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|Jhpu in 1977|
|First Minister of Rajia|
24th July 1965 – 21st April 1974
|Preceded by||U Nyan Shwe|
|Succeeded by||U Nyan Byi|
22nd November 1956 – 13th November 1960
|Preceded by||U Nyan Shwe|
|Succeeded by||U Nyan Shwe|
|Born|| Jhou Chiao|
12th May, 1907
Xingang, Jaavra, British Rajia
|Died|| 21st April, 1974|
Qiaojia, Jaavra, Rajia
|Political party|| RJP (1936-45)|
Jhou Chiao (Rajian: ; Chinese: 週超) was a Rajian businessmen and politician who served as the First Minister of Rajia for two non-consecutive terms; the first between 1956-60, and the second from 1965-74 when he was assassinated. The founder of the People's Democratic Party, he was the first left of centre and Han Chinese leader of Rajia and an important figure in the advocacy of San-min Doctrine and social democracy in Rajia.
Born in an elite landowning family of Chinese-Rajians, Jhou's family had entered into the tuhao ("new rich") of Rajian society, being closely involved in the industrialisation process- specifically railroads- of Rajia under British rule. He entered politics in 1936 as the Deputy Ambassador to China under the U Zaw Nyp regime, becoming the full ambassador to China in 1942. Following the fall of the U Zaw Nyo regime he kept the role of Chinese ambassador before forming the People's Democratic Party (PPP) in 1945, a left wing party formed on the philosophy of Chinese leader Sun Yat-sen whom Jhou personally admired. The PPP formed part of the national unity government of the Federal Kingdom during the Rajian Civil War, opposing the communist Workers' Party of Rajia. After the civil war he became Leader of the Opposition of the newly created Rajian Hluttaw with his PPP being the second largest part after the ruling Rajian National Party (RJP) headed by then-First Minister U Nyan Shwe.
In 1956 the PPP was elected to its first majority government with Jhou installed as First Minister. Under Jhou several social democratic policies were implemented such as nationalisation of major industries, the creation of universal healthcare (making Rajia one of the first Asian countries to establish such a system) and making the first moves to create a welfare state. Jhou also supported Rajia's continued alliance with the Western world opposing communism. However, when he attempted to pursue land reform he was blocked by the conservative monarchy, resulting in the PPP losing the 1960 election which were marred by electoral fraud. For the next 5 years Jhou and the PPP remained in opposition with Jhou rebuffing attempts by rival party members to oust him from the PPP's leadership.
Jhou and the PPP were re-elected to power 1965, with Rajia having entered a period of economic decline, continued communist insurgency and increased authoritarianism and ethno-centrism promoted by the previous RJP government of U Nyan Shwe. Jhou entered in a national-unity government with the RJP implementing austerity measures alongside nationalisation and increased government intervention into the economy. An IMF loan was negotiated for the first time in Rajian history in 1967 whilst Jhou attempted to improve relations between Rajia and the second world. In order to deal with ethnic strife Jhou created a National Commission for Ethnic Relations whilst implementing a policy of positive discrimination which led to the RJP to leave the government in 1969. The 1973 elections saw the PPP reduced in the total number of seats, with Jhou forming a minority government after being unable to strike a deal with any opposition parties including the PPP.
In 1974, Jhou was shot by a Rajian nationalist named Da Hluang, leading to U Nyan Byi to take control of the government and create Rajia into a de facto one-party state until 1993. The assassination of Jhou remains controversial, marking a watermark in the country's young democratic history.