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Japan
日本
Nihon
Nippon

Flag of Japan
StateEmblemofJapan2
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
平和 繁栄 未来
Heiwa, Hanei, Mirai
(Peace, Prosperity, Future)
Anthem: 
日本歌
Nihon Uta
(Song of Japan)
Location of Great Republic of Japan
Capital
and largest city
Tokyo
Official languages Japanese
Recognised regional languages Aynu Itak, Ryukyuan languages
Demonym Japanese
Government Single-party Presidential Republic
Nobu Tsukuda
Shinzo Nishiwaki
Legislature National Diet
Establishment
• Potsdam Declaration
1945
• Constitution
1947
• Asahi Coup d'etat
1985
• Constitution Ratification
1985
Area
• Total
377,944 km2 (145,925 sq mi)
Population
• Census
126,434,964
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
• Total
$4.788 trillion
• Per capita
$37,683
Currency Yen (¥/円) (JPY)
Time zone JST (UTC+9)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC+9)
Date format yyyy-mm-dd
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .jp

The Great Republic of Japan (Japanese: 大日本共和国 Dai Nippon Kyowakoku) commonly known as Japan (Japanese: 日本 Nihon or Nippon) is a sovereign island nation located in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, Korea and Danguk. Stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk to the North, to the East China Sea and Akitsu to the South. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is often referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun" or "Asahi." Japan is a strato-volcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. The capital and largest city of Japan is Tokyo, while the official language is Japanese. Japan has a total population of over 126 million people, making it the ninth most-populous country in the world. Japan is a major global Great Power.

Archaeological research indicates that people lived in Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD. Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, later from Western European influence, has characterised Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, which was only ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West.

Almost two decades of internal conflict followed before the Meiji Emperor Restoration which restored the Emperor as a divine symbol of the nation and Head of State. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of an increase in Japan's military power. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States. A revised constitution was adopted in 1947 following the Potsdam Declaration, which established a constitutonal monarchy. The 1964 Coup d'etat established Japan's current regime as codified in the 1964 Constitution creating a single-party state in the form of a Presidential Parliamentary Republic under the Kaisoku Front. The party has its strengthened its role as the ruling party through the implementation of a Moral Code and the extensive use of Referenda and Legislative elections.

Following the 1964 coup, Japan has undergone a period of extreme reorganisation of both it's economic and social policies which has resulted in mass economic growth, with a high amount of state intervention in the economy during the 1990's which has allowed Japan to be classified as one of the world's Great Powers. However, the 2008 Global Financial Crisis severely hampered Japan's economic growth rate, however the state takeover of Japan's banking system and nationalisation of failing companies saved Japan's economy from major turmoil and collapse. The 2010's have been characterised by souring relations with China and the United States with criticisms over Japan's political freedoms.

Japan is a developed country and has the world's 4th largest economy in terms of GDP PPP (purchasing power parity). It is also the world's 5th largest exporter and 5th largest importer. Although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war under the Potsdam Declaration, it maintains a modern military with the world's 8th largest military budget, used for Self-Defence, Peacekeeping and Humanitarian roles with Pacifism seen as a major virtue under Japan's moral code. Japan ranks high in indexes of prosperity, with the Japanese population enjoying the highest life expectancy of any country in the world and the infant mortality rate being the 3rd lowest globally.

Etymology

The English word Japan derives from the Chinese pronunciation of the Japanese name, '日本', which in Japanese is pronounced Nippon. From the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II, the full title of Japan was Dai Nippon Teikoku (大日本帝國), meaning the Empire of Great Japan. Today the official name, Dai Nippon Kyowakoku () meaning the Great Republic of Japan, or Republic of Great Japan is used, referring to Japan's abolition of the monarchy following the 1985 coup d'etat.  Japanese people refer to themselves as Nihonjin (日本人) and to their language as Nihongo (日本語). Both Nippon and Nihon mean "sun-origin" and are often translated as Land of the Rising Sun. The term comes from Japanese missions to Imperial China and refers to Japan's eastward position relative to China. 

History

Ancient Era

Feudal Era

Modern Era

Politics

See Main: Politics of the Great Republic of Japan, Kitaism

Japan is a Presidential Republic, which functions in a unique system governed by the principles of the state ideology, Kitaism, names after the beliefs and principles put forward by the founder of the modern Japanese republic, Susumu Kitai the leader of the 1964 Coup d'etat. Japan's governing system, has been referred to as an 'enlightened dictatorship' with all nominally life-long Presidents bound by Japan's moral code, known as Kaisokuwhere deviations are punishable by serious criminal proceedings, or death. The principles of Honour are strong in the Japanese political system, with those who 'dishonour' their country through dishonourable conduct in office facing serious consequences and social ostracism. The ruling organisation of Japan, is the Kaisoku Front, a political organisation established by Kitai in the 1950's.

Government

The Governmnet of Japan is devided between four branches, known as 'Offices', these are;

PresidentialResidenceJapan

The Executive Office building.

