Hani 147.5 million (total)|
139.5 million (domestic)
8 million (overseas)
|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||679,819|
|Han (Zhenjing, Kalayan, Suwu, Kabikolan, Taosuga), Chinese (Han Hokkien, Han Mandarin), English|
Christianity (mostly Protestantism, Catholicism, Church of Latter Day Saints)
Various non-Christian religions (Islam and Canaanism)
Unaffiliated (atheism, agnosticism, irreligious)
| ||This article contains Han text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Han Hanzi.|
|Part of a series on the|
|Culture of Hani|
Ethnic Hans is a term that encompasses all individuals who affiliate themselves with Han ethnic nationalism and identity. Han identity is linked to ethnicity (as espoused by ethnic nationalism) as opposed to citizenship or civic allegiance (as espoused by civic nationalism). Hans constitute the ethnic majority, constituting over three-fourths of the population. With approximately 10 million individuals, the Han diaspora is among the world's largest, and is mainly concentrated within Anglo-America, and historically, the Middle East. Hans are considered East Asians, sharing extensive cultural affinities with the Sinosphere, despite being geographically located in Southeast Asia.
There are between 80-150 varieties of Han, which form a dialect continuum and are often mutually unintelligible. Standard Han, however, is the sole official language and the nationally-designated lingua franca. However the standardized variety has been vigorously promoted historically, often at the expense of others (many varieties have become moribund, with fluency rates low among the youth). Despite the influence of pan-Han nationalism, Hani is still very multicultural, with various subcultures. Han subgroups include the Palawañenos, Kalayaner, and Kaboloaner, who all practice and observe customs distinct from those practiced within Manila and the areas surrounding it. Within the region, there are also other various ethnic minorities, who have criticized Han nationalism and political underrepresentation, and have propped up various self-determination movements or promoted a federal government.
Origins and genetic studies
Hans are considered Austronesians, a linguistic and genetic group encompassing other ethnicities from maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and the Pacific islands. The current predominant theory in regards to Austronesian expansion and the settlement of Hani, is that Austronesians from Taiwan engaged in successive southwards and eastwards expansion, settling both the rest of maritime Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands comprising Micronesia and Polynesia.
Citizenship is determined through the jus sanguinis (right of blood) doctrine, in which children at birth automatically receive Han citizenship if at least one biological parent has Han (or any native ethnic group) ancestry, regardless of allegiance, culture, or place of birth. Dual citizenship is only recognized if the individual has resided within Hani for at least five years, and thus has been naturalized. Those with dual citizenship are prevented from obtaining higher political posts or offices. All Han citizens have the right to renounce their citizenship in favour of another, but may not re-obtain Han citizenship within less than five years of the decision. There is a strict immigrant policy, however, immigration recently has been especially rapid, with over a million immigrants arriving in the past fifteen years. However, these immigrants could not receive Han citizenship unless they have been naturalized and assimilated into the social norms of Han society, with many opting for permanent residency instead.