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Great Han Empire
大華帝國
Flag of Hani
Imperial seal of the Southern Han dynasty
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 十六的格言
(Sixteen Maxims)
Anthem: 大文上廣東
(Triumph across the Eastern Expanse)
Arirang
Royal anthem天降大任
(Divine Mandate)
Arirang
Haniorthographic
Capital
and city
Zhenjing
Official languages Han (Zhenjing dialect)
Religion Confucianism (majority), Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity, Islam
Demonym Han, Luçoner (poetic, antiquated)
Government Unitary semi-parliamentary semi-authoritarian constitutional monarchy
• Empress
Li Meiyu
Zhang Shidao
Legislature Imperial Diet
Senate
People's Assembly
Independence from Sierra
December 8th, 1941
February 2nd, 1944
September 2nd, 1946 to July 4th, 1949
February 2nd, 1999
Area
• Total
337,900 km2 (130,500 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
0.6
Population
• 2017 estimate
152,503,933 (8th)
• 2015 census
151,523,040 (8th)
• Density
271.4/km2 (702.9/sq mi) (23rd)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$7.326 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$48,040
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
• Total
$5.405 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$35,448
Gini (2017) positive decrease 33.8
medium
HDI (2017) Green Arrow Up Darker 0.901
very high · 15th
Currency Han Qian ( or ¢) (HNC)
Time zone Han Standard Time (UTC+8)
Date format mm-dd-yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +63
ISO 3166 code PH
Internet TLD .ph
The Great Han Empire (大華帝國; Tai Hanziguo), commonly just referred to as Hani (大華; Tai Han), is an insular nation located in East Asia. It exercises jurisdiction over a total of nineteen subdivisions: fifteen provinces, two special autonomous regions, one special municipality, and one special territory. It can be split into three major island groups (Lusong, Mishayan, Mianlanlao), which collectively straddle the westernmost extremities of the Pacific Basin. It has a total of 145 million residents, and an area of 300,000 km2 (or 120,000 sq mi).

The metatarsal of the Callao Man is the oldest known human remnant within the islands carbon-dated to 67,000 BC, predating the Tabon Man (which previously held the position) by 40,000 years. In 4000 BC, Austronesian peoples originating from Taiwan, absorbing the earlier Malay arrivals, with other displaced populations moving upland (precursors of the Aeta and the Sambal). By at least third century, various port principalities and lowland fifedoms (known as "barangay") emerged. Eventually, these formed the basis of the kedatuan, a decentralized system of governance in which vassals pledged allegiance to suzerains in-exchange for autonomy in internal affairs.

The Lakanate of Tondo is regarded as its direct precursor; and by the fifteenth century, through a period of brute conquest, it exercised jurisdiction and influence over much of Lusong. It secured multiple preferential trading agreements with China under the guise of a tributary relationship, thus receiving a virtual monopoly on the re-distribution of Chinese products, therefore amassing a exceedingly-high level of wealth and forging extensive overseas trading relations. Victories in the Battle of Manila, the First and Second Castillian Wars, and the Manila Bay Incident all reinforced its territorial legitimacy from adversaries jealous of this monopoly, eventually incorporating much of the archipelago under its suzerainty through vassalization, while directly-annexing several territorial acquisitions. The arrival of nearing two million Ming royalists en-masse during the Qing Conquest of the Ming initially destabilized the country; introducing minor bouts of plague (mainly cholera, diarrhoea, and other intestinal diseases) and polarizing the imperial court. The invasion of Koxinga in 1662 led to two decades of foreign rule, while the Lakandula was initially kept as a figurehead (retaining their titles but stripped of actual authority), the Fall of Tungning in 1683 prompted the House of Zheng to install itself and dissolve the Lakandula. The meticulously-planned Maharlika Conspiracy oversaw their dethronement, only to result in a period of socio-political disorder and instability stemming from an absence of a central binding authority.

The House of Li, a branch of the now-defunct Lakandula, seized the throne and proclaimed the Southern Han dynasty, backed by the Chinese nobility. Centralization was achieved through abolishing the Kedatuan-style of governance, curtailing much of the aristocratic prerogative and inheritance in-favour of imperial examination and a system of contracted servitude and land lease. Through the Ten Great Campaigns, various ambitious projects were implemented including; the promotion of Confucianism, the Sixteen Maxims, and Hokkien and Mandarin (as the lingua franca and court/administrative language, respectively). It cultivated an extensive trading relation with the West, shipping vast quantities of luxury goods (including silk, porcelain and gold-based jewelries) to Western markets; enabling an influx of silver which underpinned a previously baseless economy and stimulating internal commerce. Following British victory in the First Opium War, the isolationist Sarado policy was implemented, earning the country the nickname the "Southern Hermit Kingdom". However, rife intermarriage between commoners and aristocrats led to a disproportionately-sized elite due in-part to the ramifications of enforced patrilineal succession and inheritance policies, which led to political strife and an inefficient corrupt administration. Regionalist and separatist movements culminated in the eight year-long Lingayen Rebellion in the 1850s, with the Han-Spanish Treaty of Amity marking a series of unequal treaties and economic exploitation by the West, eventually succumbing to Sierran imperialism following the Han-Sierran War.

Between 1916 to 1927, Hani was ruled under a colonial government, with the estates and properties of former aristocrats and peasants being seized and redistributed to defectors and collaborationists. By the 1920s, due to the increasingly extensive influence of classical liberalism and multiculturalism within Sierran politics as a result of the coinciding Sierran Cultural Revolution and the Roaring Twenties, Hani was granted home-rule and is status within the Kingdom was lifted to that of an associated state/protectorate under the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was approved by the Sierran Parliament in 1926. A brief reinstatement of colonial rule oversaw assimilationist policies and failed attempts of incorporation into mainstream Sierran identity and culture, allowing the rise of the Nationalist Party. In 1941, during Japanese Occupation, it was installed as a puppet regime, with the exiled House of Li arriving from both occupied Shanghai and Tokyo, where they had previously received permanent residency and protection from the Japanese government.

After the resentment of Japanese occupation, the National Revolution (1943-1944) led to its independence from Japan – a movement backed by Sierra, which via Zhenjing Declaration, Sierra agreed to relinquish its control (but retaining territorial jurisdiction over Palawan and Cuyo until 1996). The Han Civil War and political turmoil led to disillusionment against the regime, with the Kapshin Revolution leading to the ascension of Premier Zhang Shuying in 1965. Through comprehensive and decisive policymaking under a centralized bureaucratic government, propped up a secure inflow of foreign capital arriving from reparations and various trading agreements, the nation's economy boomed and several ambitious projects were undertaken (as part of the Heavy Industrial Drive), greatly improving the stability and growth of the unstable country and marking its transition to a highly-developed industrial economy. Political strife and succession issues following the death of Premier Zhang Shuying and a brief three-year term by his wife, along with economic collapse arising from financial contagion from the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 and international condemnation following the publication of various human rights violations such as the Dawo Massacre, resulted in the establishment of a multi-party liberal democracy and its current constitution.

Hani currently leads Asia in Human Development Index (HDI), with a very high score of 0.916. Benefiting from high educational attainment (with virtually all adults aged 25-49 receiving post-secondary education, either through university or vocational education) and a strong work ethic, it exhibits the third-largest economy by GDP (PPP). A highly advanced information society, it has the world's third-fastest Internet connection speed, also ranking second in e-Government, 4G LTE penetration, ICT Development Index and smartphone penetration. It is an influential member of numerous key organisations (including the League of Nations and the Conference of American States, and recognised as major regional power and an emergent great power, and regarded by some analysts, as a potential superpower. However, problems including regional income disparities, discrimination towards ethnic and religious minorities, and issues including resurgent republicanism, support for federalism, all of which at least partially as a result of the North-South distinction, remain.

History

Prehistory

Main article: Prehistory of Hani

The earliest evidence of human habitation is the 67,000-year-old metatarsal of the Callao Man in Kalayan, along with the Angono Petroglyphs. The most widely accepted hypothesis on the settlement of the archipelago is the Out-of-Taiwan hypothesis, which hypothesizes that Austronesians from Taiwan (which themselves are descended from the neolithic cultures of the Yangtze River Valley, such as the Liangzhu culture) arrived into the islands starting in 4,000 BCE; either displacing earlier arrivals, or forcing them into the highlands. The first known culture was the Kumintang jade culture; whose presence was evident by exquisitely-crafted jade artefacts. Other early cultures include the precursors of the Ifugao and Igorot peoples, who built the Banaue rice terraces. The Sa Huỳnh culture culture was also present, with their sites abundant in iron-based artefacts; as typified by axes, swords, spearheads, knives and sickles. In contrast, much of the region was still utilizing bronze. An extensive trade network was also shown, as Sa Huỳnh beads were made of materials not obtainable within the region, indicating that they were likely imported. This culture also lived in the area now comprising the Mekong Delta.

