled with low death rates experienced during the 20th century is described as the source of such a high population, and as late as the sixties, the average woman was expected to bear six children–way higher than the replacement rate of 2.1 births per woman. During the fifties, the population growth rate was very favourable, at 3% per annum. However, as urbanization occurred, the situation reversed. In 1975, the fertility rate was three births per woman, in 2009, it reached a mere 0.9 births per woman–the lowest recorded of any country apart from Singapore. Fortunately pro-natalist policies has raised fertility rate to 1.72 births per woman by 2017; lower than the French, but higher than either the Japanese or the Chinese. The current growth rate is roughly 0.5% per annum, but is predicted to start to stabilize by 2030.

The low birth rate and a high life expectancy (an average of 82.5 years in 2016) has also contributed to rapid aging, with the average age of a Han being forty years. About a sixth of Hans are elderly, but the proportion could rise to a third by 2050. Hani has a high rate of centenarians (people 100 years old or older), with 47 centenarians per 100,000 people.

Language

The Han language is the official language and the lingua franca of Hani, with sixty percent of Hans speaking it as their native language. Virtually all Hans have the ability to speak the said language and to write in the mixed HanjiHanzi script fluently. Another twenty percent speak another Hannic language, making those who speak a Hannic language as their mother tongue comprise a total of eighty percent of the population. The official global regulatory body of the Han language is the Commission on the Han language, which governs the proper usage of the Han language.

English is the second most prominent language as words of English origin are often incorporated into signs and media. While it is mandatory in secondary and postsecondary education, the usage of English is minimal and only half of Hans have the ability to maintain a conversation in English. Other languages spoken within Hani are Ilocano, Bikolano, Tagalog, Igorot, but these are largely restricted to ethnic enclaves of their origin.

Religion

Religious affliation in Hani
Buddhism
  
69.2%
Irreligion/other
  
13%
Roman Catholicism
  
10.8%
Protestanism
  
7%

According to its constitution, Hani is a secular state, supporting the separation of church and state doctrine. Hani guarantees the freedom of religion and since the current regime's establishment, never had an official state religion.

Buddhism is the most common religion, having been introduced by missionaries from India. Its most common branch is Theravada Buddhism. Other practiced branches are Mahayana Buddhism, which is its second largest, and Vajrayana Buddhism. Christianity, which has gained prominence during the twentieeth century under Sierran colonial rule is the second largest religion by the number of adherents. The Catholic branch of Christianity is the largest, with the largest denomination being Roman Catholicism. The Protestant branch is the second largest branch. The Presbyterian denominations are the largest Protestant churches, followed by Evangelicalism, and the Baptist tradition.

The remainder of Hans has described themselves as being either spiritual but not religious, irreligious, agnostic, and/or atheist. However, despite this and rigorous Westernization, Han culture remains heavily influenced by traditional religions such as Buddhism and Confucianism.

Culture

Cuisine

Shinigang

Shinigang is one of the flagship Han dishes, using tamarind to get its signature flavour.

Paocai

Pougurai is eaten as a side-dish, made of picked vegetables, mostly cabbage.

Chicken Adobo plate

Inikane is a Han dish that involves meat, seafood, or vegetables marinated in vinegar, soy sauce, and garlic, browned in oil, and simmered in marinade.

Han cuisine is strongly fusionist, borrowing heavily from Cantonese cuisine, Hakka cuisine, and Indian cuisine. Han cuisine emphasises the freshness of ingredients (typically picked at the height of its quality), seasoning, and the texture of the dish. Rice enjoys status as the staple grain and make up the basis of a Han diet. Pork, beef, chicken, and seafood (particularly shrimp and bangus) are the most used meats, but Han cuisine readily makes use of any edible meats; including offal, chicken feet, duck's tongue, snakes, and snails. Fruits such as bananas, avocados, and dragonfruit are frequently consumed raw and are rarely added into dishes, while vegetables are typically eaten boiled or stewed.

Seasoning is used heavily to add additional flavour, for example, garlic is used heavily in dishes that utilize internal organs such as entrails, while peppers alongside coconut milk are used heavily in creamy dishes. Other seasoning (not including spices) include soy sauce, vinegar, salt, sugar, black peppers, spring onion, and rice wine. Spices that are commonly used are ginger, chili peppers, and powdered black pepper. With the exception of coriander, which is used merely as garnish, there is little to no usage of fresh herbs.

Dining etiquette

Han chopsticks

Chopsticks, along with a spoon, are used in eating.

Eating is considered an important social activity that reinforces relations between the family. The act is typically led by a host or hostess (or in some cases multiple hosts), who are either the main cooker of the meals or the leader of the household. Chopsticks are most commonly used utensils, used to pick pieces of meat, vegetable, and rice. When consuming soups or stew, a spoon is used to scoop its liquid contents while the solid contents are still picked up with the use of chopsticks. A knife is seldom used to handle tough meats.

Side dishes include pickled vegetables and salads, and typically start a meal along with drinks such as tea. These dishes work as an appetizer or to balance the strength of main courses. To conclude meals, fruit and confectionaries are consumed.

Literature

Music

Mythology

Social structure

Historically Hani had a caste system, enforced during the Li dynasty and the Kingdom of Tondo. Initially it was very tight and status was given through hereditary means, but eventually it specialized and grew into six castes under which class changes (which were dictated by Imperial examination were liberalized. However, as part of the bagohan reforms the caste system was abolished. In its place stood a registration system (known as the animu no rei; "six castes") largely based off it, but its existence was cut short by the Sierran colonial period.

Today, the registration system has been revived.

M N + G FE C D F

Family structure and law

According to a government poll done in 2016, 85% were either married or cohabitated, 2% were widowed, 6% were divorced, and the remaining 7% are currently not engaged in any sort of long-term relationship.The concept of a nuclear family is deeply rooted within Han culture, with less than a tenth of marriages ending in a divorce. However this may also be due to the difficulty for couples to file for divorce, as well as the social obligation to raise children to the best of their ability.

Marriage is often described as a monogamous union between a man and a women, though the notion has been challenged recently by same-sex couples. Marriages revolving around incest, including cousin marriage, is strictly forbidden. Polygamy is similarly outlawed and strictly-enforced laws regarding adultery and extramarital affairs are in-place. Both of these are classified as felonies by federal law, with felons receiving lengthy jail time for breaking these offenses.

Values

Footnotes

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