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Commonwealth of the Hellenes and the Empire of the Romans
Κοινοπολιτεία των Ἑλλάδος και Βασιλεία των Ῥωμαίων
Flag of Hellas2
Flag of Hellas
Coat of Arms of Hellas
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Elefthería ī́ Thánatos

Ἐλευθερία ἢ Θάνατος

"Freedom or Death"
Anthem: Ýmnos eis tīn Eleftherían

Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν

"Hymn to Freedom"
Hellas administrative divisions
Map of Hellas with provinces
Capital
and largest city
Constantinople
Official languages Hellenic
Demonym Hellene
Government Unitary Constitutional Monarchy
• Basileus
Sebastianos IV
• Premier
Leon Christou
Legislature Hellenic Senate
Independence from Ottoman Empire
• Declared
1770
• Recognized
1774
• Current Constitution
1869
Population
• 2010 census
45,394,028
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$1.041 trillion
• Per capita
21,969
Currency Drachma
Time zone East European Time (UTC+2)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +30
The Commonwealth of the Hellenes and the Empire of the Romans (Hellenic: Κοινοπολιτεία των Ἑλλάδος και Βασιλεία των Ῥωμαίων, Koinopoliteía ton Ellínon kai Basileía ton Romaíon), usually referred to simply as Hellas or less commonly Greece, (Hellenic: Ελλάδα) is a soveriegn state located in Eurasia. It has an estimated population of 47,403,092 as of 2018. Constantinople is the country's capital and largest city, followed by Athens then Smyrna.

Hellas is stragetically located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, with territory in the southern Balkans, western and northern Anatolia. It shares a border with the countries of AlbaniaMacedoniaBulgaria to the north, and Turkey and Syria to the east. The country surrounds the Aegean Sea, with the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan and Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea to the north. Much of Hellas is mountainous, with the highest peaks being located in the Pontic Mountains. Hellas features a large number of islands, with over 275 of them being inhabited. The country consists of 17 geographic regions: Macedonia, Roumani, the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace, Crete, the Ionian Islands, Cyprus, Mysia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus

Considered the birthplace of Western civilization, Hellas is home to the earliest civilizations in Europe, dating back to 3200 BC. Western philosophy, democracy, the Olympic games, Western liturature and drama, political science, major mathematic and scientific principles, and historiography can be traced to Hellas. During the eighth century BC Hellas was divided into several city-states, centered around the Aegean Sea but spanning the majority of the Mediterreanean and Black seas. In the fourth century BC, Philip of Macedon united most of the Hellenic city-states, and his son, Alexander III 'The Great', conquered the Achaemenid Empire and created an empire that spanned from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indus, spreading Hellenic culture throughout most of the known world. After the death of Alexander The Great his empire was fragmented into several states, like Ptolemaic Egypt and the Seleucid Empire. Rome annexed Hellas in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire during Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages, until it's conquest by the Ottoman Sultanate in the 15th century.

The modern Hellenic state was born during the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774), when several groups of well organized Hellenic revolutionaries launched several uprisings simultaneously in various parts of Hellas. In 1770, several high ranking revolutionaries got together in Athens and formally declared independence by writing and signing the Hellenic Declaration of Independence. Four years later in 1774, after years of bloody conflict, a ceasefire was agreed upon between the Hellenic Revolutionaries and the Ottoman Empire. In the Treaty of Moscow (1775) Hellas' independence was recognized by the Ottoman Empire and the state was established under the name 'The Hellenic Republic'. After a period of political instability following the assassination of Governer General Alexander Ioannou in 1782, the Hellenic Senate held an emergency meeting and selected Sebastianos Kallergis, a notable and respected revolutionary and descendant of Basileus Nikophoros II Phokas, as the Basileus of Hellas, thus establishing the Hellenic monarchy.

Hellas is a highly developed and democratic country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. It is a founding member of the League of Nations, and is a member of various other international organizations, such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Council of Europe, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Hellas has over 27 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, one of the highest in the world and reflects its rich historical and cultural legacy. Hellas is the largest economy in the Balkans and an important regional investor, and combined with its geostrategic importance, rich cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominant shipping industry, and moderately powerful military classify it as a middle and regional power.

History

Ancient and Classical period

Hellenistic and Roman period

Medieval period

Early modern period

Hellenic war for independence 

Geography and climate

Climate

The climate of Hellas is primarily Mediterranean, featuring hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. This climate occurs is the majority of Hellas' coastal regions. The Pindus mountain range in European Hellas greatly affects the climate, with the westward side being wetter on average and the eastward side being drier. This is due to southwesterly systems and the rainshadow effect respectively. In the northern part of Macedonia and Thrace the humid continental climate dominates, with the mountainous regions of northwestern Hellas and the central mountains of the Peloponnese featuring alpine climates. The Pontus region primarily features an oceanic climate, with some inland areas having a humid continental climate, with the mountains in the southwest possessing an alpine climate. Some parts of Macedonia and Thessaly feature a cold semi-arid climate, and some islands in the Cyclades have a hot semi-arid climate.

Government

Hellas is a unitary state and constutional monarchy with the Basileus as the head of state and the Premier as the head of government. The Basileus' power is largely ceremonial, with the official powers delagated to the Basileus limited to bestowing honorary titles to citizens, politicians, and members of the military, as well as hosting foreign dignitaries and representing Hellas internationally. The Premier is the head of government and commander-in-chief. Powers delaged to the Pemier include, but are not limited to: waging (but not declaring) war, negotiating treaties, appointing members of cabinet, and vetoing legislation. The Premier is elected directly by the people every six years and can only serve a single term. The current Basileus is Sebastianos IV Sebastopoulos, and the current Premier is Leon Christou.

The Hellenic Senate is the 500 member unicameral legislature of Hellas. As the legislature, the Senate has the power to create, modify, and pass legislation. Other powers delegated to the Senate include the power to declare war, impeach government officials, approve treaties and budgets, and levy taxes. There are 100 Senatorial districts with five senators per district. Each senator is elected every six years through an instant-runoff vote and can serve five terms.

The judicial systrem of Hellas is divided into two types of courts: civil and administrative. Civil courts judge civil and penal cases while administrative courts judge administrative cases, such as disputes between civilians and the state. The eleven member Supreme Constitutional Court is the highest court, and can make null and void any legislation it deems unconstitutional or in violation of the Bill of Rights. Members of the Supreme Court serve for life until attaining the age of 67, or through voluntary resignation or impeachment. 

Political Parties

The two major political parties of Hellas are the social democratic Hellenic Social Democratic Union Party and the conservative Hellenic Royal Democrats. Other political parties include the Hellenic-Roman Imperialist Party, the Communist Party of Hellas, Panhellenic Union Party, and the Silver Dusk Popular Front.

Administrative Regions

Hellas is divided into 19 provinces plus the special Monastic State of Mount Athos. Most provinces are divided into administrative districts called prefectures.

Military

The armed forces of Hellas is divided into three main branches: the Hellenic Royal Army, the Hellenic Royal Navy, and the Hellenic Royal Air Forces. 

Economy

Demographics

Culture