The third century oversaw the establishment of chiefdoms known as barangay, which were headed by a Datu. While there was the presence of social stratification, political structure was highly decentralized and was typical to other Southeast Asian polities. Each barangay, which were concentrated in fertile lowlands and coasts, typically consisted of a hundred households, with several barangay housing thousands. By the ninth century, several coastal barangay emerged into thalassocratic port principalities, which, along with many other barangay were subjected under the suzerainty of other regional powers, providing tribute in-exchange for protection.

Tondo

Infancy

Tondo was founded in the ninth century as a port principality headed by a Lakan or a Rajah, a title equivalent to that of a King. It practiced advanced metallurgy (acquiring knowledge of gunpowder and artillery) and intensive wet-rice cultivation (with rice being the staple crop), and frequently traded pottery and agricultural products. Tondoese clay vessels were not only renowned for decorative purposes, but functioned as tea canisters greatly enhancing the fermentation process, making it highly-valuable for foreign merchants. In addition, there was a noted abundance in fowl, rice wine, and beeswax, alongside gold, which was used as the commercial currency (as ingots or bracelets) alongside barter trade. While the lingua franca was Tagalog, Old Malay was the language of the elite, with the former being transcribed with the Baybayin script, and the latter in the Kawi script.

Between 1320 and 1322, under the instructions of Rajah Alon, Tondo conquered Kumintang and Kabikolan. In 1365, Tondo ousted Majapahit in the Battle of Maynila, and instead pursued relations with the Ming in 1371, being granted a monopoly on the distribution of Chinese products under the guise of a tributary relationship. In 1450, under the rule of Dayang Kalangitan, established a personal union between Tondo and the Kingdom of Namayan, through intermarrying its sovereign, Rajah Lontok. She also expanded her dominion northward. In order to secure its special relationship with the Ming, Tondo allied with the Kingdom of Brunei to initiate a crackdown on wokou activity, which threatened its commercial shipping activities.

Reformation

Karakoa

A warship of the karakoa-class; these formed the backbone of the renewed and reorganized Tondoese Navy.

Goldenbelt

A golden belt typically worn by brahmi, or Hindu clergymen, unearthed in Butuan.

In 1500, Brunei under Sultan Bolkiah attempted conquer Tondo, seeking to inherit its trade monopoly and to incorporate it via personal union. While it was not successful, it caused Dayang Kalangitan to relinquish her control over the throne, instead instituting Salilah as the new Lakan. Under his tenure, Tondo implemented a total ban on Muslim proselytization and organized missionary activities. Many aristocrats following the faith were forcibly reconverted. Furthermore, Tondo reaffirmed its tributary status and its previously-forged preferential trading agreements with China.

Through these tributary missions, he realized that a more-coordinated whim over all available national resources is needed in order to establish a more organized and cohesive state. Utilizing knowledge acquired from envoys arriving from China, he institutionalized a more solid government, as until that point, the government was quite weak and unorganized, heavily relying on loyalist vassals. Despite these efforts at centralization, it still remained a Kedatuan, relying on aristocrats known as datus to administer barangay, which had a status equivalent to that of provinces or municipalities (depending on their size). However this time, they were taxed more and had to abide and reinforced codified laws designated by the central government. In addition to these, a centralized legislative body was made, comprising of appointed officials which had close familial ties to the Lakandula (the ruling family). Under a now powerful government, it implemented and enforced various reforms, including a codified system of law, tax reforms, the adoption of the Three Departments and Six Ministries and national census, and a larger well-equipped permanent standing army and navy (previously relying on paid mercenaries).

Heavy emphasis was especially placed upon naval expansion; Chinese warships were adopted and about two dozen of them were built, though the bulk of navy (which hovered at a total of two hundred permanent vessels) still remained of the modest-quality karakao and balangay-class. All of these were equipped with basic naval artillery, and soldiers and sailors alike were handed match-lock rifles, which replaced hand cannons as the primary gunpowder weapon used. Tondo utilized its growing naval capabilities to forcibly subjugate its chief southern rivals; Madja-as and Sugbu, via gunboat diplomacy. While the two nation's monarchs (which were referred to as Rajahs, instead of Lakan), retained autonomy over internal affairs under the role of a subordinate vassal, Tondo assumed the control of much of their navies and left a skeleton force of a hundred vessels. Initially, in-response to continuous threats of a follow-up Moro punitive expedition, Tondo, Seludong/Maynila, and Namayan (the three most important settlements of the Manila Bay) were all fortified. However, now-exploiting a now fairly-extensive naval force, it adopted a more hostile approach to the Moro settlements to the south, especially in Ma-i, whose elite began rapid Islamicization. In 1520, Tondo managed to liberate Ma-i and coerce Butuan into submission, now acquiring a base to obstruct Bruneian ambitions and a foothold in Mindanao, where Moro colonization efforts were concentrated.

Spanish contact

AncientHani

A painting depicting a group of traders amongst the backdrop of arriving Spanish galleon ships.

Doctrina-Christiana

A page of the Bible written and translated into Tagalog, in both the Baybayin and Latin script.

While Spanish conquistadors arrived in the islands considerably earlier, first 1521 under Ferdinand Magellan and multiple other expeditions known to the Tondoese government occurring subsequently, proper bilateral relations had not be established in 1565, upon the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and the establishment of a permanent colonial capital in Davao. Both shared common interests; both seeking to contain Brunei and establishing a mutually-beneficial trading relationship in which Spain could acquire Chinese goods while Tondo could standardize silver as its currency (rather than gold ingots and bracelets, which were more expensive to mine).

In response to this cordial relationship, Brunei strengthened its colonization efforts, sending settlers to colonize what was otherwise a sparsely-populated heathen territory. In 1568, the First Castillian War occured, with Spain and Tondo both attacking and occupying Moro settlements and territories. After Brunei's loss, Mindanao was partitioned; Sambuangan and the Sulu islands were annexed and directly-administered under Tondo as military-controlled territory, while the rest were incorporated into Spain and subjected into encomienda. However, missionary efforts to convert Tondo under Catholicism disturbed the aristocracy, with successive efforts to restrain and later fully expel them (with an institutionalized ban on Catholicism) quickly turning once cordial relations, sour. Bitter relations with the Spanish and other foreign players (mainly pirates including wokou), forced Tondo to assert its territorial legitimacy and exercise its naval prowess.

In 1574, following the Red Sea Incident initiated by Limahong, the Second Castilian War occurred, which ended in a failure and the ratifiation of the Treaty of Jolo. A compromise was eventually mutually-agreed upon; the port of Davao, which was already intensively-developed and had a large Catholic population, was kept as a leased port (under Tondoese suzerainty, yet administered by the Spanish). Meanwhile, Catholic missionary activity was restricted to a quota of only a hundred missionaries operating at any given time. This did little to affect the Trans-Pacific Trade and the Columbian Exchange, though the Spanish reoriented their focus on Taiwan. Between 1592 and 1597, Tondo aided Ming and Korean forces in the Imjin War, and was permitted to attack Japanese colonies in Kalayan and initiate a crackdown on wokou pirates controlling Kaboloan, both of which were incorporated into Tondo; the first as multiple subordinate barangay, and the latter as directly-controlled territory). During this period, several Japanese practices such as teeth blackening (which was practiced by the elite as a status of class) and the emerge of a tea culture managed to be adopted into Tondoese culture, via the influence of its Pangasinese and Japanese practitioners. In addition, several "turtle-ships" were covertly-taken from Korea, and were reverse-manufactured and added into the navy.

Fragmentation

Chuugwourinwomen

A painting showing two posing women of Chinese extraction.

Chineseenclavevillage

Most of the Chinese community often resided within monolithic enclaves which typically formed around the original settlement.

The severance of bilateral relations in accordance to a non-interventionist and non-affiliatory foreign policy pursued during the Qing conquest of the Ming (to avoid provoking the Manchu), coinciding with the sudden withdrawal of the Spanish silver supply, led to government bankruptcy and socio-political instability. This was exacerbated by the arrival of Ming royalists en-masse from 1644 to 1659; with poor hygiene and sanitation, coupled with increasingly dense living conditions, leading to outbreaks of disease (mainly of intestinal-nature, such as diarrhoea, but also smallpox), which devastated inland and highland populations which lacked biological immunity and tolerance. This lead to rising nativist and anti-Chinese sentiment, as they were accused of deliberately poisoning the water supply and were widely resented due to the wide income disparity between the two groups. By the 1660, census records (which were calculated via examination of tax revenue), placed the total population at an estimated ten million, with the Chinese population reaching critical mass; almost half of urbanites and a quarter of rural residents being Chinese in-origin. This prompted the establishment of the Chinese Resettlement Administration, however, assimilation became unfeasible, and many established enclaves detached from mainstream society.

