The history of Kalibara concerns the formation of the Imperial Dynasty of Kalibara, its growth, expansion, and conflicts between 1532 to the present. Kalibara itself was uninhabited until its discovery by Nyasore I in 1532, and little about its past before that year is known. Kalibara's first capital was located at Makazi, but was moved sometime after to the planned city of Kimbilio. As Kalibara grew from the trade of gold, spices, slaves, and sugar, it expanded its borders to include Somalia in 1590, Oman in 1597, the Maldives in 1644, Ceylon in 1648, Burma in 1652, and Yemen in 1654. Dravida was aquired in 1666, but wasn't fully supressed until 1673, and Sumatra was conquered during a series of conflicts lasting between 1671 to 1708. Madagascar was aquired through the unification of the kingdoms there by Kenan III in 1723, afterwhich he proclaimed himself "King of Madagascar". Today, Kalibara has grown to become one of the most powerful on earth, and its cultural impact, while limited to Africa and much of the Southeast Asia, has been a deciding factor in the growth of its territories and the people that inhabit them.
FormationThe history of the empire begins are the early-16th century, when its first Kaizari, Nyasore Eddah Kimaiyo, set sail for the Indian subcontinent. He was the captain of a large merchant vessel sailing from the port city of Mombasa, trading spices and gold. In 1550, he and seven other vessels disembarked for their journey to the city of Mumbai, sailing northeast as usual. Somewhere during the middle of the trip, a storm erupted, endangering the fleet. As the ships forced their way through the storm, Nyasore and two other ships were thrown off course, and the rain and lack of light prevented the ships from finding the rest of the fleet. For about six days, the three ships sailed aimlessly in search of their destination, or at least any sign of land. Sometime on the seventh day, one of the ships caught sight of an island, and Nyasore directed his remaining ships to it, seeking refuge.
Making landfall, Nyasore and his sailors setup a small camp, while the other crew made repairs to their ships. As that was underway, Nyasore and a small band of warriors entered the thick jungles in search of any permanent settlements, seeking food and shelter for the others. For two weeks, the exploration team searched the immediate area, and found nothing. No other human settlements except their own. As any merchant would, Nyasore saw a wonderful opportunity to establish a empire for himself. He had the people, he had the weapons, and he the willpower to do it all. With the support of his other captains, and the general obedience of the slaves he brought and later freed, Nyasore renounced his allegiance to the Swahili city-state of Mombasa, and declared himself "Kaizari of Kalibara" in 1532.
Under Nyasore I, Kalibara's population of just 341 in 1535, expanded to 12,570 in 1560, helped by the news of the island's discovery back home (though the island was isolated for some time though). The nation saw the arrival of countless Africans, Arabs, Indians, Chinese to the island, all seeking to build a new life of themselves, or at least search for their chance at wealth on the resource rich island. The city of Makazi was the image of Kalibara's growing wealth. Urban sprawl in all directions was the hard evidence of steady population growth. Gold-laced public buildings and magnificent estates denoted the wealth entering the city, as traders and merchants set up their homes in Kalibara. The real proof of the newfound wealth was Nyasore's construction of a palace on a flat plain outside of Makazi. It was at that moment that Kalibara was truly recognized a true empire.
As with maritime nation at the time, pirates were a major issue Kalibara had to deal with. While the militia forces on the island meant the people and the city had little to fear from a major pirate attack, those on boats were offered no safety from such a calamity. The empire had neglected to do any about pirates up until 1558, when a Kalibarani merchant ship was attacked, the crew killed, and the captain sold into slavery. At that point, something had to be done. Nyasore I commissioned the construction of four large baghlahs, equipped with 28 bronze cannons each. These ships would forms the basis of the Imperial Navy, or the Merikebu as it was known to the people. This would be Nyasore's last major success, as on June 3th, 1567, he died at the age of 72, leaving a relatively wealthy empire behind to his eldest son and heir, Kenan I.
As with any large landmass, many powerful nations sought to divide it all, and exploit the rich lands for themselves. This was not to be the case with Kalibara, as its second Kaizari, Kenan I, sought to make clear to the world that Kalibara had but one rule; him. In 1567, Kenan Kokaji Kimaiyo, at the age of 26, succeeded his father, Nyasore I, after he died of natural causes. Kenan had observed closely how his father led the empire, and learned much from the way in which he dealt with foreign powers. Kalibara was huge island, but by 1567, only coastal area around capital was settled. Additionally, the population was only about some 240,000 people, making Kalibara one of largest nations by size, but one of the smallest in terms of population. This was its major weakness, and one its enemies, Oman and the Ottoman Empire sought to exploit.
