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Greater Han Empire
大帝國的呂宋
Dadiguo nan Lusong
Flag of Luzon
Government Seal of Luzon
Flag Government seal
Motto: 
十的升;一的民人
Sanfu nan Larawigan, Yisa nan Bayan
Ten Governorates, One Nation
Anthem: 
土地的你选择
Dalisong Majiabayan
Hymn of the Motherland
Bwana Kubariki Azania
Royal anthem
嗎生活陽拉卡達拉
Mabuhai ya Lakandula
Long live the Lakandula
Bwana Kubariki Azania
Luzon (orthographic projection)
Capital
and largest city
Manila
Official languages Standard Han
Demonym Han
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Empress
Imi Lakandula
Bui Sy
Legislature National Diet
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Sierra
May 8, 1942
June 6, 1946
February 2, 1990
Area
• Total
1,043,330 km2 (402,830 sq mi) (28th)
• Water (%)
0.61% (inland waters)
Population
• 2018 estimate
161,540,008 (9th)
• 2010 census
154,064,630
• Density
154.8/km2 (400.9/sq mi) (76th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$7.495 trillion (4th)
• Per capita
$46,400 (24th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$5.145 trillion (4th)
• Per capita
$31,850 (25th)
Gini (2010) 38.5
medium
HDI (2016) Green Arrow Up Darker 0.910
very high · 16th
Currency Han Qian (¢) (HNQ)
Time zone Luzonese Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format mm-dd-yyyy
dd-mm-yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right
Calling code +2
ISO 3166 code HN
Internet TLD .hn
Zhongwen
This article contains Han text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Han Hanzi.


History

Pre-history

Territorial expansion

Karakoa

A warship of the karakoa-class; these formed the backbone of the renewed and reorganized Tondoese Navy.

Goldenbelt

A golden belt typically worn by brahmin, or Hindu clergymen, unearthed in Butuan.

Under Sultan Bolkiah, Brunei attempted to conquer Tondo in 1500 in the Second Battle of Manila–seeking to acquire its rights to monopolize on religion trading routes, as well as directly-administer it via personal union. While the offensive was effectively repulsed, Dayang Kalangitan relinquished her throne and placed her son, Prince Salilah, as the new Lakan. Under his tenure, Tondo implemented a total ban on Muslim proselytization and incentivized conversion from Islam. In addition, he fortified Tondo with a 6.51m-long stone wall, encasing the entirety of the city core, or about 4 sq. mi. He also hired 2,000 mercenaries to defend the city full-time, granting them basic wages.

Intrigued by Chinese systems of rule and the advise of Chinese dignitaries, the Lakan established the Empire of Luzon in 1515, and proclaimed himself to be its Emperor. He annexed the neighboring principalities of Namayan (which had already under a personal union) and Selurong, establishing the unified city of Manila. These annexations had raised the population living within city boundaries from 43,000 residents to 50,000 residents, excluding the inhabitants of its satellite villages. Under the Manila Declaration, he abandoned the Kedatuan system in-favor of a feudal system, placing all the territories governed by his vassals not only under his suzerainty, but through his sovereign jurisdiction. Several administrative reforms were undertaken: standardized laws were established, a central royal court was established as the main legislative body (consisting of appointed aristocratic officials), while the Three Departments and Six Ministries system was established. National census was conducted every five years, and while tribute ended, the newly consolidated tax reforms still guaranteed a secure source of income for the central government.

Emperor Salilah placed heavy emphasis on military expansion. The small and relatively insignificant Maharlika class was abolished, replaced with a system of levy conscription; under which men would be drafted and do military service in-exchange for the payment of debts or land grants. This raised the total military of Tondo to about 20,000 levies. In addition, two dozen Chinese-style warships were given from China, and over two hundred naval vessels - mainly of the karakao and balangay-classes - were constructed to form the backbone of the Tondoese Royal Fleet. All of these ships were equipped with basic naval artillery such as the lantaka, while melee weapons were discouraged, with gunpowder weapons such as imported rifles and locally-produced arquebuses were sparingly used.

Tondo utilized its growing naval capabilities to oust Bruneian influence as well as intimidate its regional rivals. The Southern Expeditions (1530 - 1538) led to the collapse of the Rajahnates of Madja-as and Cebu and their annexations, with their two capitals (the principalities of Panay and Sugbu respectively) being raided and sacked. However, the Southern Revolt of 1545 forced the promulgation of the "Viceroyalty" system, under which large and prestigious barangays (also referred to as principalities) situated in fringe regions were granted special status and the right to collect tax from barangay within their designated zones, though restricting their militaries to a skeleton force; thereby allowing Tondo to effectively rule these areas through proxy and suzerainty. In 1548, a surprise attack on Bruneian holdings within the archipelago was orchestrated, with both occupied Ma-i and Butuan being liberated. With a foothold on Mindanao and dominating most of the archipelago under relatively centralized rule, Tondo was now able to effectively obstruct Bruneian imperialist ambitions and Moro colonization efforts.

Spanish contact and arrival of Catholicism

AncientHani

A painting depicting a group of traders amongst the backdrop of arriving Spanish galleon ships.

Doctrina-Christiana

A page of the Bible written and translated into Tagalog, in both the Baybayin and Latin script.

While Spanish conquistadors arrived in the islands considerably earlier, first 1521 under Ferdinand Magellan and multiple other expeditions known to the Tondoese government occurring subsequently, proper bilateral relations had not be established in 1565, upon the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the establishment of a permanent colonial capital in modern-day Dabao, naming it Davao (the Hispanicized pronounciation). Both shared common interests; both seeking to contain the interests of Brunei and establishing a mutually-beneficial trading relationship in which Spain could acquire Chinese goods while Tondo could acquire its bullion to use as its currency, rather than gold ingots and bracelets, which were more expensive to mine and were insufficient to reliably underpin domestic commerce.

In 1568, the First Castillian War occurred, and both Spain and Tondo attacked and occupied Moro settlements and territories. After Brunei's loss, Sulu was annexed by Tondo and designated as a military-administered territory, while Borneo was incorporated into Spain and subjected into encomienda. However, missionary efforts to convert Tondo under Catholicism disturbed the aristocracy, with successive efforts to restrain and later fully expel Spanish missionaries - including the prohibition of public Catholic practices and later Catholicism itself - quickly embittering their relationship. Tense relations with the Spaniards and rampant piracy forced Tondo to reassert its territorial legitimacy and exercise its newly-realized naval prowess.

In 1588, following the Red Sea Incident of 1574 initiated by Limahong, the Second Castilian War occurred, which ended in a failure and the ratification of the Treaty of Jolo. A compromise was eventually mutually-agreed upon; the port of Dabao, which was already intensively-developed and had a large Catholic population, was kept as a leased port, administered by the Spaniards but still subjected under the laws of Tondo. Meanwhile, Catholic missionary activity was restricted to a quota of only a thousand licensed missionaries operating at any given time. This did little to affect the Trans-Pacific Trade and the Columbian Exchange, though the Spanish reoriented their focus on Taiwan. Between 1592 and 1597, Tondo aided Ming and Korean forces in the Imjin War, and was permitted to attack Japanese colonies in Kalayan and initiate a crackdown on wokou pirates controlling Kaboloan, both of which were incorporated into Tondo; the first as multiple subordinate barangay, and the latter as directly-controlled territory.

Orientalization

Arrival of Ming royalists

Chuugwourinwomen

A painting showing two posing women of Chinese extraction.

Chineseenclavevillage

Most of the Chinese community often resided within monolithic enclaves which typically formed around the original settlement.