The invasion of Tondo by Koxinga in 1662 resulted in the vassalization of Lakan Banao and his relatives, its subjugation as a tributary state (sending tributary missions thrice yearly). While the royalty and aristocrats retained their respective titles and practiced royal prerogative, true authority rested within a small selected group of Chinese nobility. The fall of Taiwan in 1683, forced the relocation of the House of Zheng (which ruled over the Kingdom of Tungning), and the dissolution of the Lakandula. However, its unpopularity led to various riots and insurrections, culminating in the Maharlika Revolt in 1685. Following the dethronement of the House of Zheng (which was sent into-exile in Batanes), succession issues and the absence of a centralized authority led to severe political strife.

Southern Han dynasty

Infancy

Hangentrymen

A painting depicting female Han aristocrats, due to the shortage of wives, many native women intermarried with Chinese noblemen.

The House of Li, under its patriarch Li Yang (who adopted the era name Diyi), was established, a daughter branch of the now-defunct House of Lakandula. The Kedatuan government was dismantled in favour of a unitary system comprised of provinces. Slavery was abolished, with slaves emancipated into tenant farmers, tending the estates and properties of their former owners in-exchange for rent. To monitor the movement of his subjects, in-response to various aristocratic insurrections following the abolition of slavery, Li Yang introduced a household registry system, replacing the previous system of quinquennial census, as well as a tagging system. In response to piracy from both the wokou (Japanese pirates) and southern rebel states, he led a punitive expedition, annexing the south and placing them under military administration, sending surplus population there to alleviate the increasing strain on the north by the high population. Several penal colonies were founded there, and became the first wave of settlers.

However, despite these, the Chinese aristocracy never desired the establishment of a new dynasty, and continued to view itself, as not a successor of the Ming, or rather, an extension. Many viewed the future conquest of the mainland as preeminent, and inevitable. Despite this, the Diyi Emperor adopted the Mandate of Heaven, while using his era name and Ming era names simultaenously. Partially driven by the paranoia of Qing invasion (despite its enforcement of Haijin and restriction of the size and extent of its navy) or Spanish intrusion, and also to maintain control, the Diyi Emperor pioneered a militaristic policy. A standing army was established, which numbered at roughly twenty thousand (with each provincial garrison hosting roughly a thousand troops). A law was implemented requiring the eldest son of each household to participate in compulsory military service for two years, then being registered as a reservist for the next five years. The Imperial Guard, which was based in Tondo and other cities which hosted an imperial palace, numbered at five thousand permanent guards. Heavy emphasis however, was placed on the development of a strong navy. Balangay and the karakoa models were phased out, and three ships of the Treasure ship-class were constructed for military use. Chinese junks formed the bulk of the reformed Han navy, and were constructed rapidly. From 1710 to 1714, a total of 500 such naval vessels were constructed, at a rate of roughly ten ships per month.

Apogee

Court

A painted/inked silk scroll depicting the Han imperial court.

Zhenjingpainting

A painting made by artist Yong Zue. It depicts a section of Zhenjing subjected under heavy boat traffic.

Zhuyin

An example of Zhuyin or Bopomofo, an auxiliary script promulgated by the Zhenmu Emperor, that is used alongside Hanzi to convey phonetic meaning.

The reign of the Zhenmu Emperor, born Li Lin, lasting from 1724 to 1796, oversaw the consolidation of the dynasty's territorial integrity and power. Upon her ascension to the throne following the death of her father, she officially established the Southern Han dynasty. Under her tenure, the aristocratic prerogative associated with the maginoo class (nobility) was rendered obsolete and was officially abolished, while absolutist measures were institutionalized and enforced in-order to curb the influence of the imperial court upon the decisions and edicts issued by the Emperor. An investigation against tax evasion and undocumented land properties also commenced; with violators stripped of any titles and sent into penal camps. After her reforms, while government corruption still remained rife, the Emperor was granted unprecedented power. In order to affirm her legitimacy conjunction to her claim over the Mandate, she ordered a crackdown on unorthodox Confucianist sects and announced the Sixteen Maxims (which outlined the beliefs of Confucianist orthodoxy), which were based off the Six Maxims of the Ming dynasty. The attitude towards women, remained fairly lax, and while females were still expected to follow their husbands and fathers, their sons would have to bow down to her upon widowhood. However, the traditions of matrilocality, bilineality, and jointly-led households were scrutinized, with household registration reflecting changes in official ideology.

The Ten Great Campaigns, which were intended to make Tondo catch-up to living conditions in China proper, was also launched. There was emphasis on the Three Principles; the promotion of infrastructural development, the promotion of commercialization and economic development, and the promotion of literacy and scholarship. With a select group of scholar-officials, she made the alphabetic Zhuyin script, which was intended to be an auxiliary script (ruby script) to Hanzi, and was often used as a vernacular form of writing. The Zhenmu Dictionary, which highlighted characters used in Standard Han Hokkien and their pronunciations, was also written, featuring over fifty thousand characters (with a simplified version of only eight thousand characters). While she maintained the traditional policy of discouraging the usage of Tagalog, she codified its grammatical and phonological rules, which later laid the fundamental basis for the later Han language. A vast amount of moveable types were also constructed, with increasing literacy and the lifting of literary inquisition leading to a renaissance in prose fiction. Asides from promoting scholarly activities, she also launched reforms leading to economic prosperity. The promulgation of proper agricultural techniques and methods, as well as the adoption of crop rotation, proper irrigation systems, and New World Crops led to a substantial rise in agricultural productivity and a secure food supply. An edict requiring the replacement of thatched roofing with clay tiles, and the recomposition of wooden houses with clay bricks, was also issued; while canals and road networks were intensively-developed to facilitate transportation and domestic commerce. However, a lack of a stable commercial medium was still apparent, with barter trade and the usage of gold ingots or bracelets being used interchangeably.

Hanyangyidynasty

A Western painting depicting Western territorial concessions in Zhenjing, as defined and granted by the Compact of Zhenjing.

Silvertael

A silver tael, which weighs approximately 1.33 ounces (worth approximately $24 in modern monetary value)

In 1748, the Compact of Zhenjing was launched, with interested European parties being granted a small territorial non-military lease in the Zhenjing Bay Area. This provided a second more larger market for its manufactured goods, with relatively low tariffs and free trade (as the it was not subject to an isolationist policy as the Qing had) enticing Europeans to trade with the it rather than the Qing. This proved to be a huge source of revenue, with the influx of silver bullion stimulating the further development of internal commerce and underpinned a previously baseless economy. The high demand for silver bullion deterred hyperinflation, and kept its value relatively stable. In 1752, the Zhenmu Emperor standardized silver taels as the common currency (with each tael weighing roughly 1.33 ounces), minting hundreds-upon-thousands of silver coinage annually to keep up with the demand. This coincided with the rapid development of textiles, porcelain, and other manufactures, as Chinese merchants and craftsmen pass on their production techniques to local businesses. While (due to administrative strain on an increasing population) the imperial court maintained a laissez-faire economic system, it did had substantial influence (via puppet monopolies) over several key industries; steel-making and metallurgy, the production of rifles and other gunpowder weapons, and shipbuilding, as well as the salt industry.

Ballooning trade

The imposition of a centralized system of administration, as well as various means to check the population (such as a national tag/identification system, the conduction of censuses every five years), as well as liberalized property and inheritance laws, lifting of tax burdens, and the abolishment of slavery (in-favour of contracted servitude) allowed the development of a labour-intensive commercialized economy. This was aided by a rise of demand for consumer goods, not only domestically, but from trading partners as per the Compact of Zhenjing. In fact, external trade grew at an annual rate of 5% during the 1700s, with the GDP per capita (PPP), adjusted for inflation, doubling from $1,100 to $2,000–placing it on-par with some of the economies of Western Europe and asserting itself as the most developed economy in the Orient. Due to the one-sided nature of this trade, European trading partners often developed a large trading deficit, whilst Hani ammased a huge supply of silver bullion, with the enlarged money supply further facilitating domestic commercial development.

Exports was not limited to commodities such as gold, copper, and iron (all found in large quantities), natural resources such as abaca, tobacco, honey, and spices. However, it also encompassed jewellery (made out of aforementioned precious metals), textiles, cotton, silk, handicrafts. Asides from silver, the Han dynasty also initially imported vast quantities New World crops, European-made rifles and arms (which were superior and more sophisticated than local ones), and exotics.

