Han nationalism is the belief that asserts that the Hans are indisputably a distinct and unqiue nation, and promotes the cultural uniformity of all "Hans". It is built upon various right-wing ideologies and sentiment; a syncretic blend elements emanating from the traditional socio-political philosophies of Confucianism and Legalism, as well as imported political philosophies such as Japanese statism, American exceptionalism, and Soviet statolatry. It is regarded as a type of ethno-cultural nationalism, deemphasizing and trivializing matters such as allegiance or citizenship (as in civic nationalism) while emphasizing the adoption of the Han ethnic identity and culture. It also asserts the Han race as a member and the irrefutable leader of the Austronesian race, and that all its "daughter races" must submit. It has been currently promoted by the Han government under the basis of promoting political unity and patriotism, launching active campaigns to curb regionalism, separatism, and multi-culturalism. It is often cited in the "national struggle" to fulfill the ideals of the Han Manifesto, and was also historically used to justify its single-party authoritarian government prior to the 1990 Kalayan Revolution.
Han nationalism had its roots in the late 19th century from French-educated reformist Rarake Maharadu. Due to its inclusion of Emperor worship and the promotion of a monarchy, the school of thought received endorsement from the Han imperial government and helped solidified its early popularity. It was further developed and split into many different sects during the Roaring Twenties following the abolishment of literary inquisition, aided by universal primary education and increased literacy. During the thirties, despite the relaxation of colonial policies (such as increased social mobility and the "Hannicization" of many elite positions) due to the Sierran Cultural Revolution, increased attempts to integrate Hani into Sierra, particularly the promotion of Western culture, led to the formation of many partisan movements all sharing the ideals of Han nationalism and express desires for Han independence. These guerrilla forces - which had established a temporary alliance known as the "Han Independence Coalition" - helped loosen Sierran control over Hani and briefly collaborated with the Japanese, before once again allying with the Sierrans during the Pacific War. After the recognition of independence and the relinquishment of Sierran control over the archipelago following the ratification of the Manila Declaration in 1945, the Han Independence Coalition was dissolved and a civil war ensured between its three largest constituent parties which were: the Federal-Republican Party, the Socialist Party (later splitting into the Communist and the Social Democrat parties), and the Nationalist Party. The latter's victory led to a purge in other sects and the standardization of Han nationalism to its current form.
Han nationalism is often cited as a heavy influencer of contemporary Han political culture, alongside Han Confucianism. Due to its promotion of ethno-cultural nationalism, a majority of Hans consider race and ethnicity to be the main criteria to be "Han", as opposed to citizenship or allegiance. However, it has brought substansial criticism, primarily Han diaspora living in Sierra (many of whom are descendants of political émigrés), as well as ethnic minorities receiving discrimination for resisting and refusing to conform under its beliefs. While Han nationalism is often credited by some political analysts for the reason d'être for socio-political stability and high rule of law, it is also credited for an increasingly assertive, independent, and belligerent foreign policy as well as increasing anti-Sierranism and xenophobia.
A more liberalized, relaxed form of Han nationalism - emphasizing civic duties and citizenship - frequently known as "New Han Nationalism" has developed during the reforms of the 1980s and 1990s, and became popular during the Manila Decade, especially with social liberalization as well as greater role of ethnic minorities within Han society.
Han nationalism promotes the Three Principles which lay the foundation of Han nationalist thought, which are: ethnic consciousness, cultural integrity, and national unity.
The first principle asserts the irrefutable existence of a Han ethnicity, and emphasizes its distinct heritage, which is attributed to Hani's unique position at the crossroads of Southeast Asia and East Asia. It also promotes patriotism centered on the awareness of this exceptionalism as a necessity, promoting not only ethnic pride but state pride, as the "Han nation" and the state are seen as being coterminous and being one entity; with the existence of the Han nation being threatened if the establishment and the state is radically changed or toppled. Asides from promoting the notion of a Han ethnic identity, Han nationalism also promotes a "one-drop" rule, meaning Hans that have non-Han ancestry are excluded unless – they "pass" – or their non-Han ancestry extends more than four generations.
The principle principle emphasizes the celebration of Han traditional culture and pride over it; rejecting all foreign cultural elements and branding them as "threats" to the cultural purity of the nation, thereby making Hans vulnerable to foreign influence and threatening the existence of the Han nation. However, the principle only stresses upholding the basis of culture, while superficial or topical traits may be adopted from other cultures and be changed in accordance to Han norms. For example, it focuses on upholding traditional - especially Confucian - social mores and values, while emphasizing fluency and pride in the Han language over the traditional lingua francas (Malay or Hokkien) or the languages of Europe; as language is seen as the basis of culture and the core of Han cultural pride.