In 1644, the Qing dynasty invaded the Ming dynasty, with General Wu Sangui defecting to the Manchus and permitting Manchu Bannermen to pass through the Shanhai Pass, the easternmost terminus of the Great Wall. As a result of the socio-political instability, many Chinese émigrés migrated to Tondo, with the island of Taiwan serving as a midpoint. While the majority arrived between 1644 to 1650; coinciding with the Southern Ming's existence; the influx of Chinese persisted until 1659, with the compelte conquest of the Chinese mainland. Most émigrés were young soldiers as well as merchants and their extended families, with males outnumbering females 3:1. Their arrival was simultaneous with the proliferation in disease due to increasingly dense living conditions, especially within urban areas culminating in a severe outbreak of bubonic plague from 1661 to 1665 leading to famine and the deaths of a fifth of the population, as well as the relocation of the capital to Li Han. This plague disproportionately hit the highland populations, which due to relative isolation, lacked biological immunity, while spared ethnic Chinese and coastal populations. By 1670, census records showed that the Chinese population had reached a critical mass with almost a sixth of the population were Han Chinese. As a result, the Ministry of Chinese Resettlement was established to alleviate regional disparities in the concentration of the Chinese population, with relocated people sent to the interior or to the south. Despite this, there was still a stark south and north divide; the north being 25% Chinese while the south only being 5%.

This sudden influx of foreigners was concurrent to the Spaniards under Philip IV of Spain beginning to crack down on the illegal smuggling of silver bullion into Tondo, and as the new Tokugawa regime enforced an isolationist policy barring trade with most countries; resulting in a sudden drop in silver supplies, which had previously underpinned the economy. While a 1646 tax reform implemented by Lakan Banal allowed for payment in grain or a proportionally-higher volume of copper coinage (relative to the price of silver), hyperinflation induced the ratio of the value of copper to silver coinage to increase, while a series of poor harvests rendered many peasantry unable to yield surplus grain.

As a combination of perceived wealth inequalities, preferential policies among the aristocracy towards the Chinese, and allegations of the Chinese poisoning the water supply and hoarding silver, animosity against the Chinese became common within the peasantry. Most of this animosity was directed at the Chinese that refused to assimilate, which, together with the gender imbalances, incentivized and prompted high rates of intermarriage as a way to escape discrimination. This also extended to some merchant families, which dominated the financial sector but otherwise received little political representation, thereby intermarrying into aristocratic households.

Anti-Chinese sentiment finally culminated in the anti-Chinese Insurgency of 1681, with a conscript named Zhimayabi mutinying with his fellow soldiers and amassing a large peasant militia, appealing to the masses for further tax reform, land distribution, and the abolition of serfdom. In 1681, the Fall of Li Han necessitated the relocation of the Lakandula southwards to Manila–which eventually fell despite being fortified due to sympathizers opening its gates–and later to the southern settlement of Tabuko. In midst of the turmoil, Lakan Banal committed suicide while the imperial palace was burnt and raided, with many royals taken hostage and used to entice negotiations. Prince Kafuno, the Lakan's nephew (as the wife of the nor his concubines Lakan bore any children), eventually acceded to the throne at the age of 21, with his father serving as the Regent and pressuring the remnants of the imperial court to oblige. However, in 1683, his father died of smallpox, and facing massive opposition encouraged the Chinese to become more politically active, and became a substantial source of support. He temporarily abolished many military posts and assumed direct control over the military, as well as instituting compulsory drafting of at least one male in every household except those that lack any males or are under the age of sixteen.

In the same year, he established the Southern Han dynasty and adopted several tenets of Ming royalism, most notably promising eventual takeover of China and the expulsion of the Manchus. To further consolidate his legitimacy, he adopted the regnal title of the "Diyi Emperor" and the Mandate of Heaven. The Diyi Emperor led a siege against rebel forces in Manila, utilizing European firearms (against the inferior arquebuses) and more potent cannonry to destroy its fortifications. As the peasant militias fled northwards to recuperate, he ordered the fortification of the northern borders with a trench and a wall of earth bricks. The assassination of rebel leader Zhimayabi facilitated the reconquest of the north from 1683 to 1685; with remnants in the highlands being crushed in 1691. As a result of the famine, the population further dropped by another fifth, with the population in 1690 (~12,000,000) was just 60% of its population in 1650 (~20,000,000). Some concerns of the peasantry were however, addressed, with the grain quotas lowered and investigations against allegations of abuse, as well as free movement.

However, animosity against the ethnic Chinese remained and was strengthened under the reign of the Diyi Emperor. Many of whom were appointed to high offices and departed from their traditional mercantile role, becoming the de facto ruling minority, constituting the vast majority of bureaucrats and civil servants (as they dominated civil examinations) despite just being 5% of the population. While they still retained ownership over the land and aristocratic privileges, the landlord class–the traditional power holders–felt disenfranchised and betrayed by the Lakandula.

Han Golden Age

Reign of the Yongan Emperor

Hangentrymen

A painting depicting female Han aristocrats. While aristocrats owned numerous properties and estates, but many actually only resided within several and rarely visit their leased properties.

In 1719, the Diyi Emperor abdicated, installing his son Hafunan Lakandula to the throne, who assumed the regnal title as the "Yongan Emperor". However, the former remained the regent (therefore supervising all of the Emperor's decisions and having the ability to veto them) until his death in 1723. The Yongan Emperor was a corrupt leader, and continued to favor the bureaucrats in order to appease them, and guarantee himself a solid support base. His failure to reconcile and address the growing rift between the bureaucracy and the aristocracy led to regionalization and decentralization of power, especially outside of Manila and its peripheral provinces.

In spite of this, his reign had many achievements, most notably his social reforms. To help monitor his subjects, the Yongan Emperor introduced a system of household registration and a tagging system. He abolished both serfdom and the four-tier caste system, leading to the disintegration of the traditional feudal social structure. In its place, he established a four-tier six-class system instead. The first tier constituted the aristocracy and government or military officials; the second tier constituted merchants and skilled workers; the third tier constituted craftsmen and artisans; and lastly, the fourth tier comprised peasantry. Meanwhile, the primary method of agrarian contract was replaced with contractual servitude, under which a peasant would be granted land by a landlord and could utilize and occupy it for a set time (but it can be renewed), in-exchange for periodic payment in grain. As there was no accompanying land redistribution, many serfs were left unlanded and had to rent land. However, they were given protection by the government and were able to withdraw from their respective contracts, meaning they were not bound to specific land.

In addition, he pioneered a heavily militarist policy against the Qing. This was a response to the threat of a Qing punitive expedition and Spanish imperialist interests. The practice of private militias, which had been already in a decline, was outlawed and they were incorporated into the imperial army. A draft system was established, though only a slim portion of men actually were compelled to enlist, and were able to pass service if they paid a hefty fine. Arquebuses and melee weapons were discouraged, replaced by European-style matchlock rifles and artillery. Initially, Hani had to import them but eventually developed the ability to manufacture them itself.

The navy underwent massive reform, with naval vessels of the balangay and karakoa classes being phased out. Four-masted or three-master ships, averaging between 200 to 800 tons and having complements of up to 500 sailors (though the average is usually 150 sailors), constituted the bulk of the reformed navy and were constructed rapidly. From 1723 to 1730, a total of 500 naval vessels had been constructed, at a rate of approximately six ships per month.

Reign of the Wending Emperor

Court

A painted scroll depicting the Wending Emperor announcing the abolishment of the imperial court.