Orientalization

Hani underwent three main identified waves of sinification. This process radically changed the socio-cultural climate and attitudes within Hani (then under the Lakanate of Tondo), which saw its shift from a decentralized multicultural kedatuan to a cohesive more monocultural unitary state. It was marked with widespread and rapid reforms, forced or voluntary assimilation, integration of all lowland ethnicities into a single identity (thus resulting in rampant regionalism seen today), and violent outbreaks from reactionaries or dissidents. The first stage was minimal migration from China to Tondo. While the latter adopted many Chinese political policies and systems, as well as military technologies, to resist Bruneian competition and later Spanish imperialism; the majority of migrants remained merchants or artisans, and typically married within their own group, forming enclaves.

The second stage was accompanied by chain migration en masse, as pro-Ming Chinese nobility fled south to escape political persecution by the Qing dynasty, which ravaged over mainland China. These people came to constitute a fifth to a fourth of the total population, and was instrumental in bridging the gap between the two nations as well as providing fuel for the cultural shift. As part of its effort to legitimize its claim to the throne, the House of Li passed various edicts enforcing Confucian morals and rites (such as the Sixteen Maxims and filial piety), as well as changing laws and social structure to match that of a Confucian society. Areas that received a higher concentration of Chinese had sinicized via hierarchal diffusion, as the elite became staunchly sinicized either part to them being of Chinese ancestry or forced/voluntary assimilation. However, those that did not resisted assimilation. This diffusion was partially aided by miscegenation due to a gender imbalance among the Chinese migrants (skewed to young males) and the abolishment of poorly-enforced anti-miscegenation laws. Asides from this, cuisine also incorporated elements from Fujianese and Cantonese cuisine, while architecture was "modernized"; with buildings required to be made out of clay bricks or any solid material rather light material, with thatch roofs were replaced with tiles. With traditional nipa huts being highly discouraged, buildings were often remodeled to fit Chinese designs.

The third stage, was triggered by a second set of "Hannicization" laws, and were mainly directed to those who have yet to assimilate or multicultural individuals. These individuals were located in peripheral agrarian regions, such as the mountains or the south. This was triggered by the government's desire to establish a unitary monolithic culture during the 19th century, and to bridge regional identities. These laws included the adoption of Chinese surnames, renouncement of animistic beliefs (such as Anito). Instrumental to this shift was the abolishment of the serfdom system, which flourished in the south (but had declined considerably in the north), allowing the emancipation of many serfs and the enforcement of contracted servitude as had happened in the north. This elevated the status of former serfs to that of their former landlords, which were of Chinese-descent, alleviating any animosity between the two and increasing their receptivity to adopting sinicized Han culture.

Friar Rebellion

Political strife, overpopulation, collapse

Population growth in Hani (1700–1800)
Country/region 1700 1720 1740 1760 1780 1800 1820 1840
Hani 10,000,000 (Straight Line Steady N/A) 11,000,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 10%) 13,500,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 22.7%) 18,800,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 39.25%) 27,000,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 43.6%) 36,000,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 33.33%) 41,500,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 15.3%) 44,500,000 (Green Arrow Up Darker 7.2%)
Japan 29,000,000 (Straight Line Steady N/A) N/A 30,496,900 (Straight Line Steady N/A) 30,328,100 (Red Arrow Down -0.55%) 30,432,400 (Green Arrow Up Darker 0.34%) 29,977,690 (Red Arrow Down -1.5%) 31,124,500 (Green Arrow Up Darker 3.82%) 31,102,100 (Red Arrow Down -0.07%)

Later Li period

Political strife

Isolationist policies

Unequal treaties with Europe

Li Han Rebellion

Huang Restoration and reforms

Han–Sierran War

Under Sierran suzerainty

Sierranoccupation

A picture depicting Sierran colonial officials shooting peasants that had been protesting for forceful seizure of land without payment.

In 1905, following the Han–Sierran War (1903-1905), Sierra successfully subjugated Hani as a protectorate under the Han-Sierran Protectorate Treaty. However, the legality of the treaty had been disputed due to the Empress dowager not applying the royal seal, and she had not chosen a heir in case of her death. This caused some international backlash, but the Sierran claim on the islands was legitimized and eventually accepted due to the involvement of pro-Sierran defectors and the suppression of political emigrées.

The House of Li retained power however, though real authority fell on a new class of reformist aristocrats seeking collaboration with the Sierran government. The taxation system was heavily revamped as compensation for the war expenses; large tracts of land were stolen from landlords and land tenants were often evicted. However, the tax system often exempted collaborationists. The suzerain government eventually pursued closer integration into Sierra (as a constituent Kingdom) in-order to effectively coordinate resources management and to avoid international scrutiny. This led to a five-year process of gradual integration from 1915 to 1920, with the House of Li planned to be fused as a cadet branch of the Sierran House of Columbia.

April7thmovement

About an estimate five million Hans had participate in protests. About two million activists were jailed, with fifty thousand activists executed.

In 1918, however, widely publicized intermarriages between the two were accused of being an orchestrated plot to terminate the royal lineage and "whitewash" the royalty. This led to mainly-peaceful pro-independence rallies and strikes, all loosely coordinated under the First Independence Movement. This hastened the annexation process, and instead of a constituent state, it became a directly-governed colony. Exploiting the First World War, Sierra brutally suppressed dissidents and committed atrocities against them, including the Corregidor Massacre and the institution of concentration camps. The House of Li was eventually ousted, with the Imperial Palace symbolically burnt to ashes. Many of the activists were jailed and tortured, with thousands publicly hanged. Royalty fell mainly into two groups; those who led to Shanghai (based in Shanghai), or those who led to Japan, and were granted permanent residency. Some married into the Japanese imperial family.

Roaring Twenties

U218257INP

A picture of downtown Zhenjing

Qipao1

Two women wearing qipao in a 1920s soap advertisement

During the First World War, Sierra had utilized bases in Hani to seize and occupy German colonial holdings in the Pacific, and therefor increasing control over the Pacific. As part of the Treaty of Versailles, the Caroline islands were transferred from Germany to Sierra, administered as a part of Sierran East Indies. The Sierran colonial administration began to shift from free market plantation economy, to a centrally-planned industrial economy (establishing institutional basis of the current economic system). This change marked a period of intense economic modernization due to postponed spending, and the previous munitions and armaments facilities being retooled to the mass-production of consumer goods, which instilled a culture of consumerism among those who can afford such luxuries. There was also a boom in infrastructural development, with electricity and various telecommunication systems (such as the telegraph, telephone) being implemented en-masse.

The following period, known as the Roaring Twenties, saw the cementation of the Sierran Cultural Revolution (which turned Sierra from a monolithic to a fusionist culture), which has reached critical mass as many educated Hans emigrated to Sierra. However, this cultural exchange was mutual, with Sierrans introducing and popularizing the ideals of classical liberalism and first-wave feminism through mass media. Hedonism and individuality became very popular, facilitated by the erosion of traditional Confucianist beliefs. Due to the notion of human sexuality being liberalized, more revealing Western-style clothing was adopted by the elite and the middle-class, with the qipao being especially-popular. Cosmetics, which were previously discouraged due to their association with prostitution, became socially-acceptable. Many of the rich indulged in luxuries, such as alcohol and spa treatments.

The official use of Han Hanzi (instead of the Latin alphabet) was legalized, as the usage of Sierran Hanzi to transcribe Sierran English became prevalent. However, Sierran English still remained the de jure lingua franca, whilst the usage of Han Hokkien was heavily discouraged. Despite this, due to the increase in literacy and the relaxation of laws (most notably the repeal of literary inquisition), the printing industry flourished, with the genre of prose fiction particularly receiving much popularity. Primary education was made compulsory, and an edict requiring all adults to be literate was implemented, raising the literacy rate from just 28.33% (in 1920) to 76.25% (five years later, in 1925), with near-universal literacy (>95%) being achieved in 1933.

From 1927, up until 1935, while the Sierran East Indies continued to maintain its status as a colony, for the first time ever, all Hans were granted universal suffrage and Sierran citizenship (with the previous quota on immigration, which was already largely unenforced, being fully-repealed). Hans were allowed to vote among a specific pool of preliminary candidates (determined by the federal government) to serve their colonial government coinciding with the Sierran elections, however, they were additionally granted the ability to vote for Sierran politicians (but not directly-participating in them unless they are Sierran residents). The Peace Preservation Law was also unanimously approved by the Sierran legislature, and was enacted specifically to target political groups that were counted as radical or detrimental to national security; it not only prescribed overtly harsh penalties on dissidents, but also justified the usage of brutality on them.

Great Depression

World War II

Cold War

Han Civil War

Initial isolationism

Following the Han Civil War, the government of Hani was virtually bankrupt, with its Western allies under scrutiny for being unable to bail the government and avert economic fallout. This was worsened by the concurrent Korean War (in which Hani reluctantly participated in), which forced the relocation of the few foreign funds originally allocated to economic recovery to the production of armaments and weaponry for the war effort. The controversy sparked by this and related issues (such as the activation of national conscription) led to the formation of an Ameroskeptic and rather hostile intellectual climate, with the Jin administration being heavily criticized and alienated as overtly pro-West. The death of Head Chairman Jin Li in 1953 (at the age of 73), prompted the establishment of a short-lived provisional council comprised of fourteen politicians. However it was overthrown and abolished by former First Deputy Miao Yang just sixty-days following its creation. His first year oversaw the establishment of martial law and the suspension of habeas corpus, enabling him to jail and executive political opponents, including several of his colleagues.