In 1574, the Omani sought to tighten their grip in the Indian Ocean, but to do so; they need Kalibara out of the way. With no more people than Kalibara, and an equally train army, Oman planned to invade and conquer the island nation. Oman's true advantage came from the fact it maintained a large navy, larger than even Kalibara's own. While not at the pinnacle of its later strength, Oman was nonetheless, a formidable foe. A fleet of 30 ships, 3,500 men, of whom 700 were armed with matchlock muskets, set sail for Kalibara. Not seeking to run into Kalibara's larger warships, the invasion force on the western side of the island, where there were fewer people, but rougher terrain. Kenan I left Makazi with 10,000 men and 350 cavalry to fight the Omani force. Armed with bows, spears, and swords, he suspected that he would easily overwhelm the smaller army.
On September 23, 1575, the armies meet within the dense jungle region of the island. The Kalibara force charged the Omanis, with many cut down by the musket-armed enemies. Using the terrain to their advantage, lightly armed Kalibarani bowmen, hidden by the jungle trees, encircled the enemy force, and unleash a storm of arrows, killing several hundred Omani warriors. Pressing the advantage and using the trees as cover, the Kalibarani warriors charged once more, defeating Oman's army, and killing its commander. Kenan's men took many of the guns as trophies, but wishing to study and utilize this new weapon, Kenan ordered that all firearms recovered from the battle be placed in the imperial armory back in Makazi. This one order would save the nation later on.
War with the Ottoman Empire
Studying these new weapons thoroughly, Kenan's armorers were able to reserve-engineer the muskets taken from the Omani army, and make their own. Wasting no time, Kenan had 4,000 men equipped and trained to use these deadly new weapons, and ordered the construction of gun forge in the city of Makazi, which would become the basis of the Kalabarani defense industry. This development in the military came at crucial time, as the Ottoman Empire, after securing both sides of the Red Sea, sought to extent their grip into the Indian Ocean following stories of the wealthy empire known as Kalibara. In 1601, an army of 12,000 men and 70 war galleys was sent to find this nation, and bring it into the Ottoman's fold. But as with the Omani, Kenan would not let that happen.
Between the time of the Omani invasion, and the time of the Ottoman invasion, Kalibara constructed a series of fortresses along the inner coastline of crescent-shaped island. Any ship enter the opening of Kalibara would first have to pass two large forts armed with long-range cannons and mortars. After that, additional smaller forts would pound any hostile warships moving through the Eddah Gulf. Finally, the Citadel of Makazi protects the port city from any attack. Thus, as with the Omani before them, the Ottomans would have to traverse the mountainous outer coastline to get to the wealth inland. This would be the first of many mistakes made by the invaders. Kenan would be waiting for the Turks to make their move.
The Ottoman army fought their way into mountains, fighting Kalibarani skirmishers who nipped away at their numbers as the Turks tried to make it into the interior region of the island. Hundreds died in the brief battles in the highlands, and many more in the thick jungles near the far south of the island. The Ottoman forces used the open fields to their advantage, but had neglected to take into consideration the source of their supplies upon reaching the interior. Any supply train would have to travel through the Rea Sea, and into the Indian Ocean, unprotected and at the mercy of the Kalibarani warships. After that, any survivors would have to land on the western coasts, escape gunfire from the fortress there, make their way into the mountains where many Ottoman soldiers, unaccustomed to the cold, would freeze. Following that, they's have to enter the jungles on the other side, and brave the perils of Kalibarani snipers.
This gross neglect to secure their supply train would ultimately result in the Ottomans' defeat. By 1602, the Turks were beaten back to the coast, where their ships were destroyed, and any survivors captured and dragged by to the imperial city. There, Kenan made a generous proposal. He offered the survivors a new home on Kalibara in exchange for their teaching of their skills to his soldiers, and offering his armorers insight into the working of Ottoman weaponry that could be put to use in the imperial army. All accepted, lacking the will to fight or remain loyal to the Sultan, to whom many felt had abandoned them to the Kalibarani forces. Following the invasion, Kenan establish a permanent standing army for the empire, and used the realm's vast wealth to commission a series of costly militarization projects. This would ultimately bankrupt the nation, but Kenan I's legacy would be preserved as the Kaizari who protected the empire from falling to foreign powers.
European ContactFollowing Kenan I's death in battle against the Ethiopians in 1603, his 23 year old son, Kenan Balola Kimaiyo, or Kenan II, came to power seeking to both refill the drained coffers of the empire, and keep the army his father had worked so hard to build intact. Thus, he began looking overseas, searching for trade partners who he could sell Kalibara's vast resources too. He found such a partner in Portugal, the empire which by the time of his ascension, had begun to colonize the surrounding lands. Word of Kalibara's victory over the Ottoman Empire spread across Europe like a fire, and thus Portugal knew well to keep itself out of Kalibarani lands. But as with any empire looking for the best goods to buy, it sent diplomats to the island nation to what goods Kalibara was selling. Seeing this as his chance, Kenan II opened his ports up to the Portuguese, selling them Kalibarani sugar, coffee, and spices, of which they had plenty.