In 1729, the Yongan Emperor died of cholera, leaving no heir apparent. Due to this, his son, Lakandula Zhilai assumed power due to the policy of eldest primogeniture in-case of no clearly designated successor. He was coronated the following year and assumed the regnal title of the "Wending Emperor" (from 稳定, meaning "stability"). Upon his ascension to the throne, relations between the three main sections of society were aggravated. The aristocracy were disenfranchised in-favor of the bureaucrats and received little political participation. Meanwhile, bureaucrats often established political dynasties, with civil examinations only nominally meritocratic, but in-practice, political posts were often hereditary. Meanwhile peasantry, the majority of whom were tenant farmers, suffered from excessive tax burdens and received a low share of their produce (only between 25-33%), rendering them in perpetual debt.

To solve this, tax rates were lowered drastically, and payment in grain was permitted for a period of 10 years until the circulation of coinage reached a critical mass. Restrictions were established against exploitation of tenant farmers by landlords, while the share of produce given to landlords was cut to 33-50% depending on the size of land allotted to the tenant farmer. This incentivized a growth in agricultural productivity as many departed from subsistence agriculture and engaged in the cultivation of cash crops, which allowed them to not only pay their taxes or their debts, but to buy their own plots of land. An investigation against corruption within the members of the bureaucracy was launched, with those guilty stripped of their political posts and barred from participating civil examination. A elective monarchy was established, though candidates were restricted to the House of Lakandula. Monarchs were elected through a national legislature called the "state-council" (国务院), which replaced the imperial court and was comprised of bureaucrats who were in-turn, elected by the aristocracy. The right to vote was granted to every aristocrat of legal voting age, which was set at 21 or 18 with parental consent.

Ironically, while his reforms proved to reconcile the different social classes and improved social mobility, it was widely unpopular with several members of the bureaucracy, who orchestrated the Wending Emperor's assassination in 1735. Despite his absence, the system he had institutionalized persisted, with the bureaucrats voting for his cousin, Lakandula Kalao, who assumed the regnal title of the "Hebing Emperor" (from 合并, meaning "consolidation"). While the Hebing Emperor was ambivalent to the state-council, he left most matters to bureaucrats, which created an environment that facilitated government corruption.

In 1740, the Hebing Emperor died after his wife, Empress consort Mayumi Lishing, poisoned him. Due to the latter's infertility, she was unable to bear a child, and therefore she was unable to produce a potential successor. The Hebing Emperor considered this grounds for divorce, forcing her to kill him to preserve her status. Following his death and the vacancy of the position as monarch, she seized power and established a provisional government. She reformed the state-council, which was divided into two equally-sized houses: an upper house with members directly-appointed by the monarch, and a lower house with membership determined through elections. While the members of the upper house served twenty-year terms, with no term limits, the members of the lower house were restricted to three-year terms (which coincided with civil examinations) under the premise of maintaining a meritocracy, with members then barred from candidacy. These reforms were to ensure a secure base of power, and to guarantee her the position of Empress. In addition, she used intimidation to suppress her political opponents and discourage them from voting, ensuring her followers within the aristocracy wielded the majority of political power. As a result, the election of 1740 a low turnout rate of just 46%, with just approx. ~10% opposing her. In 1741, she ascended to the throne, assuming the regnal title of the "Zhenpi Empress" (from 真辟, meaning "true monarch").

Consolidation of imperial authority

Hanyangyidynasty

A Western painting depicting Western territorial concessions in Manila, as defined and granted by the Compact of Manila.

The Zhenpi Empress' reign, which had lasted until her death in 1801, oversaw the consolidation of territorial legitimacy and integrity, as well as the centralization of administrative power. Upon her ascension to the throne, she sought to increase her support within the peasantry. An investigation against tax evasion and undocumented land properties was commenced, with violators stripped of many aristocratic privileges. Much of confiscated properties were sold to landless peasants at low prices. Tax rates were reduced, with many unnecessary government programs abolished. The size of the government was restricted through more stringent civil examination requirements, with the salaries of civil servants and government officials set at a lower level. In 1741, relations with Spain was normalized under the conditions of legalizing Catholic proselytization within the islands and agreeing to trade–ending a century of hostilities and the persecution of the Christianity minority.

Silvertael

A silver tael, which weighs approximately 1.33 ounces (worth approximately $24 in modern monetary value)

In, 1743 under the suggestion of visiting British dignitaries, the Compact of Manila was established, which had extended preferential trading rights (such as a reduction of tariffs to ~5%) to all participating countries. Interested European parties were also granted a small territorial non-military lease in the Manila Bay area. Initially, products mainly traded were agricultural products such as rice, beeswax, and exotic fruits, which were products typical of the region. However, the cultivation of cash crops (such as tobacco, tea, and sugarcane) and luxury goods such as porcelain, jewelry and silk textiles attracted many foreign merchants. A low demand for foreign goods coupled with sudden surge in external demand resulted in a high trading surplus, allowing for a largely one-way influx of foreign bullion–mainly silver–which remonetized and underpinned the economy. While the government encourage private enterprises and sought to deregulate the economy, it still had substantial influence over financial policy, and nationalized several key industries such as: the production of iron, the production of armaments, and the shipbuilding and salt industries. In 1745, the Imperial Bank of Manila was established. Initially intended as a vault to allow the rich store their personal bullion, it eventually adopted modern bank practices due to European influence; issuing promissory banknotes made of cotton, as well as granting loans and credit.This and the standardization of silver taels as the medium of transaction (each tael being 1.33 ounces) permitted not only extensive commercialization and the development of a national consumer market, but a rise of an urban merchant class which counterbalanced the power of both the urban bureaucrats and the rural aristocrats.

In 1755, the socially-progressive Oath in the Articles was promulgated by the Zhenpi Empress, outlining the main aims and course of action to be undertaken during her rule. It consisted of three clauses which were: the improvement of social mobility as to ensure societal hierarchy is determined through merit and not through birthright; all individuals, of high or low status, are to be equal and protected under the law; the enrichment of not only the state, but its constituent subjects, is the highest priority–and all classes shall be united vigorously in achieving said outcome. In addition, literary inquisition was abolished, with criticism of the administration being encouraged. However, these reforms aggravated both the aristocratic and bureaucratic classes, whilst gaining the approval and support of the peasantry and the merchant class. The National Treasury was supported by a rise in tax revenue, due to peasantry finally being able to amass enough wealth not only to pay their debts, but to pay taxes in bullion (rather than surplus grain). The volume of trade also had grown to a point that it provided a stale source of income for the government, despite low tariffs.

Qing Expedition to Manila

Continued prosperity

Zhuyin

An example of Zhuyin or Bopomofo, an auxiliary script promulgated by the Zhenmu Empress, that is used alongside Hanzi to convey phonetic meaning.

Zhenjingpainting

A painting made by artist Sy Mainzhigan. It depicts a section of Manila subjected under heavy boat traffic.

This coincided with the rapid development of textiles, porcelain, and other manufactures, as Chinese merchants and craftsmen pass on their production techniques to local businesses.