Initially, Hani sought to limit foreign influence by reimplementing a policy of strict non-intervenionism and semi-isolationism, joining the Non-Aligned Movement. It drafted an economic policy of autarkey-oriented import substitution-led industrialization, adopting a more interventionist approach. To strengthen its independence and legitimacy, it militarized and normalized relations with several communist nations; most notably the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, being among the first of the non-communist nations to recognize the latter's independence and validity. However, it still maintained bilaterial relations with Hainan and recognized it as a separate entity. As population growth began to outstrip growth in agricultural productivity (which was stagnant), Hani became a net importer of grains, and established various trading agreements with both China and the Soviet Union establishing tax exemptions on the trade of agricultural products. Despite the rather lax stance against the communists on the international scene, Hani continued to enact various anti-leftist legislation and persecute those with such beliefs, with classical liberals and other associated political groups included. In the response to Han emigration, emigration and immigration laws were tightened, barring anyone (save for a few exceptions) from entering the country nor flee it.

Heavy Industrial Drive

Rapprochement with the West


Tchiang Shiokueng

Zhang Shuying and his wife.

The Kafushin Revolution (otherwise known as the Yang Wood Dragon Revolution), led by Head General Tchiang Shiokueng abolished the increasingly plutocratic administration. Convinced that the poor socio-economic conditions resulting from inadequate and underfunded reconstruction programs would cause the country to lapse into communism, Zhang Shuying dissolved the powerless National Assembly and the position of President; instead re-instating the then-exiled House of Li and its monarch as the head of state. Hani under the new military junta declared anti-communism would lay the basis of the new foreign policy, severing ties with the Soviet Bloc and China, joining the Conference of American States (CAS) and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) as a special observer state, while joining the Trans-Pacific Allied Community (TPAC) as a full-fledged member state. Hani tried to reestablish and normalize bilateral relations with Sierra, ratifying the Treaty on Basic Relations in-exchange for reparations for atrocities and damage inflicted during the colonial era (including forced labour and the seizure of property without consent); a sum of approximately $2.4 billion (in 1964 dollars), or approximately $18.58 billion in modern monetary value. Asides from financial compensation, Sierra promise to grant free college tuition to scholars for the next six years.
Economic development
Steelplanthani

Steel, coal, and other related industries grew by an average of 25% annually during the first decade of the Heavy Industrial Drive.

Hanyang70s

Zhenjing hit a population of ten million residents by the mid-seventies, surpassing Tokyo to be the largest megacity in the Orient; and the world.

The administration constructed a centrally-planned export-oriented market economy based upon the practices of East Asian capitalism. Hani utilized the abundance of cheap yet abundant labour as the catalyst for economic development; which were laid out through various economic plans prioritizing the development of heavy industries. In addition, it was rich in human capital, already holding a relatively high educational attainment, especially for the region and compared to countries espousing a similar level of socio-economic development. Hani for example, displayed universal primary schooling and a majority literate population. Financial capital was considered also a pre-requisite for such rapid and ambitious development, so the regime graciously allowed direct-foreign investment and eagerly accepted the influx of financial aid. Furthermore, a select group of businesses engaged primarily in heavy industries were selected by the government. These businesses were granted low-interest loans and numerous tax benefits from the banking sector (monopolized and nationalized by the state-owned Han Central Bank), and under government supervision and guidance grew into large international business conglomerates known as Qianzu, which were mainly family-owned and privatized.

As a result, the Second Economic Plan yielded favourable results, consistently breaching goals in spite of allegations of deliberate inflation of the results. The industrial sector rose rapidly, aided by the massive demand for labour-intensive manufactured goods in Western and Japanese markets. Workers began to congregate in urban areas (particularly the emerging Zhenjing megacity) where the majority of industrial facilities and employment opportunities were situated in, causing a massive brain drain within rural communities. In order to facilitiate the modernization campaign, the Confucianist work ethic was instilled, with many workers serving long working hours as a result. To maximize labour participation, women were encouraged to work as well, which coincided with the two-child policy and the breakdown of traditional family roles. These and other efforts promoting the full usage of idle resources maximized gross economic output.

Political turmoil
Hanicurfew

To monitor the movement of people and filter civilians from potential conspirators, mandatory curfew was enforced, with disobedients questioned and jailed.

Vietnam-War

Despite substantial domestic opposition (which was brutally oppressed), over 300,000 Han soldiers served in the Vietnam War, encouraged by various financial incentives.

However, despite rapid economic development and stringent attempts to restrict and censor leftist material, pro-socialist movements began growing in popularity by the early seventies, becoming a minuscule but vocal minority. This was in response to growing social and regional wealth disparities, as the agrarian southern provinces often lagged in development and failed to achieve comparable gains made by the northern provinces. The Han government's legitimacy was also challenged by its deep involvement in the Vietnam War; as it viewed this as an opportunity to prove loyalty to Sierrans skeptic of Han cooperation, and to justify an increasingly militaristic foreign policy, many also viewed it unnecessary to intervene in Indochinese affairs especially when Hani itself has just finished reeling itself from its own civil war. In response to mounting public scrutiny, the majority of active Han forces serving in Vietnam withdrew in 1973, a move mirroring the policy of Vietnamization pioneered by Anglo–America. In face of the newly-pursued Pawnee Doctrine, Hani was encouraged to soften its image to China, eventually re-normalizing bilateral relations, and establishing a consulate (then a full-fledged embassy) situated in Fuzhou. As part of the agreement, Hani supported their ascension to the League of Nations as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (a position previously held by Hainan).

In 1972, the Nationalist Partisan Convention occurred, which sought to strip laws regarding term length (at the time, it was set at a maximum of one decade-long term), and grant the Prime Minister unchecked power, with bills and amendments being reviewed and passed at whim by the Cabinet; rendering the Imperial Diet irrelevant and powerless. This proved at odds at the oppositional faction, with the Li Han Mutiny prompting the government to suspend the constitution and habeas corpus, and the implementation of martial law, to enable him to effectively purge the legislature of opposition. Politicians found to be against the regime are often detained, eventually sentenced to exile with their extended families (often to Sierra). In extreme cases, they were assassinated by hired hitmen or fanatic supporters of the regime. Public surveillance, and other efforts to monitor the movement of people, such as compulsory identification tags, were also implemented.

As Hani supported Palestinian self-determination, and supported a compromise between Palestine and Israel, as well as not participating in the Yom Kippur War, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided not to blockade Hani. However, the 1973 Oil Crisis revealed the flaws of such an export-oriented economic model, as the Han economy began to falter after contracting financial contagion from its Western markets (which suffered coinciding recession and inflation, later called stagflation). Despite this, growth persisted and accelerated under tolitarian rule. In order to maintain such stellar growth, more interest-free loans and credit were handed out; which resulted in the rise in bad debt and non-performing loans, which were often covertly bailed out by the government.

Establishment of '87 constitution

Post-reunification period

Geography

Hani is an archipelago comprised of numerous islands. It is bordered by the East China Sea to the north, the Han sea (East Han Sea) to the east, the South China Sea (West Han Sea) to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred miles southwest while China is located directly to the northwest. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest. The Han home island islands, otherwise known of Hani proper (comprised of three island groups; Beido, Chuudo, and Namdo), has a total of 7,107 islands with a total area of 300,000 km2 (115,831 sq. mi).

Mount-apo

Mount Apo, an active stratovolcano, is currently the second highest point in Hani, and the highest within Hani proper.

The highest point in Hani is Mount Yushan; located on the island of Taiwan, it measures up to 3,952 meters (12,966 feet) above sea level. In contrast, Galathea Depth in the Han Trench is the deepest point in Hani and is the third deepest point in the world with a depth of more than 10,540 metres (34,580 feet). The trench is located in the Han sea. The longest river is the Gaya river which is located in the Gaya governorate. Its basin measures at a 27,280 km2 (10,533 sq. mi) while having a total length of 505 km2 (314 sq. mi). Zhenjing Bay, which is next to the capital city of Zhenjing, is connected to its largest lake, Lake Baiya, via the Pashigi River.

