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Part of a series on the
History of Helvore
|Post Roman Fragmentation|
|UNIFICATION OF HELVORE|
|Aelvoran Union of Kings|
|Unification under Richarde I|
|Consolidation of the Kingdom|
|First Helvoran Empire|
|REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR|
|Helvoran Civil War|
|Post Civil War Years|
|EARLY MODERN HELVORE|
|Second Franco-Helvoran War|
|Decade of Darkness|
|Fourth Franco-Helvoran War|
|Mastenburgian Revolution of 1901|
|World War I|
|World War II|
|Late Twentieth Century|
The first written records of the history of the modern day area that is the Kingdom of Helvore are dated from the mid Iron Age. What is now Helvore historically consisted of several major ethno-linguistic groups, often identified by anthropologists as part of the Celtic culture group, (specifically the Aele-la Téne Culture) identified by the Romans broadly as 'Magna Aelvorae'. Roman documentation dating back to the 2nd century BC notes the three major ethnic and socio-linguistic groups of the Helvoran Peninsular: the Aelvors, Bykelai, and Rhythii, from the south, north-west, and north of the peninsular respectively. The Aelvors, being the culture group which would later become the Kingdom of Helvore, are the best documented and attested group of the three, and spoke what is now known as the Proto-Aeletic Langauge, of which Helvoran would later descend.
Following the annexation of most of the Helvoran peninsular (with the exception of the Bykalic Region in the north-west) by the Roman Empire in around 25 CE, much of the traditional Aeletic cultures of Helvore were unified into two distinct categories, the southern Romo-Aelvoran and northern Romo-Rhythian Culture, which began to take on many of the linguistic and social aspects of early Medieval Helvore. With the evacuation of the peninsular by the Roman Empire in the late 5th century, Helvore entered a period of fragmentation into numerous small, politically unstable kingdoms throughout the Dark Ages.
After centuries of relative chaos and very little social progression, Richarde of Aelvore, through numerous diplomatic arrangements, formed the Aelvoran Union of Kings, effectively unifying several smaller, eastern Helvoran kingdoms into one large political state. In the following decades, the Union would use both political and militaristic tactics to eventually unify much of the Helvoran Peninsular into what became the Kingdom of Helvore, which was officially declared on the 17th of July, 950 CE.
Throughout the middle ages, Helvore would continue to assimilate its growing cultural and national identity as it ever-expanded to occupy most of the Helvoran peninsular. With the rise of Protestantism in Germany and the rest of Europe throughout the early 16th Century, Helvore saw a period of religious and political conflict that resulted in the establishment of the Soliterist Church, a denomination of Christianity initially created by St. Solitaire de Crimse, in around 1549.
By the turn of the 17th Century, Helvore had experienced a Renaissance and was becoming an important player in European politics, having established one of the largest continental European Empires - the First Helvoran Empire. Following its collapse in the mid 17th Century, Helvore entered a period of great civil and political unrest which eventuated in the Helvoran Revolution and Civil War between 1666 to 1675. During this period, Helvore underwent a great deal of socio-political change, and would fundamentally go on to instigate many of the events that would happen throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.
With the enlightenment dawning in Europe at the beginning of the 18th Century, Helvore experienced a resurgence in their political power with the Second Franco-Helvoran War, which itself is believed to be one of the fundamental causes of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1799. Following the French Revolution, Helvore came under the sphere of influence of Napoleon Boneparte, who, between 1804 and 1805, managed to annex much of Helvore.
Following the unsuccessful Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, Helvore entered the 'Decade of Darkness' between 1804 and 1815, wherein Helvore experienced the Third Helvoran Revolution, Third Franco-Helvoran War, and led the failed Fifth Coalition against France. Following a decade of great turmoil and civic unrest, the Sixth Coalition eventually defeated Napolean at Waterloo, and thus liberated Helvore from French occupation with his banishment.
The rest of the 19th century brought industrialisation and colonialism to Helvore, with the establishment of both the Third Helvoran Empire and the Franco-Helvoran Empire as a result of the Treaty of Paris in April, 1827. With the fall of the Empire in early 1872, Helvore and France divided their colonial and continental Empire, leading to half a century of relative peace in the Helvoran belle époque of 1872 to 1914.