The Ten Great Campaigns, which were intended to make Tondo catch-up to living conditions in China proper, was also launched. There was emphasis on the Three Principles; the promotion of infrastructural development, the promotion of commercialization and economic development, and the promotion of literacy and scholarship. With a select group of scholar-officials, she made the alphabetic Zhuyin script, which was intended to be an auxiliary script (ruby script) to Hanzi, and was often used as a vernacular form of writing. The Zhenmu Dictionary, which highlighted characters used in Standard Han Hokkien and their pronunciations, was also written, featuring over fifty thousand characters (with a simplified version of only eight thousand characters). While she maintained the traditional policy of discouraging the usage of Tagalog, she codified its grammatical and phonological rules, which later laid the fundamental basis for the later Han language. A vast amount of moveable types were also constructed, with increasing literacy and the lifting of literary inquisition leading to a renaissance in prose fiction. Asides from promoting scholarly activities, she also launched reforms leading to economic prosperity. The promulgation of proper agricultural techniques and methods, as well as the adoption of crop rotation, proper irrigation systems, and New World Crops led to a substantial rise in agricultural productivity and a secure food supply. An edict requiring the replacement of thatched roofing with clay tiles, and the recomposition of wooden houses with clay bricks, was also issued; while canals and road networks were intensively-developed to facilitate transportation and domestic commerce. However, a lack of a stable commercial medium was still apparent, with barter trade and the usage of gold ingots or bracelets being used interchangeably.

The imposition of a centralized system of administration, as well as various means to check the population (such as a national tag/identification system, the conduction of censuses every five years), as well as liberalized property and inheritance laws, lifting of tax burdens, and the abolishment of slavery (in-favour of contracted servitude) allowed the development of a labour-intensive commercialized economy. This was aided by a rise of demand for consumer goods, not only domestically, but from trading partners as per the Compact of Zhenjing. In fact, external trade grew at an annual rate of 5% during the 1700s, with the GDP per capita (PPP), adjusted for inflation, doubling from $1,100 to $2,000–placing it on-par with some of the economies of Western Europe and asserting itself as the most developed economy in the Orient. Due to the one-sided nature of this trade, European trading partners often developed a large trading deficit, whilst Hani ammased a huge supply of silver bullion, with the enlarged money supply further facilitating domestic commercial development.

Exports was not limited to commodities such as gold, copper, and iron (all found in large quantities), natural resources such as abaca, tobacco, honey, and spices. However, it also encompassed jewellery (made out of aforementioned precious metals), textiles, cotton, silk, handicrafts. Asides from silver, the Han dynasty also initially imported vast quantities New World crops, European-made rifles and arms (which were superior and more sophisticated than local ones), and exotics.

Spread of Christianity

Opium trade

Late Imperial era

Unequal treaties

Political strife

National revival

Self-reliance movement

War of the Triple Alliance

Sierran suzerainty

Allied-occupation

Sierranoccupation

A picture depicting Sierran colonial officials shooting peasants that had been protesting for forceful seizure of land without payment.

April7thmovement

About an estimate five million Hans had participate in protests. About two million activists were jailed, with fifty thousand activists executed.

Limited sovereignty

U218257INP

A picture of downtown Zhenjing

Qipao1

Two women wearing qipao in a 1920s soap advertisement

During the First World War, Sierra had utilized bases in Hani to seize and occupy German colonial holdings in the Pacific, and therefor increasing control over the Pacific. As part of the Treaty of Versailles, the Caroline islands were transferred from Germany to Sierra, administered as a part of Sierran East Indies. The Sierran colonial administration began to shift from free market plantation economy, to a centrally-planned industrial economy (establishing institutional basis of the current economic system). This change marked a period of intense economic modernization due to postponed spending, and the previous munitions and armaments facilities being retooled to the mass-production of consumer goods, which instilled a culture of consumerism among those who can afford such luxuries. There was also a boom in infrastructural development, with electricity and various telecommunication systems (such as the telegraph, telephone) being implemented en-masse.

The following period, known as the Roaring Twenties, saw the cementation of the Sierran Cultural Revolution (which turned Sierra from a monolithic to a fusionist culture), which has reached critical mass as many educated Hans emigrated to Sierra. However, this cultural exchange was mutual, with Sierrans introducing and popularizing the ideals of classical liberalism and first-wave feminism through mass media. Hedonism and individuality became very popular, facilitated by the erosion of traditional Confucianist beliefs. Due to the notion of human sexuality being liberalized, more revealing Western-style clothing was adopted by the elite and the middle-class, with the qipao being especially-popular. Cosmetics, which were previously discouraged due to their association with prostitution, became socially-acceptable. Many of the rich indulged in luxuries, such as alcohol and spa treatments.

The official use of Han Hanzi (instead of the Latin alphabet) was legalized, as the usage of Sierran Hanzi to transcribe Sierran English became prevalent. However, Sierran English still remained the de jure lingua franca, whilst the usage of Han Hokkien was heavily discouraged. Despite this, due to the increase in literacy and the relaxation of laws (most notably the repeal of literary inquisition), the printing industry flourished, with the genre of prose fiction particularly receiving much popularity. Primary education was made compulsory, and an edict requiring all adults to be literate was implemented, raising the literacy rate from just 28.33% (in 1920) to 76.25% (five years later, in 1925), with near-universal literacy (>95%) being achieved in 1933.

From 1927, up until 1935, while the Sierran East Indies continued to maintain its status as a colony, for the first time ever, all Hans were granted universal suffrage and Sierran citizenship (with the previous quota on immigration, which was already largely unenforced, being fully-repealed). Hans were allowed to vote among a specific pool of preliminary candidates (determined by the federal government) to serve their colonial government coinciding with the Sierran elections, however, they were additionally granted the ability to vote for Sierran politicians (but not directly-participating in them unless they are Sierran residents). The Peace Preservation Law was also unanimously approved by the Sierran legislature, and was enacted specifically to target political groups that were counted as radical or detrimental to national security; it not only prescribed overtly harsh penalties on dissidents, but also justified the usage of brutality on them.

Great Depression

Guerrilla movements

World War II

Cold War

Han Civil War

Isolationist policies

Following the Han Civil War, the government of Hani was virtually bankrupt, with its Western allies under scrutiny for being unable to bail the government and avert economic fallout. This was worsened by the concurrent Korean War (in which Hani reluctantly participated in), which forced the relocation of the few foreign funds originally allocated to economic recovery to the production of armaments and weaponry for the war effort. The controversy sparked by this and related issues (such as the activation of national conscription) led to the formation of an Ameroskeptic and rather hostile intellectual climate, with the Jin administration being heavily criticized and alienated as overtly pro-West. The death of Head Chairman Jin Li in 1953 (at the age of 73), prompted the establishment of a short-lived provisional council comprised of fourteen politicians. However it was overthrown and abolished by former First Deputy Miao Yang just sixty-days following its creation. His first year oversaw the establishment of martial law and the suspension of habeas corpus, enabling him to jail and executive political opponents, including several of his colleagues.

Initially, Hani sought to limit foreign influence by reimplementing a policy of strict non-intervenionism and semi-isolationism, joining the Non-Aligned Movement. It drafted an economic policy of autarkey-oriented import substitution-led industrialization, adopting a more interventionist approach. To strengthen its independence and legitimacy, it militarized and normalized relations with several communist nations; most notably the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, being among the first of the non-communist nations to recognize the latter's independence and validity. However, it still maintained bilaterial relations with Hainan and recognized it as a separate entity. As population growth began to outstrip growth in agricultural productivity (which was stagnant), Hani became a net importer of grains, and established various trading agreements with both China and the Soviet Union establishing tax exemptions on the trade of agricultural products. Despite the rather lax stance against the communists on the international scene, Hani continued to enact various anti-leftist legislation and persecute those with such beliefs, with classical liberals and other associated political groups included. In the response to Han emigration, emigration and immigration laws were tightened, barring anyone (save for a few exceptions) from entering the country nor flee it.

Heavy Industrial Drive

Rapprochement with the West

Tchiang Shiokueng

Zhang Shuying and his wife.