Hani is situated on the Western fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, and as a result, Hani experiences common seismic and volcanic activity, with up to twenty earthquakes registered daily. Fortunately, an overwhelming majority of these earthquakes are too weak to be felt or to pose a threat to the island's safety. Not all geographic features are so violent or destructive, an example of one of the most serene legacies of the geologic disturbances is the Puerto Princessa Subterranean River, which is one of the new Seven Wonders of Nature. The surrounding area is a major target of conservation efforts, as it is one of the few largely untouched places in Hani, and contains a full mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and a high endemism rate.

Being located in the tropics, most of the islands, with the notable exemption of Beido (which is dominated by flatlands and urban agglomerations), are covered in thick tropical rainforest and are mainly volcanic in origin. As a result of its volcanic nature, Hani has the second-largest gold deposits globally, one of the largest copper deposits, but is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Hani is the world's largest geothermal producer, providing roughly a fourth (approximately twenty-four percent) of the country's electricity demand.

Climate

Hani has a tropical maritime climate, and is usually hot and humid. Temperatures usually range from 21ºc (70ºf) to 32ºc (90ºf) although it can get cooler or hotter depending on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.

Altitude typically is the most significant factor in regional variations in temperature, rather than location in terms of latitude or longitude. For example, the average yearly temperature in Kafugwai, which is at an elevation of around 1,5000 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level is 18.3ºc (64.9ºf). In contrast, the average yearly temperature at sea level is about 26.6ºc (79.9ºf).

Situated directly upon the typhoon belt, the archipelago receives yearly torrential rains and thunderstorms during the wet season, which lasts from July to October. An average of nineteen typhoons enter the Han area of responsibility annually, with about eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.

Climate data for Hani
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
25.3
(77.5)
26.1
(79)
27.0
(80.6)
27.3
(81.1)
26.8
(80.2)
26.5
(79.7)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
27.3
(81.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.5
(77.9)
26.31
(79.33)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 147.8
(5.819)
99.4
(3.913)
97.2
(3.827)
93.3
(3.673)
188.4
(7.417)
235.9
(9.287)
286.6
(11.283)
273.1
(10.752)
269.4
(10.606)
273.7
(10.776)
257.7
(10.146)
226.7
(8.925)
2,449.2
(96.424)
Source: Han Institution for Climate and Meteorology

Government and politics

Overview and elections

Hani is a unitary single-party constitutional monarchy, while the monarch is the designated head of state, real power rests resides in the Premier, the head of government; leading not only the Cabinet and the rest of the executive branch, but the Nationalist Party as the Head Chairman. The electoral system is non-democratic and pyramidal, with elections taking place very decade and all participants required to be a member of the Nationalist Party. All provincial and sub-provincial governments are directly-elected through popular vote. However, the higher political posts including the members of legislative (barring the executive and judicial) branches, are indirectly-elected by lower political posts. Finally, the members of the executive and judicial branch are elected by the members of the Imperial Diet. While the standard term length is ten years, there is no term limit, with all politicians applicable for term renewal.

The legislative body is the bicameral Imperial Diet, consisting of two chambers: the upper House of Peers (with seventy seats, five seats allocated per province) and the lower House of Representatives (with three-hundred seats). The judicial is headed by the Supreme Court. While it is the highest court in the country, it only has appellate jurisdiction over appeals cases relating to general and criminal law. The Constitutional Court has original jurisdiction surrounding any cases that involve constitutionality, having also additional powers on deciding cases regarding administrative legislation.

Han Nationalist Party

Monarchy

The royal house of Hani is the House of Li, with membership passed hereditarily through both patrilineal and matrilineal lines. Via the terms of the constitution, the monarch is limited to a figurehead, though is granted associated with the royal prerogative; including the symbolic right to declare war, participate in the negotiation and ratification of treaties, issue passports, the act of assent, issuance of edicts, and to create or dissolve government offices (under the discretion of the legislative and executive branches).

Administrative divisions

Hani is divided into fourteen provinces, which are in turn divided into prefectures, circuits, component and independent municipalities; which are all further divided into sub-entities including counties, districts, towns, neighbourhoods, villages, and hamlets. Each province is headed by a Governor, which is obligated to enforce federal law. All the provinces (with the exception of Mushirin) are autonomous and may be dissolved and reorganized by the discretion of the federal government.

Han Crown Armed Forces

The armed forces of Hani are divided into five distinct branches based on Sierran military organization: the Imperial Army, the Imperial Navy, the Imperial Air Force, the Imperial Marines, and the Imperial Coast Guard, which are all collectively known as the Han Crown Armed Forces (HCAF). While the Premier (also designated the Head Chairman of the Nationalist Party) wields the ceremonial title of Supreme Field Marshal, true authority is vested within the Head General (who functions as the commander-in-chief) and the Council of Officers (comprised of high-ranking military officials) and the Department of Defence and Public Security. As of 2015, the Department of Defence and Public Security has reported that there were approximately 1,600,000 Hans actively serving the military, with an additional 1,200,000 working as civilian employees for the military and associated government bodies. While military service is normally voluntary manner, conscription occurs during times of war. During times of war, all able-bodied men between the ages of 20 and 30 are automatically drafted and added into the waiting list, where they will receive three months worth of training before being deployed into battle. Individuals with health complications, disabilities, and obligations or other factors preventing a citizen from fulfilling their military duty are dropped out from the list (and can receive blacklisting from future drafts. Those who have moral objections may receive other options, such as being a medical personnel or engineer.

Hani is thought to wield one of the most powerful militaries, with the Second Cold War and the South China Sea dispute prompting it to increase its military capabilities (most notably the development of a blue-water navy; the first of its kind in Asia). Military spending is heavily technology-oriented, with a total budget of $158.34 billion as of 2017. Hani is a global leader in the shipbuilding and aerospace industries, though military spending has also been centred on manufacturing various armaments including missiles and guns (with domestic suppliers producing ninety percent of military items). While Hani is nuclear-capable, it is under the Sierran Nuclear Umbrella (due to its membership in the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, as well as special observer status within the Conference of American States) and its ratification of the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Foreign relations

It is the founding member of the League of Nations and is its most influential Southeast Asian member, even applying for permanent membership in the United Nations security council. Hani is also active in other organisations, representing the interests of the Han people. It has membership in, but not limited to, the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation, the East Asia Summit, the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and holds observer status within the Conference of American States. Most embassies and diplomatic missions are in Zhenjing and the areas surrounding it, though consulates are dispersed among Hani's major cities.

Hani also has military and defense pacts with nations, mostly with members of the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, though it, until the turn of the twenty-first century, has been largely interventionist in global military affairs. Even now, instead of participating directly in conflicts as a different side, it just sends aids that act under the wing of a separate polity.

Economy

Economic indicators
Nominal GDP $5.278 trillion (2017 est.)
Real GDP growth 2.8% (2017 est.)
CPI inflation 1.6% (2017 est.)
Employment-to-population ratio 67.5% (2017 est.)
Unemployment 0.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force participation rate 61.6% (2017 est.)
Total public debt $1.900 trillion (36% of GDP) (2017 est.)
Household net worth $24.133 trillion (2017 est.)
Hanyang

The skyline of Zhenjing; Hani's capital and most populous city.

Hani is designated as a highly developed economy, graduating from its status as a newly industrialized country in the eighties. It has a strong credit rating, though it is prone to damage due to a recent strain in West–Han relations and regional instability. According to estimates from the World Bank Organization, Hani's economy at power purchasing parity stood at roughly $7.246 trillion whilst its economy at market exchange rates stood at $5.278 trillion. This would make it ranked third and fourth globally according to which method is chosen. It is the largest economy within Southeast Asia, and the second-largest in Asia. A major economic power, it is a member of many economic organisations, including G20, G7, the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), World Trade Organization (WTO), and the the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Hani's economy is driven by the production and exportation of high-tech precision goods such as consumer electronics, computers, semiconductors, fine machinery, and petrochemicals, and is the world's second-largest exporter after China. Despite its wide-scale economic involvement in other regions, it is a well-known practicer of protectionism, placing high tariffs and has trading quotas on foreign imports to limit competition with domestically produced goods. It also practices some unfair trading practices, including currency manipulation to keep exports cheap. However, this does not stop it from being the fifth-largest importer as its economy relies on lots of petroleum, raw materials such as coal, timber, and agricultural goods to meet local food demands. Its main trading partners include members of the Conference of American States (mainly Sierra, and the United Commonwealth), China, and the European Union.

The Han market economy is considered to follow the East Asian model of capitalism. It is a centrally-planned economy, with certain central sectors being fully nationalised and publicly-owned. The secondary sector is dominated by privately-owned large-scale business conglomerates known as Qianzu, which are similar to the chaebol of Korea and the keiretsu of Japan. Meanwhile, the tertiary sector is dominated by privately small to medium-sized corporations. The nationalized Han Central Bank is the sole legal bank, lowering or raising the national interest rate to control inflation and unemployment.