The early 20th century brought two world wars and the Mastenburgian Revolution of 1901, which resulted in Helvore's severe economic recession and turmoil of the early 1950s. After a period of rapid economic growth and decolonization in the late 1950s and 60s, Helvore became the state it is today. Since World War II Helvore has been a permanent member of the UN Security Council and NATO, despite some modern controversy occurring with issues in both organisations. Helvore, along with France, played an important role in the unification of the European Union and the peaceful resolution of conflict in Mastenburg following the Ross-Thyrburg Conflicts of the early 1990s. Helvore today remains a strong economic, cultural, and political power in both Europe and the world in the 21st century.
Main article: Prehistoric Helvore
Numerous small tools and stone devices found in Orotte-la-Tene and Chaimonte in North-Eastern Helvore indicate that Humans have been present in the Helvoran Peninsular for at least 1.6 million years. Evidence of the presence of Neanderthals and other proto-human species have also been found throughout northern Helvore, but are believed to have died out after being presumably outcompeted by modern Humans during one of the most recent Glacial periods.
The first written records of contemporary Helvoran civilisation are dated from the mid-Iron age, with the presence of the Aele-la Téne Celtic culture. With the discovery of the vast metal resources in the Great Helvoran Mountain Range and Western Dividing Range, Helvoran cultures began to develop more complicated metalworking techniques and tools, with many evidential remains from tombs and religious sites been found throughout Helvore, including, most notably, in Du Mere and Asseu.
Roman writings from the period identified three major ethno-linguistic groups in the area, the Aelvors, with whom they often traded and are best attested to, the Rhythii from the North, and the Bykalei of the North-West Helvoran peninsular. Broadly, this region was referred to by the Romans as Magna Aelvorae.
Being relatively isolated geographically from other cultures and communities at the time, Helvore remained relatively independent in terms of trade and diplomatic relations, with a small degree of commerce occurring between the Rhythii, Aelvors, and the Gauls of Western France, as well as maritime trade agreements with North Spanish communities along the Straight of Grenliviche.
From 21 BCE, the Roman General Diacrondius Caeser, the distant nephew of Julius Caeser, launched a campaign into the Helvoran Peninsular, managing to annex almost all of the area by 25 CE. Over the following four centuries, Celtic Helvoran and Roman culture would mingle to form the Romo-Aelvoran Culture from which Helvore would be born, as Helvore was increasingly assimilated into the Roman Empire.
Main Article: Celtic Helvore
Prior to the Roman invasion of Helvore by Diacrondius Caeser in the early 1st century CE, the Helvoran peninsular was occupied by three distinct socio-linguistic groups with their own independent cultures - the Aelvorae, Rhythii, and Bykelai, with the two former cultures becoming what would eventually become the Kingdom of Helvore.
The Aelvorae spoke the Proto-Voraccic language Aelvoran, the direct ancestor of the contemporary Helvoran Language, whilst the Rhythii spoke a large number of different dialects of Voraccic languages. Proto-Helvoran society was tribal based, and consisted of a Chieftan or Elder who governed a small village community. Evidence dating as far back as the 6th century BCE demonstrates that the Aelvors had significant metalworking abilities, developing from the extensive mineral resources found in the Great Helvoran Mountain Range.
Evidence of trade with foreign communities amongst the Aelvorans, particularly for their metalwork, indicates that pre-Roman Helvore (specifically Aelvor) was a fairly wealthy community. However, the lack of any centralised military or governmental force within the Helvoran peninsular meant that the Roman Empire quickly overpowered the small tribal communities of Celtic Helvoran, establishing a forcible imperial force in the peninsular which would result in the eventual amalgamation of Roman and Proto-Helvoran cultures.
Celtic Helvoran culture was largely lost during the Roman annexation of the peninsular, however, certain Helvoran communities retained strong linguistic ties to their Celtic past, something which is often attributed to the extreme difference in Grammar between the Helvoran Language and other Romance languages.
Main Article: Roman Helvore.
After the conquest of Gaul in the late 2nd century BCE, the Roman Empire turned their attention to the Helvoran Peninsular, whose large mineral deposits had brought the Celtic tribes their a great deal of wealth. In 21 CE, the Roman general Diachrondius Caesar launched the first offensive military excursion into Rhythii territory. The lack of any real political or military centralisation amongst Celtic Helvoran tribes meant that the Roman Empire had annexed all of the Helvoran peninsular (apart from the naturally fortified Bykalic Region in the north-west) by 45 CE.