The Kafushin Revolution (otherwise known as the Yang Wood Dragon Revolution), led by Head General Tchiang Shiokueng abolished the increasingly plutocratic administration. Convinced that the poor socio-economic conditions resulting from inadequate and underfunded reconstruction programs would cause the country to lapse into communism, Zhang Shuying dissolved the powerless National Assembly and the position of President; instead re-instating the then-exiled House of Li and its monarch as the head of state. Hani under the new military junta declared anti-communism would lay the basis of the new foreign policy, severing ties with the Soviet Bloc and China, joining the Conference of American States (CAS) and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) as a special observer state, while joining the Trans-Pacific Allied Community (TPAC) as a full-fledged member state. Hani tried to reestablish and normalize bilateral relations with Sierra, ratifying the Treaty on Basic Relations in-exchange for reparations for atrocities and damage inflicted during the colonial era (including forced labour and the seizure of property without consent); a sum of approximately $2.4 billion (in 1964 dollars), or approximately $18.58 billion in modern monetary value. Asides from financial compensation, Sierra promise to grant free college tuition to scholars for the next six years.

Economic development

Steelplanthani

Steel, coal, and other related industries grew by an average of 25% annually during the first decade of the Heavy Industrial Drive.

Hanyang70s

Zhenjing hit a population of ten million residents by the mid-seventies, surpassing Tokyo to be the largest megacity in the Orient; and the world.

The administration constructed a centrally-planned export-oriented market economy based upon the practices of East Asian capitalism. Hani utilized the abundance of cheap yet abundant labour as the catalyst for economic development; which were laid out through various economic plans prioritizing the development of heavy industries. In addition, it was rich in human capital, already holding a relatively high educational attainment, especially for the region and compared to countries espousing a similar level of socio-economic development. Hani for example, displayed universal primary schooling and a majority literate population. Financial capital was considered also a pre-requisite for such rapid and ambitious development, so the regime graciously allowed direct-foreign investment and eagerly accepted the influx of financial aid. Furthermore, a select group of businesses engaged primarily in heavy industries were selected by the government. These businesses were granted low-interest loans and numerous tax benefits from the banking sector (monopolized and nationalized by the state-owned Han Central Bank), and under government supervision and guidance grew into large international business conglomerates known as Qianzu, which were mainly family-owned and privatized.

As a result, the Second Economic Plan yielded favourable results, consistently breaching goals in spite of allegations of deliberate inflation of the results. The industrial sector rose rapidly, aided by the massive demand for labour-intensive manufactured goods in Western and Japanese markets. Workers began to congregate in urban areas (particularly the emerging Zhenjing megacity) where the majority of industrial facilities and employment opportunities were situated in, causing a massive brain drain within rural communities. In order to facilitiate the modernization campaign, the Confucianist work ethic was instilled, with many workers serving long working hours as a result. To maximize labour participation, women were encouraged to work as well, which coincided with the two-child policy and the breakdown of traditional family roles. These and other efforts promoting the full usage of idle resources maximized gross economic output.

Authoritarian era

Industrialization campaign

Hanicurfew

To monitor the movement of people and filter civilians from potential conspirators, mandatory curfew was enforced, with disobedients questioned and jailed.

Vietnam-War

Despite substantial domestic opposition (which was brutally oppressed), over 300,000 Han soldiers served in the Vietnam War, encouraged by various financial incentives.

However, despite rapid economic development and stringent attempts to restrict and censor leftist material, pro-socialist movements began growing in popularity by the early seventies, becoming a minuscule but vocal minority. This was in response to growing social and regional wealth disparities, as the agrarian southern provinces often lagged in development and failed to achieve comparable gains made by the northern provinces. The Han government's legitimacy was also challenged by its deep involvement in the Vietnam War; as it viewed this as an opportunity to prove loyalty to Sierrans skeptic of Han cooperation, and to justify an increasingly militaristic foreign policy, many also viewed it unnecessary to intervene in Indochinese affairs especially when Hani itself has just finished reeling itself from its own civil war. In response to mounting public scrutiny, the majority of active Han forces serving in Vietnam withdrew in 1973, a move mirroring the policy of Vietnamization pioneered by Anglo–America. In face of the newly-pursued Pawnee Doctrine, Hani was encouraged to soften its image to China, eventually re-normalizing bilateral relations, and establishing a consulate (then a full-fledged embassy) situated in Fuzhou. As part of the agreement, Hani supported their ascension to the League of Nations as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (a position previously held by Hainan).

In 1972, the Nationalist Partisan Convention occurred, which sought to strip laws regarding term length (at the time, it was set at a maximum of one decade-long term), and grant the Prime Minister unchecked power, with bills and amendments being reviewed and passed at whim by the Cabinet; rendering the Imperial Diet irrelevant and powerless. This proved at odds at the oppositional faction, with the Li Han Mutiny prompting the government to suspend the constitution and habeas corpus, and the implementation of martial law, to enable him to effectively purge the legislature of opposition. Politicians found to be against the regime are often detained, eventually sentenced to exile with their extended families (often to Sierra). In extreme cases, they were assassinated by hired hitmen or fanatic supporters of the regime. Public surveillance, and other efforts to monitor the movement of people, such as compulsory identification tags, were also implemented.

As Hani supported Palestinian self-determination, and supported a compromise between Palestine and Israel, as well as not participating in the Yom Kippur War, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided not to blockade Hani. However, the 1973 Oil Crisis revealed the flaws of such an export-oriented economic model, as the Han economy began to falter after contracting financial contagion from its Western markets (which suffered coinciding recession and inflation, later called stagflation). Despite this, growth persisted and accelerated under totalitarian rule. In order to maintain such stellar growth, more interest-free loans and credit were handed out; which resulted in the rise in bad debt and non-performing loans, which were often covertly bailed out by the government.

In 1975, in-response to international pressure, Zhang Shuying suspended the 1972 Constitution and drafted a new constitution; which while still granted unchecked powers to the Premier and favored the ruling Nationalist Party, permitted the formation of opposition parties.

Assassination of Zhang Shuying

Military junta established

  • first dictator
  • coup d'état
  • second dictator

Gradualist reforms

In October 26, 1985, after four months of a provisional government, Chito Kulayabo was elected as the new Premier through an indirect election and was inaugurated shortly after. He sought to keep public morale high by assuring a transition into democracy. He changed the previous constitution by consolidating the authority National Assembly to draft and approve legislations, establishing a two-term limit (each term lasting for six years; total maximum term length of 12 years) for high political offices, as well as conferring the responsibilities of appointing judiciary to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. However, he still retained the system of indirect election and many military persons were appointed or granted positions within the new government. He still nevertheless launched efforts to increase government transparency and conceded to demands of investigations into corruption cases, resulting in the conviction of several political officials, some of whom were close allies. Censorship and media restrictions were relaxed, with the press receiving more protections while morality laws being abolished. Prostitution and gambling, which were both illicit activities, became legalized in December of that year.

In order to improve international relations in-face of the previous political instability, he initiated multiple state visits, primarily to Sierra and Japan, during which he discussed on addressing apparent human rights violations, advocated for trade liberalization, and elaborated on his plan for gradual democraticization. The tourism industry received a sudden influx of foreign tourists as visa-exempt agreements were ratified with the countries comprising the Conference of American States (CAS). Cultural development and preservation was additionally emphasized with an additional of ten landmarks being designated as a World Heritage Site, while the National Museum of Hani, Manila Arts Center, and National Museum of Contemporary Art all being constructed during this time.