The government of Japan takes place within a framework of a Presidential Republic, with the President, acting as both Head of State and Head of Government, who together with the Vice President and the Cabinet, form the Executive Office . The President is appointed by the ruling party by the legislative body, the Legislative Office. The President must be a member of the ruling organisation and once appointed, swears an oath to Japan's moral code. Once appointed, Presidents nominally rule for life, or until their removal by a 'Vote of No Confidence' by the legislature. If Presidents have not been removed by the time they reach the age of 65, they are automatically removed from office.

Deviations of the 'Kaisoku,' Japan's moral code, by the President are seen as a 'dishonourable' and they will subsequently be ejected from office and face criminal charges for Crimes against the Japanese People. The current President is Nobu Tsukuda who was appointed in 2005 and holds office as the 5th President of Japan. The President themselves, hold the majority of the real political power over Japan's domestic and foreign affairs, and makes centralised decisions, with the Legislative Office and the Procurative Office acting as 'safety-nets' and balances on the power of the President. 

The Legislative Arm of the Japanese government consists of the  Legislative Office. The Office consists of a single chamber of 480 members, of which, 400 of these are directly elected by the people of Japan using a party-list system of proportional representation, and the remaining 80 are appointed by the Executive Office. All members of the Legislative Office must be a member of the Kaisoku Front, Japan's ruling political organisation. The body has little power to govern outside of its Veto power for Presidential Bills and the Office members' power to propose and begin legislation, however the President can also order a veto on a Legislative Office member's bill.

The Procurative Office consists of a council of independant procurators who oversee the workings of, investigates and monitors the activities of the Executive and Legislative Offices. The Procurative Office has the power to propose a Vote of No Confidence movement for the Executive Office and impeach the President, alongside the Procurators' power of audit. It also undertakes investigations into officials and reports of corruption or wrongdoing. The Procurative Office is led by the Chief Procurator. 

Foreign Relations

See Main: Foreign Relations of the Great Republic of Japan

JapaneseEmbassyLondon

Japanese Embassy in London, Britannia

Japan is a member of the League of Nations (LN), the League of Nations Security Council (LNSC) with permanent veto power, the East Asia Summit, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the G8G20  and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Japan has an extensive foreign diplomatic network with embassies in almost every country it recognises. Japan has consolidated its place as a major international diplomatic power through membership of major international political and economic organisations. Its place as a permanent member of the Security Council has meant that it has significant power in international conflicts and interests. Japan is a major contributor to international humanitarian and peacekeeping efforts, which is the main activity that Japan's Self Defence Forces undertake. Japan is the world's second largest donor of Official Development Assistance aid after the United States, donating approximately $9.48 Billion in 2014. 

Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with Korea over the Liancourt Rocks, with China over the Senkaku Islands, and with China over the Exclusive Economic Zone around Okinotorishima. 

Administrative Divisions

See Main: Territories of the Great Republic of Japan, Prefectures of the Great Republic of Japan

Japan is divided between 10 Territories, while nominally, Japan is a federal state and the territorial governments hold power over their jurisdictions, the central government in Tokyo in reality holds much of the power over decision making. Territories have power over the administration of Education, Healthcare, Policing, Cultural Affairs, and Utilities within their jursidictions and are lead by Territorial Governors, who head a varying member Territorial Assembly. 

Territories are further sub-divided into Prefectures, which are each subsequently divided into Cities, Towns and Villages, collectively known as Sub-Prefectures. Prefectures are led by a Prefect, who heads up a Prefectural Council consists of local members of government. Prefectures deal with issues such as the implementation of Education, Healthcare and Policing on a local level. 

TerritorialMapofJapan

Armed Forces

Economy

See Main; Economy of the Great Republic of Japan

Shibuyaoverhead

Shibuya Crossing in Shibuya, Tokyo

Japan has the world's 4th largest economy in terms of GDP (PPP), alongside being the world's 5th largest exporter, and 5th largest importer. As of 2015, Japan has a total GDP (PPP) of $4.788 trillion, and a GDP (PPP) per capita of $37,683. Japan is noted as one of the world's largest economic powers. The currency of Japan is the Yen (¥/円). It is the fourth most traded currency in the world in the foreign exchange market after the US Dollar, the Sierran Dollar and the Euro. 

Japan has a sizeable Quaternary industry, which has led Japan to become a major global centre for Science and Technology. Japan's service sector accounts for three quarters of the gross domestic product. Japan is the third largest producer of automobiles in the world. Labour in Japan has a strong tradition of Unionisation, with Trade and Labour unions having large memberships with close links to the Japanese government. Unemployment in Japan is one of the lowest in Asia, at 3% in 2015. 

Since the 1964 coup, Japan has undergone a period of extreme reorganisation of both it's economic and social policies which has resulted in mass economic growth, with a high amount of state intervention in the economy during the 1990's which has allowed Japan to be classified as one of the world's Great Powers. Japan today, has a very centralised economy, with high levels of both state and public ownership or major industries and infrastructure, however, private enterprise thrives. The 2008 Global Financial Crisis severely hampered Japan's economic growth rate, however the state takeover of Japan's banking system and nationalisation of failing companies saved Japan's economy from major turmoil and collapse. 

Culture

Geography

Climate

Environment

Demographics

Infrastructure

Communication

Education

Healthcare

Transport

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