Economic history and growth

From its founding until the military coup d'état in the late fifties, Hani operated under a strict command economy that pivoted around the policy of self-reliance. However, during the sixties, the economic policy shifted to an export-led industrialization model, which, coupled with unequal protectionist policies promoted the balance of payments. Two of the most critical and earliest reforms included the dismantlement of agricultural collectivization, and reorganization of many state-owned enterprises into privatized family-owned conglomerates. Initially facing a severe lack of funds, the Han economy began to receive a massive inflow of reparations from Sierra following the normalization of foreign relations, as well as receiving direct-foreign investment from foreign companies.

Economic development was organized under five-year economic plans, which emphasized the development of the heavy industrial sector, including the steel, shipbuilding, automobile-manufacturing, and petrochemical industries. To facilitiate economic expansion, banks (which were nationalized and publicly-owned) handed out interest-free loans and cheap credit. It also included the expansion of human capital (especially education), basic infrastructure, and full efficient utilization of all available and idle resources. This led to a prolonged economic boom–referred to the Miracle on the Chuu River–which lasted well after the ousting of the repressive military junta. This period oversaw an average of seven percent economic growth, rapidly catapulting Hani into the status of a developed country and a major economic juggernaut.

The severity upon it was hit during Asian Financial Crisis revealed structural weaknesses in the Han economy, including the rigidity of central planning and a weak social welfare system, as well as signalled a shift to consumption-based growth. These problems manifested on the aftermath of the Global Recession, while Hani avoided economic contraction, it did not escape an economic slump as the rate for economic expansion began to mature and slow amid troubles with a domestic credit troubles coupled with weakening international demand for its exports.

Trade

Infrastructure

Labour

Hanworker

A Han worker working in a semiconductor factory owned by the Han conglomerate Sanbit.

Workers' rights are both enshrined and entrenched in the Han Constitution, and as a result, Han labourers enjoy one of the highest-working standards and wages within the region. The Han minimum wage is set at $7.5 every hour, or $15,000 annually, and with the exception of temporary workers, receive benefits that include health insurance and subsidised tuition fees for their children.

Working hours are traditionally long; an excess of more than 2,000 hours annually (or eight hours per work day), with the working week being from Monday to Friday (with many working in Saturday as overtime). This long working period is a result of the government's attempt to facilitate economic expansion–in light of increased labor costs and a decline in the working-age population–through heightened productivity per worker, higher employment, and the mechanization of non-skilled labour. However, in response to several key problems brought by this long working period, the current administration has established a campaign that aims to lower working hours to 1,200 (a decrease by a third) hours a day within a 10-year transitionary period.

Many problems stem from the long working hours, including reported incidences of deaths in which workers were pushed to suicide or heart attacks/strokes brought by stress, an issue also prevalent in nearby Korea, Japan, and South Vietnam. It is also largely responsible for the country's fairly low (but rapidly rising) fertility rate, prompting the government to introduce efforts to facilitate child rearing by subsidizing child care services.

Currency

The Han Qian (Sign: or ¢; Code: HNC) is the official currency of Hani. It is divided into zen by a ratio of 1/100, and further divided into mun by a ratio of 1/1,000. The qian is largely issued in the form of banknotes, with coins becoming increasingly obsolete due to their low value coupled with rising consumer prices. A result of Hani's miraculous economic expansion, the qian has emerged as the world's third-most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the American dollar ($) and the Euro (€). A low inflation rate and value has led to its candidacy as a potential global reserve currency and is currently going further internationalisation in case either dollar or the euro crashes.

Demographics

Population

Ethnic composition 1990 2000 2010 2015
Han
86.8% 86.7% 86.6% 86.8%
Musilin
5.0% 5.0% 5.0% 5.1%
Yifugao
2.2% 2.0% 1.8% 1.7%
Liumade
1.0% 1.1% 1.2% 1.3%
Chinese
1.2% 1.2% 1.0% 1.0%
Other
1.8% 2.9% 2.4% 2.1%
Foreign expatriates
or permanent-residents
2.0% 2.2% 2.0% 2.0%
Hanyang

Hani is an urbanized country, with approximately eighty percent of its population residing in urban centres, including Zhenjing (pictured above)

Han women cheongsam

Two Han women wearing cheongsam, a popular straight close-fitting dress whose origins were in China, but were developed in Hani during the the Roaring Twenties

In 2012, the Han National Census Bureau has officially-counted a total of 149,075,917 residents, rising marginally to an estimated 151,121,525 residents in 2017; both the figures include citizens and foreign-born permanent residents. The population is highly centralized on the island of Liusong, which is home to above a hundred million people, with three-quarters (about 78 million) residing within the Greater Chuu plain. The largest ethnicity are the Hans which comprise roughly six-sevenths of the total population.

In addition, there are over three million foreign expatriates (comprising almost three percent of the total population); the largest enclaves are found in the territories of Palawan, Buhuru, and Little Netherlands, with the rest evenly-dispersed among major cities. However, this is attributed to historical Sierran settlement rather than recent immigration, as restrictive emigration policies have stalled repatriation attempts. Many eventually assimilated and became recognized as naturalized permanent residents; albeit reduced to the legal status of second-class citizens. Due to the recent laxity and liberalization of immigration laws, there has been an influx of a second wave of migrants, most of which are either mail-order brides or domestic workers from mainland Asia.

Citizenship and nationality are determined through the policy of jus sanguinis (right of blood); under Han law, any person with at least one legal parent of Han ancestry, regardless of place of birth and nationality can apply for citizenship. Introduced in the eighties, dual citizenship is typically reserved for foreign-born Hans that have resided within the country for a period of two years or more.

Vital statistics

In 1500, the archipelago had an estimated population of 8,000,000, half of Japan's (15,400,000) and comparable to that of Germany (10,500,000). Contemporary Hani has approximately almost twenty percent more people than Japan and twice that of Germany; with around 150 million people (almost a nineteen-fold increase) it is ranked eighth globally, ahead of Russia but behind Bangladesh.

Hani has chronic issue regarding low fertility rates; during much of the nineteenth century, it hovered between three to four births per woman. Even during the baby boom of the fifties, the fertility rate average was lower than the global average of five at the time. However, even this was higher than the replacement rate, which, coupled with low death rates, yielded high population growth during the nineteenth and early twentieeth centuries. During the early sixties, the population growth rate was very favourable, at over two per cent per annum. However, as urbanization occurred, the situation reversed. During the fifties, the fertility rate was 5.15 births per woman, in 2010, it reached a mere 0.90 births per woman–the lowest recorded of any major country. Fortunately pro-natalist policies has raised the fertility rate to 1.68 births per woman by 2017; lower than the French but higher than either the Japanese or the Germans. The current growth rate is roughly 0.7 percent per annum, but is predicted to start to stabilize by the mid-2030s.

The low birth rate and a high life expectancy (an average of 82.5 years in 2016) has also contributed to rapid ageing, with the average age of a Han being forty years. About a tenth of Hans are elderly (being older than 65 years), but the proportion could rise to near 40 per cent by 2050. Hani has a high rate of centenarians (people 100 years old or older), with 47 centenarians per 100,000 people.

Language

The Han language is the official language and the lingua franca of Hani. Virtually all Hans have the ability to speak the said language (or its derivative varieties) and to write in the Hanji script with a high degree of fluency. Another twenty percent speak another Hannic language. The official global regulatory body of the Han language is the Commission on the Han language, which governs the proper usage of the Han language.

English is the second most prominent language as words of English origin are often incorporated into signs and media. While it is mandatory in secondary and postsecondary education, and most Hans have attained basic skills in English, its public usage is rather minimal. Other languages spoken within Hani are Ilocano, Bikolano, Tagalog, Igorot, but these are largely restricted to ethnic groups of their origin.

Religious affiliation

HanConfucianists

Confucianists performing a ritual; Confucianism has been repressed under the Sierran East Indies, in-favour of Christianity

According to its constitution, Hani is a secularized state with no officially-recognized state religion; instead it actively supports the separation of church and state and guarantees the free exercise of religion. The state legislature, the Imperial Diet, is prohibited to pass any legislations regulating or promoting religious practices.

Confucianists are the majority, comprising almost three-fourths (approximately seventy percent) of the population; it is a nontheistic faith and pivots around a set of philosophical and ethical teachings developed by the philosopher Confucius. It is humanistic and rationalistic, and its beliefs are based upon the notion that humans are fundamentally benevolent; perfectible through both personal and communal endeavour. Buddhism is the second-largest faith, comprising seventeen percent of the population or constituting about twenty-five million adherents. While the three major branches–the Mahayana, Vajrayana, and Theravada sects–each have a notable presence, the latter is the most predominant.

Abrahamic religions that have notable followings include Christianity and Islam.