The Romans divided the Helvoran Peninsular into two major provinces - Aelvorae Inferior in the south and east of the Helvoran peninsular, and Rhythia in the north. With growing concerns over revolution amongst Celtic tribes, the Roman empire displaced many of the previous inhabitants of the Peninsular, using many of them as a slave labour force in the Great Helvoran Mountain Range. However, the disbandment of many tribes meant that Helvoran Celtic culture was further dispersed, allowing for the rapid formation of a joint Romo-Aelvoran Culture.
Over time, the Helvoran people became better integrated into Roman culture, with the most substantial change being in the Helvoran Language, which entered a period of rapid phonological transformation. In 260 CE, Postumus established a Gallic Empire which included most of the Helvoran peninsular. Following his defeat in Châlons in 274, the Helvoran peninsular formed its own independent dominion, known as the Dominion of Aelvoria, which was defeated by the Romans in 281 at the Siege of Aquillus (modern-day St. Crimse)
From c430-451 CE, Roman control of the Helvoran peninsular began to weaken as Roman forces were relocated to Gaul and Italy to defend the Huns and other invading northern communities. By 451 CE, as the Roman Empire verged on Collapse, Helvore was abandoned as Roman forces retreated to Gaul. With the sudden disappearance of any major political force, the Helvoran peninsular fragmented into numerous independent Kingdoms, collectively referred to as the Aeletic Kingdoms, who would continue to not be unified until well into the 10th century.
Dark Ages (451-935)
Post-Romans and Fragmentation
Main Article: Early Medieval Helvore
Without any unified government or single leader following the sudden departure of the Roman Empire in the mid 5th century, the Helvoran peninsular fragmented into numerous smaller kingdoms and communities. Saxons from Northern Germany invaded the north-western Bykalic Region, establishing what would later become the Republic of Mestenburg. Celtic tribes from England, fleeing from Anglo-Saxon invasion, also migrated south into Northern Helvore, establishing amongst themselves numerous small kingdoms, of which the most notable would be the Kingdom of Astonbury. Similarly, Visigoths from Iberia established a southern-Helvoran colony in what is now contemporary Grenliviche.
Throughout the Helvoran Peninsular, military and political groups seized control of Roman settlements and formed small governments, which would later expand through military and diplomatic conquest to form the Aeletic Kingdoms. These Aeletic Kingdoms would continue to war amongst each other and remain relatively ununified until well into the 10th century, when Richarde of Aelvore would establish the Aelvoran Union of Kings, and later form the Kingdom of Helvore.
Aeletic Kingdoms (451-771)
Following the immediate fall of the Roman Empire, several distinct political powers began to immerge around Roman settlements throughout the Helvoran peninsular as military figures seized control. Over the course of the 5th and 6th centuries, these particular groups grew into larger Kingdoms, forming the first 'Aeletic Kingdoms'.
Until the invasion of Charlemagne in 771, the Helvoran peninsular remained ununified as many of the small Aeletic Kingdoms warred amongst themselves, failing to establish any political system of real sustenance which could allow for the growth of an empire. At the time, borders between kingdoms were fluid and changed frequently.
In 643 CE, Verciceris II, leader of the Saignvalourian Aelvors, attempted a military conquest of Eastern Helvore through the commencement of the First Aeletic War. After defeating Syrious of Toure in 644, Verciceris managed to unify much of the northern Aquitanian coast under the Saignvalourian Dynasty, which would continue to rule many of the kingdoms of south-eastern Helvore for the next millennia through client states and dynastic inheritance.
Following the death of Verciceris II, his son Calis continued to grow the Saignvalourian Empire, against heated opposition from neighboring kingdoms in the region. In 694, after the death of Calis, the Empire was divided amongst his five sons into five kingdoms - Saignblois, Aelvoria (which would later be ruled by Richarde I), Valours, (which would later be ruled by Charles the Red), Erinier, and Du Montaine.
Meanwhile, in the North of Helvore, Britons, having fled from the Anglo-Saxon invasion of England, established the Kingdoms of Rhythia and Astonbury, which themselves began to develop a distinct culture of their own. Following repeated attempted invasion by the Anglo-Saxons, Charles of Rhythia defeated a major Anglo-Saxon advancement into Helvore at the Battle of Cordellier. After a series of successive victories against the Anglo-Saxons, Charles the Great, as he would come to be called, managed to unify a significant number of Briton communities in the North of Helvore.
