Kingdom of Gwynedd
Gwynedd, officially the Kingdom of Gwynedd (Welsh: Teyrnas o Gwynedd), is a maritime country in North Western Europe. It is bordered by England to the east, the Deheubarth and Powys Confederation to the south, and Ireland across the Irish Sea to the west. It comprises three principal regions: the Uplands in the west as part of the Eryri massif, the Isle of Anglesey in the north; and the Borderlands in the east. The capital city is Caernarfon in the district of Arfôn. Gwynedd has a population of 152,433 (as of October 2025) and an area of 3,886 square kilometres making it one of the smallest sovereign nations in Europe.
Restoration of Independence
The old Kingdom of Gwynedd existed throughout the Middle Ages until 1283 when it was conquered by England. There were a number of short lived revolts after this date but they were all crushed. After 1409, the Kingdom of Gwynedd languished under English Occupation foir over six-hundred years.In the year 2023, a new Kingdom of Gwynedd was restored
following a set of very unusual circumstances.
Foremost among these was the dissolution of the United Kingdom of England and Wales (formed in 2017) which left behind a de jure "Kingdom of Wales" - a kingdom without a king. This so-called Kingdom of Wales struggled on for a few years under a regency in Cardiff until a popular movement in Gwynedd (lead by a radical group called Llais Gwynedd) achieved a 'Yes' vote in an in/out referendum as to whether Gwynedd should remain a part of the Welsh unitary state. This vote was successful and the Kingdom of Wales split in to two states; Gwynedd, in the north, encompassing the whole area north and west of a line made by the rivers Dyfi and Dyfrdwy; and the remainder of Wales, in the south and east. The remaining part of Wales then proceeded to split further into the component shires, some which later formed the Confederation of the South (Deheubarth) and others (such as Powys) remaining defacto independent but maintaining a close relationship with that aforementioned polity.
The Independent State of Gwynedd began its life turbulently. The Welsh Language was imposed as a compulsory language of communication in the state and subsequently, within the first year, over a third of the population left the country. Fighting eventually broke out between different factions represented in the Provisional Assembly (PSA) until finally a late intervention by the Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain brought the rival parties together. In the interests of national salvation, the Gorsedd convinced the exiled Prince David of House of Anwyl (Tywysog Dafydd ap Ieuan o Tywyn) to return to Gwynedd as King (Brehin) and in 2022 the rival parties in Gwynedd agreed to the formation of a restored kingdom. This was ratified by the PSA the same year and after representatives of the cantrefau of north Wales signed the Second Statute of Rhuddlan the new Kingdom of Gwynedd was formally and irrevocably proclaimed on 21st June 2023.
Dafydd Elis-Thomas was appointed Distain (Chancellor) by King Dafydd III in 2024. Lord Elis-Thomas oversaw the establishment of the Gwynedd Constitutional Convention which eventually drew up a liberal constitution which allows for a constitutional monarchy and broad local autonomy across the realm. The Constitution was approved in 2025 by referendum.
Lord Elis-Thomas remains Distain to this day.
Gwynedd is subdivided into three tywysogaethau (regions) with twenty cantrefau (districts). The region of Eryri (Snowdonia) consists of the districts of Arfôn, Arllechwedd, Dunoding, Llŷn, and Meirionydd; the region of Perfeddwlad (Borderlands) consists of the districts Caergwle, Dinmael, Dyffryn Clwyd, Edeirnion, Iâl, Maelor, Penarlâg, Penllyn, Rhôs, Rhufoniog, Tegeingl, and Yr Wyddgrug; the region of Môn (Anglesey) consists of the districts of Aberffraw, Cemais, and Rhosyr.
The Army of Gwynedd consists of the Teulu or "Royal Guard", an elite force of soldiers who perform the dual roles of both Palace Guards and the core of the standing army. The rest of the armed forces are irregular territorial troops called the Rhyddid Gwynedd, trained in guerrilla tactics.
Constitution of Gwynedd (2025)
1. Y Teyrnas Gwynedd (The Kingdom of Gwynedd) is a State consisting of three tywysogaethau (regions) with twenty cantrefau (districts). It is based upon the principle of enabling the people residing within its borders to live in peace and freedom. The region of Eryri (Snowdonia) consists of the districts of Arfôn, Arllechwedd, Dunoding, Llŷn, and Meirionydd; the region of Perfeddwlad (Borderlands) consists of the districts Caergwle, Dinmael, Dyffryn Clwyd, Edeirnion, Iâl, Maelor, Penarlâg, Penllyn, Rhôs, Rhufoniog, Tegeingl, and Yr Wyddgrug; the region of Môn (Anglesey) consists of the districts of Aberffraw, Cemais, and Rhosyr.