The Portuguese sold the Kalibarani guns and gunpowder, and military advisors arrived in the empire at the behest of Kenan and his advisors. The two nations became quick allies; Portugal selling industrial items to Kalibara, and Kalibara providing quality goods and self passage through the Indian Ocean for Portugal. By 1620, the Kalibarani people were wearing a fusion of Swahili and Portuguese clothing, speaking Portuguese as a third language (after Swahili and Arabic), and building in the European style. Kenan II ordered the construction of a second palace in the style of those in Europe 30 miles inland, on the edge of Lake Utaraji, which would later become the future capital city of Kimbilio. It would be here where future Kaizaris of Kalibara would reside. Here, he would direct the construction of modern buildings that would increase the sanitation of the cities, and promote population growth in region once impossible to inhabit, such as the jungles on the west of the island.
Though he was a man taken by the Europeans and the culture, he was true to his Kalibarani roots, and kept the language and culture of his people alive. He refused to remove some parts of the culture that were distinctly Kalibarani, such as ritualistic cannibalism, incest and marriage in the family, and public executions, all of which developed as a result of the small population and isolation of the island. Kenan himself was a result of sibling marriage, and married to his own twin sister. Though this did mar his reputation in Europe, he was widely respected, more so than his own grandfather. Kenan rebuilt the imperial treasury, and spent increased revenue on public works, such as the building of a sewage system, and establishment of a permanent guard force, the precursor to the Kudhibiti of today. His works saw Kalibara proclaimed the "Venice of the Indian Ocean", establishing itself as the most powerful maritime power in the eastern hemisphere.
Kenan II's rule was marked was by a long peace, one of which allowed it to become a regional power. The population by 1640 was about some 1.4 million, and the military forces numbered some 170,000 men under arms, 4,000 cannon, and 40,000 horses. The navy numbered some 60 ships, and protected a trade empire collecting some 75 metric tons of gold, roughly the equivalent of $2.5 billion U.S. dollars (or ₭1.6 billion kipato) in today's money. Such wealth allowed the empire and its monarch to spend their earnings freely, and on anything they desired. Known as the Gold Age of Kalibara (1641-1864), Kalibara was relatively free of issues that plagued the rest of the world, such as the wars of Europe, the civil strife of Asia, and enforced colonization of Africa. During this time, Kalibara would look overseas and establish its own empire, using its wealth and large army and navy to secure its interest.
Kalibara's Colonial EmpireUpon Kenan II's death in 1644, his son, Osano Peto Adipo, at the age of 36, asended the throne to become Osano I. Osano sought to use the powerful military forces built-up by his father and grandfather to establish Kalibara as a colonial power. Setting his sights on Southeast Asia, Osano proclaimed the need to secure resources in other parts of the globe, though Kalibara had all the resources it would ever need to establish an autarky. He wanted to show the world that it had a competitor, and he was willing to push Kalibara in that direction if he needed too. Ships packed full of men, equipment, and supplies, Kalibara was about to establish a colonial empire of its own. However, this would interfere with the goals of its former allies, chief amongst them were the Portuguese.
For decades, Kalibara and Portugal had been close allies, trading and fighting together. The Portuguese had loyal friends, and the monarchs of both sent gifts to each other. Kenan II travelled to Portugal to visit the king there, and returned with the goal to develop his nation in one akin to the great powers of Europe. Thus, the two were very close. However, Portugal was still a nation, and like Kalibara, it was under new administration. It had plans, goals, and dreams it wished to fulfill, however, Kalibara's move to become "Number #1" in the Indian Ocean, not only put its trade routes at risk, but also its own colonial empire. It had colonies in Mozambique, India, and China, and any colonial empire established by Kalibara would endanger their own. Such a threat was not to be tolerated, and the Portuguese moved to counter it.
Kalibara established itself as the sole colonial power in Siam, and established a small colony in Australia, where present-day Perth now resides. Additionally, Kalibara gained the island Hainan, which controlled up until 1897. This small colonial empire held enough influence to harm Portuguese interest in Asia, and they sought to solve this through force. In the Oriental Campaign, the Portuguese fought a ten year war with the Kalibarani over their territories in region. The Portuguese had underestimated their rival, and due to its strategic location in the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese were unable to bypass their enemy's homeland to defend their territories, and saw their colonial empire near ruin. Seeking to save face, and protect what little colonial lands they had left, the Portuguese agreed to a ceasefire, not wishing harm to befall their precious empire in the east.
This victory against a European power granted Kalibara and its king, Osano I, much respect in European courts, one of whom was British. This nation would be a great friend to Kalibara for the next two-and-a-half centuries, providing the empire with much scientific and industrial knowledge that would propel Kalibara far above its neighbors in terms of living standards and industrial output. Osano was ever weary of British interest in his empire, but whatever doubts he had he kept to himself. Only once his son, Nyasore II took over, would these doubts come to light, and be put to rest. Until then, Osano built up his small colonial empire, strengthened the military forces as predecessors had done before him, and kept the nation on good economic grounds. Kalibara suffered few wars during Osano I's reign, fighting but two more brief regional conflicts with the Ethiopians and the Zanzibari sultans over a debt they owed the Kalibarani crown.