Consumer boom and housing bubble

With renewed socio-political stability under the gradualist democratization policies of Premier Chito Kulayabo, coupled with a decline in the prices of commodities, the devaluation of the Han currency (or the Qian) against the Sierran dollar, and expansionary monetary policies, the economy began to recover from its mid-1980s slump. This boom revived industries, such as steel and construction, which had been previously relatively dormant since the late-1970s, and brought record salaries and low levels of unemployment. From 1985 to 1990, the economy grew at an annualized average of 10%, being the fastest-growing major economy, with only Japan rivaling its growth. The liberalization of trade, such as the abolishment of protectionist policies including high import tariffs (from 40-60% depending per product to 5%), caused the price of foreign goods to drop, resulting in a heightened increase of the importation of foreign consumer goods rather than just shipments of raw materials. However, growth in exports exceeded the growth of imports, and Hani amassed an exceedingly enormous trading surplus. Cordial relations between the Qianzu conglomerates, bound by mutual stock holdings and common opposition to foreign competition, facilitated overseas expansions of Han business conglomerates. Other factors that aided rapid growth was a high rate of savings among the general population, easy credit available to industry at very low rates, and the common alignment of the interests of politicians and bureaucrats with businessmen.

By the late 1980s, Hani emerged as an economic superpower, becoming the seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP (at 1990 prices) by 1990. It was also the largest economy in Asia after Japan itself and as well as the largest exporter of goods worldwide, reflecting its global economic projection. Due to increased mechanization, worker productivity per hour was very high. In a response to demands for more adequate labor conditions, prohibitions against excess working were established while standardization of the 40-hour working week (eight hours per day) occurred. This simultaneous increase in salaries and leisure time spurred a consumer boom. This boom was caused by not only access to cheaply-made foreign goods but as well as a resurgence in the light industrial and services sector after the overemphasization of the heavy industrial sector. To exploit this, the government eventually introduced a national consumption tax of two percent in 1986. Relaxation of censorship laws and limited liberalization of the media allowed for American popular culture to enter the domestic market, influencing the development of Han popular culture. The youth began to emulate American trends as well as yearn for the "American Dream", and desire for more liberty and individuality.

However, expansionary monetary policies proved to be disastrous as consumer demand failed to keep up with the growth in the rate of production. An overly lenient fiscal policy also led to the collection of bad debt and non-performing loans by major banks. Meanwhile, the buying and reselling of properties in anticipation of continuous increases in property value led to the development of a housing bubble, with Manila eventually having one of the highest property prices globally; with choice properties fetching an average of $110,000 per square foot and triggering the growth of outlying suburbs. The simultaneous burst of the housing bubble and several banks declaring bankruptcy in 1990 led to economic disruption and an economic standstill.

Transitionary era

Democraticization

  • a revised Constitution was approved by a national referendum and direct elections for a new Premier were held
  • removal of all restrictions of the press, institutionalized freedom of speech and expression, federalism to fix inter-regional conflicts
  • first government led by a civilian (rather than a military official)
    • Social Democratic party rises to dominance
  • tribunal for the Dabao massacre
    • 2,000 victims determined
  • tighter fiscal policy + low interest rates to promote price stability, withdrawal of government subsidization of Qianzu
  • a greater pension system established, greater safety net
  • schisms within the Greater Nationalist Party
    • splits into three: the Nationalist Party (right-wing conservatism), Populist Party (left-wing populism), Unitary Party (promotes a unitary state system)

Asian Financial Crisis

Main: Asian Financial Crisis

Contemporary era

Golden Decade

Great Recession

Geography

Climate

Government and politics

Overview and elections

Hani is a federal multi-party constitutional monarchy, while the monarch is the designated head of state, real power rests resides in the Premier, the head of government; leading not only the Cabinet and the rest of the executive branch, but the Nationalist Party as the Head Chairman. Elections occur every six years, with universal suffrage granted to all individuals past the age of majority. While the standard term length is six years, there is no term limit, and politicians barring the Premier are applicable for term renewal.

The legislative body is the bicameral Imperial Diet, consisting of two chambers: the upper House of Peers (with seventy seats, five seats allocated per province) and the lower House of Representatives (with three-hundred seats). The judicial is headed by the Supreme Court. While it is the highest court in the country, it only has appellate jurisdiction over appeals cases relating to general and criminal law. The Constitutional Court has original jurisdiction surrounding any cases that involve constitutionality, having also additional powers on deciding cases regarding administrative legislation.

Han Nationalist Party

Monarchy

The royal house of Hani is the House of Lakandula, with membership passed hereditarily through both patrilineal and matrilineal lines. Via the terms of the constitution, the monarch is limited to a figurehead, though is granted associated with the royal prerogative; including the symbolic right to declare war, participate in the negotiation and ratification of treaties, issue passports, the act of assent, issuance of edicts, and to create or dissolve government offices (under the discretion of the legislative and executive branches).

Administrative divisions

Han Crown Armed Forces

The armed forces of Hani are divided into five distinct branches based on Sierran military organization: the Imperial Army, the Imperial Navy, the Imperial Air Force, the Imperial Marines, and the Imperial Coast Guard, which are all collectively known as the Han Crown Armed Forces (HCAF). While the Premier (also designated the Head Chairman of the Nationalist Party) wields the ceremonial title of Supreme Field Marshal, true authority is vested within the Head General (who functions as the commander-in-chief) and the Council of Officers (comprised of high-ranking military officials) and the Department of Defence and Public Security. As of 2015, the Department of Defence and Public Security has reported that there were approximately 1,600,000 Hans actively serving the military, with an additional 1,200,000 working as civilian employees for the military and associated government bodies. While military service is normally voluntary manner, conscription occurs during times of war. During times of war, all able-bodied men between the ages of 20 and 30 are automatically drafted and added into the waiting list, where they will receive three months worth of training before being deployed into battle. Individuals with health complications, disabilities, and obligations or other factors preventing a citizen from fulfilling their military duty are dropped out from the list (and can receive blacklisting from future drafts. Those who have moral objections may receive other options, such as being a medical personnel or engineer.

Hani is thought to wield one of the most powerful militaries, having one of the most advanced aerospace industry and wielding a blue-water navy. Military spending is heavily technology-oriented, with a total budget of $158.34 billion as of 2017. Though Hani is a global leader in the shipbuilding and aerospace industries, though military spending has also been centered on manufacturing various armaments including missiles and guns (with domestic suppliers producing ninety-five percent of the armaments used by the Han military). While Hani is nuclear-capable, it is under the Sierran Nuclear Umbrella (due to its membership in the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, as well as special observer status within the Conference of American States) and its ratification of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Hani as potential superpower

Foreign relations

It is the founding member of the League of Nations and is its most influential Southeast Asian member, even applying for permanent membership in the United Nations security council. Hani is also active in other organisations, representing the interests of the Han people. It has membership in, but not limited to, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation, the East Asia Summit, the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and holds observer status within the Conference of American States. Most embassies and diplomatic missions are in Zhenjing and the areas surrounding it, though consulates are dispersed among Hani's major cities.

Hani also has military and defense pacts with nations, mostly with members of the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, though it, until the turn of the twenty-first century, has been largely interventionist in global military affairs. Even now, instead of participating directly in conflicts as a different side, it just sends aids that act under the wing of a separate polity.

Economy

Economic indicators
Nominal GDP $5.278 trillion (2017 est.)
Real GDP growth 2.8% (2017 est.)
CPI inflation 1.6% (2017 est.)
Employment-to-population ratio 67.5% (2017 est.)
Unemployment 0.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force participation rate 61.6% (2017 est.)
Total public debt $1.900 trillion (36% of GDP) (2017 est.)
Household net worth $24.133 trillion (2017 est.)
Hanyang

The skyline of Zhenjing; Hani's capital and most populous city.

