Republic of Kamburi
"Unies par pays" (French)
Le Kambouri Mars
and largest city
|-||President Minister||Kayode Oluwatoyin|
|-||from France||August 19, 1960|
|-||2011 estimate||3,359,507 (136th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|-||Total||$4.507 billion (154th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,738 (153rd)|
Kamburi (French; Kambouri; Arabic: كلمبأنارأنا) officially the Republic of Kamburi, is a landlocked country located in central Africa, bordered by Chad to the north, the Central African Republic to the south-east and Cameroon to the south-west.
Kamburi's landscape is considered to be an arid forest, with little rain towards the centre of the country. However, towards the border regions of the country, the landscape becomes less arid. The capital of the Kamburi is also the nations largest city, and is home to 30 different linguistic and ethnic groups, despite French and Arabic being its official languages. Christianity is the major religion in the nation, followed by the sizeable Islamic community.
Human beings have lived in the area Kamburi occupies today, however, around the 7th millennium B.C, the area became far more populated. Home to the Zambir civilization for 400 years, the area came under control of the French, and by 1920, it had been assimilated into French Equatorial Africa. On August 19, 1960, a week after Chad declared independence, the region declared independence under a Republican system, led by Mudaqi Mosi.
During the insuring years after independence, Chad was continuing to put pressure on Mosi to hand over the border town of Sarh, which he declined. As a result, over the next 17 years, both nations fought a border war for control of the city, which ended in 1979 with the Sarh Peace Accords, headed by France.
Currently, Kamburi remains plagued by corruption and disease not unlike its northern neighbour, however, it hangs lower on the Human Development Index. As a result of the border war, much of the population was forced out of the cities, and turned to subsistence farming or military service, furthered after the rise of Philippe Mwenye to the Presidency during the 1998 civil war.
By the 7th millennium B.C, ecological conditions in the Kamburian territory became extremely favourable to human habitation. Records show that over the next 3000 years, prior to the desertification of the Sahara, the population in the area increased 8 fold. However, after rainfall dropped in the region 5000 years ago, and deserts moved southwards, the area slowly became a centre based on trade, not farming, thus became a major stop on early trade routes.
Around the first century A.D, the first of 2 major civilizations appeared in what is present day Moundou; the earlier of which being dubbed the Greater Kamburi civilization. Existing for only 200 years before falling to what is believed to be drought, the civilization had a major impact on the culture of the later civilization; the Great Zambir.
After the conquest of the region by the Kanem Empire in 1000, Islam began to spread south, becoming the major religion in the area for the next 900 years. This was later expanded upon when Islam became the official religion of the empire around 100 years before its fall, after which the Kamburi/Zambir people were once again self governing, and even reached their apex with the Great Zambir civilization, which dominated for 400 years between 1500 and 1900, when its people finally fell under the sway of the French colonial empire.
By 1920, the French expansion into the territory was finally completed, and Kamburi/Chad was admitted into the French Equatorial Africa. Compared to the north, the south had managed to be administered to a certain degree of competency, however, sluggish modernisation, as well as the failure to stop the continuing conflict between the Zambir and Kamburi people hastened the rate of decolonisation.
This came ahead following World War 2 when the region, today known as Chadian Kamburi-Zambir, was granted overseas territory status, which allowed it to vote in French general elections and Chadian elections. However, in 1956, the region was split in two, with Kamburi-Zambir seceding from Chad to form the Territory of Kamburi. Now able to peruse independence without interference by Chad, the people campaigned for complete control over their own lives. This was finally won on August 19, 1960, a week after Chad left the empire, and the leader of the independence movement (Front pour Libération Kambourien), Mudaqi Mosi, was sworn in as the countries first President.Mudaqi Mosi managed to reform the political structure of the nation, removing the parliament and replacing it with a centralised head body, the President Minister.Whilst he claimed this would improve the "democratic position" of the people, elections were rarely held, and official government ministers were often friends or subordinates of Mosi. By 1962, the general populace were calling for an election for the presidency, and following what is now considered a faux election, Mosi was re-elected with 81% of the male vote (females would be granted suffrage in 1976).
Now consolidating his near-dictatorial rule, Mosi was put forth what he considered to be an ultimatum from the Chadian government; the border town of Sarh (a majority of which lies within the Kamburi border) would be placed into the hands of the Republic of Chad. Mosi refused the ultimatum, and following his response, Chadian soldiers marched in and occupied Sarh. Despite being outnumbered 3/1 in terms of military, Mosi sent his troops to fight for the city. This skirmish resulted in the undeclared 60 days war, which saw major fighting in Sarh, and a number of minor border conflicts. After the 60 days, Chadian soldiers were called back into their nation, and Mosi declared victory and re-occupied Sarh. This conflict would be the first fight for the city, and the first of what was to become the 17 year long Chadian Border War.
Over his 15 year dictatorial rule as the President, Mosi continued to put pressure on opposition groups, including the Muslim minority, Political parties and movements and the people themselves. An ethnic Kamburian, he led what is now known as the Zambir Genocide, which caused the deaths of almost 50,000 to 60,000 men, women and children. His complete disregard for human rights and silencing of the opposition caused a stir worldwide, and within his country, where would be assassins tried to kill him twice late in his lifetime. However, on August 29, 1975, it ended with Mosi's death by stroke, and the ascension of the new President, Bosede Mosi, Mudaqi's nephew.
Only 17 days into his official administration, Bosede Mosi called for his generals to convene at the capital; his plan was the final capture of Manda, and the full integration of Sarh. The plan, opposed by almost every member of the military's delegation, were overruled by Émilien Kgosi, the Field Marshal of all Kamburi's army.Given a choice to be either stripped of their command, or join Bosede and Kgosi, the rest of the military command surrendered to the word of the President. After 2 months of rigorous planning, constructing, and building military strength, Bosede Mosi declared war on Chad, the date being the 23 December, 1975.
The declaration of war and subsequent invasion of the Chadian Sarh was immediate repelled by the opposing troops. With the failure to capture any of their stated war goals, the date continued to tick over, By 1978, the war was beginning to be fought in the air, with air raids being launched by each nation during the conflict. To counteract this, Bosede called for perhaps the most audacious act during any of the cold war confrontations; the gas attacks on Kaybe. Over one week in 1978, with the help of an international brigade provided by the Central African Military, Kamburian troops first fire bombed the town, then shot a number of gas shells into the ruins. The death rate was furthered on the last day when Mosi called for the army to fully occupy it. The result was mass rape, and mass murder from the aggressors, and the result was so psychologically damaging, that it still stains relations between the countries today.
On January 6, 1979, France finally called for a ceasefire between the countries. A temporary military armistice was arranged on January 20, and over a number of months, French, Kamburian and Chadian diplomats arranged a final peace deal between the warring nations. The Sahr Peace Accords were arranged a demilitarised zone along the border, with U.N ambassadors standing guard. Further changes to territory came in 2 shifts; the town of Sarh, with its location finally geographically defined, would be handed over to Kamburi over a 5 year period. The same was to be done with the Manda swamplands, this time handed over to Chad. Finally, French troops were to be present in both capitals of Chad and Kamburi, with a 10 year period of peacekeeping before finally being extracted. This settlement would last 4 years in Kamburi, and 7 years in Chad.