Caernarfon is the capital and the seat of the Llys (assembly) and the Government.
2. The Kingdom is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy on a democratic and parliamentary basis; the power of the State is inherent in and issues from the Brehin (King) and the People and shall be exercised by both in accordance with the provisions of the present Constitution.
3. The succession to the throne, hereditary in the Royal House of Gwynedd, the coming-of-age of the King and of the Heir Apparent, as well as any guardianship which may be required, are to be determined by the Royal House in the form of a dynasty law.
4. Changes in the boundaries of the territory of the State may only be made by a law. Boundary changes between communes and the union of existing ones also require a majority decision of the citizens residing there who are entitled to vote.
5. The coat of arms and flag of the State are those of the Royal House of Gwynedd; the national colours are red and gold.
6. Cymraeg (Welsh) is the national and official language.
7. The Brehin (King) is the Head of State and shall exercise his sovereign authority in conformity with the provisions of the present Constitution and of the other laws.
8. The King is not subject to the jurisdiction of the courts and does not have legal responsibility. The same applies to any member of the Royal House who exercises the function of head of state.
9. The King shall represent the State in all its relations with foreign countries, without prejudice to the necessary participation of the responsible Government.
10. Treaties by which national territory is ceded, national property alienated, rights of sovereignty or State prerogatives disposed of, any new burden for the Principality or its citizens imposed or any obligation to the detriment of the rights of the People of the Kingdom contracted shall not be valid unless they have received the assent of the Llys (Assembly).
11. Every law shall require the sanction of the King in order to acquire validity.
12. The King shall take, through the Government, and independently of the Diet, the steps required for the implementation and enforcement of the laws, and any action required in pursuance of the powers of administration and supervision, and shall issue the requisite ordinances. In urgent cases he shall take the necessary measures for the security and welfare of the State.
13. Every successor to the throne shall, before receiving the oath of allegiance, shall declare upon his Royal honour and dignity in a written proclamation that he will govern the Kingdom of Gwynedd in conformity with the Constitution and the other laws, that he will maintain its integrity, and will observe the rights of sovereignty indivisibly and in like manner.
14. The Llys (Assembly) is the legal organ representing all the citizens of the Kingdom and as such has the duty of safeguarding and vindicating the rights and interest of the People in relation to the Government in conformity with the provisions of the present Constitution and also of promoting as far as possible the welfare of the Royal House and of the country while faithfully adhering to the principles laid down in this Constitution.
15 The rights appertaining to the Diet may only be exercised in the lawfully constituted assembly of that body.
16. The Diet shall consist of 80 Aelodau'r Cynulliad (Representatives) who shall be elected by the People by universal, equal, secret and direct suffrage according to the system of proportional representation. Snowdonia, Borderlands and Anglesey shall each form a constituency. Of the 80 Representatives, 20 shall be elected by Snowdonia, 40 by the Borderlands and 20 by Anglesey.
17. In addition to the 80 Representatives, substitutes shall be elected in each constituency. For each three Representatives in a constituency, each electoral group shall have one substitute but if an electoral group has obtained one mandate it shall have at least one substitute.
18. Detailed regulations regarding the conduct of the elections shall be laid down in a special law.
19. The Assembly shall be opened with due solemnity by the King, in person or by his proxy. All the new members shall swear the following oath to the King or his proxy:
- "I hereby swear to observe the State Constitution and the existing laws and to promote in the Assembly the welfare of the country, without any ulterior motives, to the best of my ability and conscience. So help me God."
20. The Assembly shall elect one of its members to serve as Brawdwr Llys (Assembly Judge) who shall keep order in the Assembly and organise its business in accordance with this Constitution.
21. Subsequent members of the Assembly shall take the oath before the Brawdwr Llys.
22. The Assembly shall be closed by the King, in person or by his proxy.
23. The King shall appoint a Distain (Seneschal) to govern the kingdom in his name.
24. The Distain shall be a Representative member of the Assembly who is able to command a majority in that chamber.