Hani is designated as a highly developed economy, graduating from its status as a newly industrialized country in the eighties. It has a strong credit rating, though it is prone to damage regional instability. According to estimates from the World Bank Organization, Hani's economy at power purchasing parity stood at roughly $7.246 trillion whilst its economy at market exchange rates stood at $5.278 trillion. This would make it ranked third and fourth globally according to which method is chosen. It is the largest economy within Southeast Asia, and the second-largest in Asia. A major economic power, it is a member of many economic organisations, including G20, G7, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), World Trade Organization (WTO), and the the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Its economy is driven by the production and exportation of high-tech precision goods such as consumer electronics, computers, semiconductors, fine machinery, and petrochemicals, and is the world's second-largest exporter after China. Due to competition from emerging economies, its economy is driven by the production and exportation of high-tech precision goods such as consumer electronics, computers, semiconductors, fine machinery, and petrochemicals, aided by high worker productivity and a high level of industrial mechanization. It also specializes in the automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding industries, while is a leading country in biochemicals and agriculture.

It has the world's second-largest trading volume, being the world's second-largest exporter and third-largest importer. It practices some protectionist policies, placing high tariffs and trading quotas on foreign agricultural imports to protect domestically-produced goods. With its nationalized banking sector and controlled currency conversion rates, the government apparently practices currency manipulation to keep exports cheap to foreign consumer markets. Despite this, it relies heavily on foreign imports to fuel its energy demands (exporting massive quantities of raw petroleum and natural gas), high-quality coal (such as anthracite). Its main trading partners include members of the Conference of American States (mainly Sierra, and the United Commonwealth), China, the European Union, and the members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

The Han market economy is considered to follow the East Asian model of capitalism. It is a centrally-planned economy, with certain central sectors being fully nationalised and publicly-owned. The secondary sector is dominated by privately-owned large-scale business conglomerates known as Qianzu, which are similar to the chaebol of Korea and the keiretsu of Japan. Meanwhile, the tertiary sector is dominated by privately small to medium-sized corporations. The nationalized Han Central Bank is the sole legal bank, lowering or raising the national interest rate to control inflation and unemployment.

Labour rights

Hanworker

A Han worker working in a semiconductor factory owned by the Han conglomerate Sanbit.

Workers' rights are both enshrined and entrenched in the Han Constitution, and as a result, Han labourers enjoy one of the highest-working standards and wages within the region. The Han minimum wage is set at $7.5 every hour, or a sum $15,000 annually assuming standard working hours. With the exception of temporary workers, Han laborers receive benefits that include health insurance, subsidized tuition fees and childcare services for their children.

Working hours are traditionally long; an excess of more than 2,000 hours annually (or eight hours per work day), with the working week being from Monday to Friday (with many working in Saturday as overtime). This long working period is a result of the government's attempt to facilitate economic expansion–in light of increased labor costs and a decline in the working-age population–through heightened productivity per worker, higher employment, and the mechanization of non-skilled labour. However, in response to several key problems brought by this long working period, the current administration has established a campaign that aims to lower working hours to 1,200 (a decrease by a third) hours a day within a 10-year transitionary period.

Many problems stem from the long working hours, including reported incidences of deaths in which workers were pushed to suicide or heart attacks/strokes brought by stress, an issue also prevalent in nearby Korea, Japan, and South Vietnam. It is also largely responsible for the country's fairly low (but rapidly rising) fertility rate, prompting the government to introduce efforts to facilitate child rearing by subsidizing child care services.

Currency

The Han Qian (Sign: or ¢; Code: HNC) is the official currency of Hani. It is divided into zen by a ratio of 1/100, and further divided into mun by a ratio of 1/1,000. The qian is largely issued in the form of banknotes, with coins becoming increasingly obsolete due to their low value coupled with rising consumer prices. A result of Hani's miraculous economic expansion, the qian has emerged as the world's third-most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the American dollar ($) and the Euro (€). A low inflation rate and value has led to its candidacy as a potential global reserve currency and is currently going further internationalisation in case either dollar or the euro crashes.

Demographics

Hanyang

Hani is an urbanized country, with approximately eighty percent of its population residing in urban centres, including Manila (pictured above)

Han women cheongsam

Two Han women wearing cheongsam, a popular straight close-fitting dress whose origins were in China, but were developed in Hani during the the Roaring Twenties

As of 2017, Hani is estimated to have approximately 160 million people, with the 2015 census placing the exact amount of Han citizens and permanent residents at 155,383,159, ranking it the ninth-most populous nation in the world. The population is highly concentrated in the island of Luzon, which is inhabited by approximately 87.7 million people, comprising half of the total population. Athough ethnic Hans comprise the majority of the population and constitute 82.1% of the population, Hani is considered to be a multi-ethnic society. Ethnic minorities constitute for the remaining 17.9%, largely concentrated in the southern provinces of the country, where they form the plurality. In addition, there is approximately 2.4 million foreign expatriates, with the majority of whom originating from China (1,300,000) or Sierra (600,000). Many immigrants are guest workers and permanent residents, often leaving once their contract expires. Population growth is fairly low at 0.7%, which is lower than the world average of 1.1% but slightly higher than the developed world average of 0.55%, attributed to its late development and a resurgence in birth rates.

Citizenship and nationality is determined through the principle of jus sanguinis ("right of blood"), with Han law permitting any person with Han ancestry, regardless of place of birth or nationality to apply for citizenship. Dual citizenship is restricted to immigrants of Han ancestry who have been naturalized (or resided within the country for a period of three years or more) and have sufficient competency in the Han language.

Hani exhibits a sub-replacement fertility rate, with a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.75 births per woman, contributing to a low birth rate. It has a high life expectancy of 80.2 years, wit the infant mortality rate being four deaths per 1,000 births. A high life expectancy and a low birth rate has contributed to rapid ageing, with seven percent of the total population above the retirement age of 65 years, with the average age also high at 40 years.

Language

Standard Han, which is based on the varieties spoken in the areas surrounding Manila, is the official language and the officially-designated lingua franca of Hani. The majority, approximately 55% of the population, speak it as a native language, with a plurality either speaking it as a second or third language. Another 30% of the population speaks other varieties of Han. The remaining 15% of the population speak a non-Han language as their native language, the majority of which restricted to the ethnicities of their origin.

English is the second-most prominent language with words of English origin often incorporated into signs and popular media. It is mandatory in primary and secondary education, and is often taken as a foreign language in tertiary education. The vast majority of Hans have attained basic English skills, with 55% of Hans declaring the ability to speak it fluently. However, its public usage is rather minimal.

Religious affiliation

Minor Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours

The interior of the Taal Basilica, cannonically known as the Minor Basilica of Saint Martin of Tours, is considered the largest Church in Asia, measuring 291 ft (88.6m) long and 157 ft (48m) wide.

Manila Jews

While most Han Jews are irreligious, many still celebrate their heritage through Jewish holidays, such as this family celebrating Hannukah.

According to the National Constitution, Hani is a secular state with no officially-designated state religion, and actively upholds the principle of the separation of the Church and the state and as well as guarantees the free exercise of religion. The National Congress is prohibited to pass any legislation that regulate or promote specific religious practices.

Christianity is practiced by the majority of Hans, its adherents constitute approximately 85% of the total population. The dominant denomination is Roman Catholicism, the adherents of which account for 46.6% of the total population. Protestant denominations account for 33%, with the leading denominations being the Baptist, Seventh-day Adventist, Methodist, and Evangelical Churches. Non-trinitarian denominations such as the Church of the Latter-day Saints, the Unification Church, and Jehovah's Witnesses, account for the remaining 4.6%. Church attendance and religiosity rates are very high, thought it is higher among practitioners of Protestant and non-trinitarian denominations.