Christianity is the third-largest religion, comprising about eight percent of the total population or constituting about twelve million adherents. Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination, succeded by the non-trinitarian Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. Protestantism is not mainstream, with the Presbyterianism, Evangelicalism, and the Baptist tradition being the three largest Protestant churches. Church attendance rates are relatively high; with about two-thirds of registered Christians attending church on a weekly-basis, and virtually all attending on at least a monthly-basis.

Islam is a plurality within the south, comprising about three percent of the total population, translating to about roughly four million adherents. Most Muslims are followers of the Shafi'i branch of the Sunni sect.

The remaining two percent (or three million) have described themselves as either; spiritual but not religious, irreligious, agnostic, and/or atheist.

Family structure and law

According to the government census, the majority of Hans are either married or co-habitated (8%)). Two percent were widowed, 6% are divorced, and the remaining 7% are currently not engaged in any sort of long-term relationship. Family structure revolves around the deeply-rooted concept of a nuclear family, and is treated as the second-most important societal unit after the collective community. Hani is traditionally a matrilocal society, and households are jointly-led by a matriarch and patriarch. In the past, clans lived within the same proximity of each other, and the residents of each house represented up to four generations. However, urbanization has led to the growing irrelevance of clan relations, and the incidence of smaller families.

While same-sex relationships have been documented since medieval times, and is not shunned upon, marriage is still traditionally regarded as a monogamous union between a man and a woman, though the notion has been recently challenged by same-sex couples. However, same-sex civil unions are recognized. Marriages revolving around incest, including cousin marriage (though relations between second cousins are permitted in special cases, if they had not prior to their relationship), is strictly forbidden. Polygamy is similarly outlawed and strictly-enforced laws regarding adultery and extramarital sexual affairs are in-place. All of these are classified as felonies by federal law, with felons receiving up to life imprisonment for breaking these offences.

Culture

While Hani is politically liberal (institutionalising equality, liberty, and democracy as its core tenets of its domestic policy), it is still socially and culturally conservative, conforming to preexisting socio-political norms and establishments, as well as reverence to traditional interpretations of family structure and tradition. Han culture revolves around Confucianism, which seeks the pursuit of unity of self to Heaven, which is regarded as the order of creation and divine authority, and is monistic in its structure. Only through contemplation of this order and rigorous self-cultivation could one reach a state of transformation and enlightenment. It is humanistic at its core, seeking to promote social harmony through both social stratification and the establishment of hierarchies in each identified major relationship, the emphasis of virtue, morality, and the ethics. The are three identified major concepts; the Four Constants, the Four Values, and the Five Bonds – all connected to the central goal of maintaining social harmony. However, its history as a nation striving to differentiate itself from its larger neighbours, as well as continuous interaction between its many ethnicities and regional cultures, has created a distinct and unique culture within Hani, distinct from Chinese culture which has greatly influenced it.

There is a strong sense of national identity interwoven into Han culture which unifies all Hans (in a sense of citizenship and allegiance, aka civic nationalism) regardless of their origins or beliefs. Those who are applying for citizenship are legally required undergo the process of supervised assimilation (required to achieve proficient literacy in Han) and naturalization. Due to this, many first-generation immigrants opt for permanent residency to avoid losing their own cultural identity. In addition to the mainstream culture of Hani, there are various distinct subcultures, with the most prominent being the culture of Palawan and Cuyo and Langbulong, two regions with either a White Han majority or plurality, which are more influenced by Christianity and Sierran culture. Palawañeno culture is also noticeably more heavily socially-liberal and cosmopolitan, as a result of acculturation derived from frequent intercultural contact between its different residents.

Mass media

Television and radio

Han mainstream media is dominated by three major broadcasting companies: the state-owned National Broadcasting Service (NBS), and the privatized Zhenjing Arts Corporation (HAC) and Hibiscus Network Company (HNC). Around 120 million Hans are subscribed to a cable, satellite, or other forms of television broadcasting. On average, a Han spends about two hours a day watching television programs (excluding time spent on computers, tablets, or other mobile devices). The number of hours is significantly higher among younger age cohorts, reaching as high as four hours among the 13–18 age group. Conversely, while the average Han only spends thirty minutes listening to radio programming, Hans use music-streaming services quite often with usage among younger Han reaching six hours.

Important genres of television include; romantic and historical dramas, news programs, documentaries, and variety and game shows. Shopping channels have become quite popular in recent years as well, and the models sometimes put on entertaining acts during product pitches. There is frequent censorship, and many foreign programs (notably Sierran television and Japanese anime) are banned to air on public television, with those permitted often designated to occupy late time-slots.

Print

Internet usage

Hani is a renowned world leader in internet connectivity and penetration, having the world's second-highest average internet connection speed at twenty megabits per second. It is the second country to achieve over fifty-percent broadband penetration per capita, and also to complete full conversion from dial-up to broadband. Since its launch, Hani has consistently ranked within the top five for the ICT Development Index. A poll conducted in 2014 showed that Hans spent approximately four hours online, additionally, according to a 2007 study, over ninety percent of Hans, or about 135 million people, utilize the internet on at least a weekly-basis.

The top level domain (cctld) for Hani is .hn, with the most popular websites in Hani (excluding search engines and web portals) in 2013 being the social media sites Whistler and Sumi, alongside the video-streaming site Viewer. Mainstream Western sites including Youtube and Facebook are seldom used, as much of their contents are either blocked (especially those critical of the regime) or unable to attract public attention.

Cinema

Music

Until the eighties, conservative trot and ballads dominated the music scene. However, the relaxation of restrictions implemented upon cultural imports resulted in the emergence of contemporary Han popular music (otherwise known as H-pop). The nascent genre was heavily influenced by J-pop, Europop, electropop (including other derivative forms of synth-pop), dance-pop, bubblegum pop and EDM. It is characterized by an abundance of audiovisual elements, performers and artists are typically part of a same-sex group (boy or girl bands) rather than being solo artists or duos.

The major music-recording companies in Hani are (listed in amount of revenue): Zhenjing Entertainment (ZJE), Southern Star Entertainment (SSE), and Chutsu Entertainment (CTE). Most music artists typically debut at a young age (ranging between sixteen to twenty-one), and undergo at least two years of vigorous training alongside their normal daily schedule.

Cosmetics and beauty standards

Han beauty standards are a distinctive part of Han culture, with Hani having the highest rate of cosmetic surgeries per capita. About a fifth of women aged 21–49 has had cosmetic surgery (with the most popular procedures being nose augmentation, jaw reduction, and rib removal), with men only comprising a tenth of clientele. Examples of Han beauty criteria include; a high-bridged nose, a small soft v-shaped face, double eyelids, and pale clear skin. Most of these features are thought to exemplify innocence and chastity.

It is a social norm for both and men to spend a lot on cosmetic products. Popular products include blemish balm creams, colour correction creams, essences, serums, exfoliating scrubs, and facial masks (which are intended to serve a lot of purposes). Many Han beauty products contain ingredients that are not included in Western products; including, tea tree oil, green tea extract, and snail cream. In addition to cosmetic products, beauty is said to be achievable through certain dietary or therapeutic practices, which are largely derived or influence from Chinese traditional medicine or local animist tradition.

Literature, philosophy, and the arts

Cuisine and dining

Han cuisine has evolved over several centuries from its humble origins to become highly fusionist, incorporating numerous Chinese (particularly the regional cuisine found in Guangdong and Fujian), Spanish, Indian and Japanese elements that had been adapted to locally-produced ingredients and palate. Seasoning is used heavily to add flavours; for example, garlic is used to enrich the taste and mask the scent of dishes utilizing entrails, while coconut milk and peppers are used in creamy dishes. Spices commonly used are ginger, chili peppers, and powdered black pepper. Other seasonings include soy sauce, oyster sauce, vinegar, salt, sugar, and rice wine. With the exception of coriander and spring onions, which are merely used as garnish, there is little to no usage of herbs.

Similar to other Asian countries, rice enjoys status as the staple grain and formulates the basis of a standard Han diet. However, sweet potatoes and maize, which have been introduced as part of the Columbian Exchange, has emerged as widely-used crops as well. Pork and chicken alongside seafood are the most heavily consumed meats, although Han cuisine readily uses any edible meats; including entrails, offal, and molluscs. Fruits including mangoes, bananas, avocados, and dragonfruit are rarely added into dishes, and instead consumed separately raw, while vegetables are typically boiled or stewed prior to consumption.

Dining is traditionally considered an important social activity that reinforces familial relations. Western-style utensils are seldom used, and instead dishes are consumed with the use of chopsticks, or when consuming the liquid contents of soups or stew, a Chinese-style spoon. Main course dishes are typically eaten with a variety of side-dishes, with confectionaries or sweet-drinks concluding meals. Alcoholic beverages may be ingested during meals, with spirits or beer consumed casually, while wine is typically reserved for formal settings.

Public holidays and celebrations

Footnotes

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