By the beginning of the 8th century, the rise of Islam with the conquest of the Iberian Peninsular by the Muslim Caliphate posed a serious threat to the southern Aeletic Kingdoms. After advancing as far as Du Montaine in 725, Charles the Red, the King of the Kingdom of Valours, defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Rise, securing Christianity as the dominant religion in Helvore for the next millennia.
Following the establishment of the Carolingian Dynasty in Francia, Charlemagne began a military attack in Northern Helvore, managing to absorb many Northern Aeletic Kingdoms into the Frankish Empire. By the time of the Treaty of Verdun in 843, much of North-Eastern Helvore was annexed into West Francia, which it remained part of untill the unification of Helvore in the 10th century.
Charlemagne and the Late Aeletic Kingdoms (771-1059)
Much of the history of the late Aeletic Kingdoms would be dominated by two competing spheres of influence - the Carolingians (Franks) and the Saignvalourians. In 771 CE, Charlemagne, King of the Kingdom of the Franks, launched a military conquest of north-eastern Helvore, absorbing many of the previous Helvoran Celtic Kingdoms into the Frankish Empire. Northern Helvore would remain a possession of the Western Frankish Empire under the Carolingian Kings until the Treaty of Verdun, after which the Frankish Empire was divided into three. What was part of Helvore was granted to Charles the Bald as part of the Kingdom of the West Franks. During this period, Northern Helvore underwent a process of cultural amalgamation, with Old French becoming the predominant language of the region.
Following repeated raiding of Normandy and Rhythe by the Normans in the following century, Western Francia gradually relinquished control of Northern Helvore, which itself became the independent state of Rhythia in the early 10th century. It would remain an independent, relatively small kingdom until annexed into the Kingdom of Helvore in 1046.
During the 8th-10th centuries, southern Helvore entered a period of increasing political volatility. The fragmentation of the former Saignvalourian Empire resulted in the establishment of numerous small Kingdoms on the Aquitanian Coast, who sought for political dominance in the region. Wars were frequent, and borders were fluid during this period.
In the early 10th century, Richarde of Aelvore became King of the Kingdom of Aelvoria (a former state of the Saignvalourian Empire), and began a series of diplomatic and military actions which would eventuate in the establishment of the Kingdom of Helvore in 950 CE as a unified state.
Early Middle Ages (935-950)
Aelvoran Union of Kings
Unification under Richarde I (935-992)
Medieval Helvore (950-1558)
Life during the Middle Ages
Estates, Power, and Politics
Consolidation of the Kingdom of Helvore (950-1159)
Rhythian Wars (1038-1064)
First Mastenburgian Wars (1049-1071)
Tensions with France and England:
The Reformation in Helvore (1521-1591)
Rise of Protestentism
Counsel of Saingier (June 1538)
St. Solitaire de Crimse and Soliterism
Religious Wars and Rise of the Soliterist Church
First Helvoran Empire and Late Middle Ages (1558-1664)
The Helvoran Renaissance
Rise of the First Helvoran Empire (1558-1600)
Maximilian I and Eastern Expansion
First Franco-Helvoran War (1558-1563)
Battles of the Rhine
Collapse of the First Helvoran Empire (1600-1664)
The French Revolt (1604-1612)
Collapse and Impact
Helvoran Revolution and Civil War (1664-1675)
Prelude to Revolution (1612-1664)
The Helvoran Revolution (1664-1666)
Rising Tensions and the Assemblie Nationale (August, 1664)
La Berge Massacres and Riots (1664-1666)
Rise of the Revolutionary Union (September, 1664)
Fracturing of the Union and the Triple Revolutions (1664-1666)
Storming of Vertrailles (October, 1666)
Execution of Thomas VI (October, 1666)
The Helvoran Republic (1666-1675)
Ascension of de Gallonterre (October, 1666)
Factionalism amongst States 1667-1674)
Bayerist Coup d'états (1667-1674)
Rouelle's Republic (1674-1675)
The Second Revolution and Establishment of the Monarchy (August, 1675)
Early Modern Helvore (1675-1901)
Post-Civil War Years (1675-1701)
Rise of Mattrieux's Rebellion (1681-1683)
Mastenburgian Rebellion (May, 1685)