The remaining Abrahamic religions are Islam, which is practiced by 11.5% of the population; and Judaism, which practiced by 1.1% of the population. Han Muslims are mainly adherents of the Shafi'i branch of the Sunni sect, while Han Jews–the descendants of Kaifeng Jews–are mainly irreligious.

An overwhelming minority of the population, only 2.4%, are considered spiritual but not religious, irreligious, agnostic, or atheist; there are other minute minorities of other religious groups.

Culture

Hani socially and culturally conservative, conforming to preexisting social norms and the establishment, as well as reverence to traditional interpretations of social structure and tradition. Han culture revolves around Confucianism, which seeks the pursuit of unity of self to Heaven (天; karanitan), which is regarded as the order of creation and divine authority, and is monistic in nature. Only through contemplation of this order and rigorous self-cultivation could one reach a state of transformation and enlightenment. It is humanistic at its core, seeking to promote social harmony through both social stratification and the establishment of hierarchies in each identified major relationship, the emphasis of virtue, morality, and the ethics. The are three identified major concepts; the Four Constants, the Four Values, and the Five Bonds – all connected to the central goal of maintaining social harmony. However, its history as a nation striving to differentiate itself from its larger neighbours, as well as continuous interaction between its many ethnicities and regional cultures, has created a distinct and unique culture within Hani, distinct from Chinese culture which has greatly influenced it.

There is a strong sense of national identity interwoven into Han culture which unifies all Hans (in a sense of citizenship and allegiance, or civic nationalism) regardless of their origins or beliefs. Those who are applying for citizenship are legally required undergo the process of supervised assimilation (required to achieve proficient literacy in the Han language as well as have basic knowledge of Han culture and history) and naturalization. Due to this, many first-generation immigrants opt for permanent residency to avoid losing their own cultural identity. In addition to the mainstream culture of Hani, there are various distinct subcultures, with the most prominent being the culture of Palawan and Cuyo and Langbulong, two regions with either a White Han majority or plurality, which are more influenced by Christianity and Sierran culture. Palawañeno culture is also noticeably more heavily socially-liberal and cosmopolitan, as a result of acculturation derived from frequent intercultural contact between its different residents.

Mass media

Television and radio

Han mainstream media is dominated by three major broadcasting companies: the state-owned National Broadcasting Service (NBS), and the privatized Zhenjing Arts Corporation (HAC) and Hibiscus Network Company (HNC). Around 120 million Hans are subscribed to a cable, satellite, or other forms of television broadcasting. On average, a Han spends about two hours a day watching television programs (excluding time spent on computers, tablets, or other mobile devices). The number of hours is significantly higher among younger age cohorts, reaching as high as four hours among the 13–18 age group. Conversely, while the average Han only spends thirty minutes listening to radio programming, Hans use music-streaming services quite often with usage among younger Han reaching six hours.

Important genres of television include; romantic and historical dramas, news programs, documentaries, and variety and game shows. Shopping channels have become quite popular in recent years as well, and the models sometimes put on entertaining acts during product pitches. There is frequent censorship, and many foreign programs (notably Sierran television and Japanese anime) are banned to air on public television, with those permitted often designated to occupy late time-slots.

Print

Internet usage

Hani is a renowned world leader in internet connectivity and penetration, having the world's second-highest average internet connection speed at twenty megabits per second. It is the second country to achieve over fifty-percent broadband penetration per capita, and also to complete full conversion from dial-up to broadband. Since its launch, Hani has consistently ranked within the top five for the ICT Development Index. A poll conducted in 2014 showed that Hans spent approximately four hours online, additionally, according to a 2007 study, over ninety percent of Hans, or about 135 million people, utilize the internet on at least a weekly-basis.

The top level domain (cctld) for Hani is .hn, with the most popular websites in Hani (excluding search engines and web portals) in 2013 being the social media sites Whistler and Sumi, alongside the video-streaming site Viewer. Mainstream Western sites including Youtube and Facebook are seldom used, as much of their contents are either blocked (especially those critical of the regime) or unable to attract public attention.

Cinema

Music

Until the eighties, conservative trot and ballads dominated the music scene. However, the relaxation of restrictions implemented upon cultural imports resulted in the emergence of contemporary Han popular music (otherwise known as H-pop). The nascent genre was heavily influenced by J-pop, Europop, electropop (including other derivative forms of synth-pop), dance-pop, bubblegum pop and EDM. It is characterized by an abundance of audiovisual elements, performers and artists are typically part of a same-sex group (boy or girl bands) rather than being solo artists or duos.

The major music-recording companies in Hani are (listed in amount of revenue): Zhenjing Entertainment (ZJE), Southern Star Entertainment (SSE), and Chutsu Entertainment (CTE). Most music artists typically debut at a young age (ranging between sixteen to twenty-one), and undergo at least two years of vigorous training alongside their normal daily schedule.

Cosmetics and beauty standards

Han beauty standards are a distinctive part of Han culture, with Hani having the highest rate of cosmetic surgeries per capita. About a fifth of women aged 21–49 has had cosmetic surgery (with the most popular procedures being nose augmentation, jaw reduction, and rib removal), with men only comprising a tenth of clientele. Examples of Han beauty criteria include; a high-bridged nose, a small soft v-shaped face, double eyelids, and pale clear skin. Most of these features are thought to exemplify innocence and chastity.

It is a social norm for both and men to spend a lot on cosmetic products. Popular products include blemish balm creams, colour correction creams, essences, serums, exfoliating scrubs, and facial masks (which are intended to serve a lot of purposes). Many Han beauty products contain ingredients that are not included in Western products; including, tea tree oil, green tea extract, and snail cream. In addition to cosmetic products, beauty is said to be achievable through certain dietary or therapeutic practices, which are largely derived or influence from Chinese traditional medicine or local animist tradition.

Literature, philosophy, and the arts

Cuisine and dining

Han cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its humble origins to become highly fusionist, incorporating numerous Chinese (particularly the regional cuisine found in Guangdong and Fujian), Spanish, Indian and Japanese elements that had been adapted to locally-produced ingredients and palate. Seasoning is used heavily to add flavours; for example, garlic is used to enrich the taste and mask the scent of dishes utilizing entrails, while coconut milk and peppers are used in creamy dishes. Spices commonly used are ginger, chili peppers, and powdered black pepper. Other seasonings include soy sauce, oyster sauce, vinegar, salt, sugar, and rice wine. With the exception of coriander and spring onions, which are merely used as garnish, there is little to no usage of herbs.

Similar to other Asian countries, rice enjoys status as the staple grain and formulates the basis of a standard Han diet. However, sweet potatoes and maize, which have been introduced as part of the Columbian Exchange, has emerged as widely-used crops as well. Pork and chicken alongside seafood are the most heavily consumed meats, although Han cuisine readily uses any edible meats; including entrails, offal, and molluscs. Fruits including mangoes, bananas, avocados, and dragonfruit are rarely added into dishes, and instead consumed separately raw, while vegetables are typically boiled or stewed prior to consumption.

Dining is traditionally considered an important social activity that reinforces familial relations. Western-style utensils are seldom used, and instead dishes are consumed with the use of chopsticks, or when consuming the liquid contents of soups or stew, a Chinese-style spoon. Main course dishes are typically eaten with a variety of side-dishes, with confectionaries or sweet-drinks concluding meals. Alcoholic beverages may be ingested during meals, with spirits or beer consumed casually, while wine is typically reserved for formal settings.

Public holidays and celebrations

Footnotes