|Kingdom of Palmares|
koninkrijk van Palmares
Anthem: zegevierend Palmares
|2,010,013 km2 (776,070 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2012 estimate
• 2009 census
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Palmarista Amazona (PMA)|
|Time zone||Mountain Time (UTC+2)|
|Daylight savings is not observed|
The Kingdom of Palmares is a sovereign nation located in the Guiana Shield of South America. It is made up of four provinces (Guyane, Cayenne, Venezul, and Essequibo)and has a total area of 2, 010, 013 km2 occupied by a population of approximately 8,577,000. Palmares is an oligarchic constitutional monarchy governed according to deep ecological principles. Currently, the King is Tavares I.
Before the arrival of European explorers, the Guianas were populated by scattered bands of Arawak Indians. The native tribes of the Northern Amazon Basin|Amazon are most closely related to the natives of the Caribbean ; most evidence suggests that the Arawaks immigrated from the Orinoco in Venezuela and Guiana into the northern islands, and were then supplanted (and, occasionally, eaten) by more warlike tribes of Carib, who departed from these same river valleys a few centuries later.Over the centuries of the pre-Columbian era, the ebb and flow of power between Arawak and Carib interests throughout the Caribbean resulted in a great deal of intermingling (some forced through capture, some accidental through contact). This ethnic mixing, particularly in the Caribbean margins like the Guianas, produced a hybridized culture. Despite their political rivalry, the ethnic and cultural blending between the two groups had reached such a level that, by the time of the Europeans' arrival, the Carib/Arawak complex in Guiana was so homogenous that the two groups were almost indistinguishable to outsiders.Through the contact period following Columbus's arrival, the term "Guiana" was used to refer to all areas between the Orinoco, the Rio Negro, and the Amazon River, and was seen so much as a unified, isolated entity that it was often referred to as the “Island of Guiana.”
Christopher Columbus first spotted the coast of the Guianas in 1498, but real interest in the exploration and colonization of the Guianas, which came to be known as the "Wild Coast," did not begin until the end of the sixteenth century. Sir Walter Raleigh began the exploration of the Guianas in earnest in 1594. He was in search of a great golden city at the headwaters of the Caroní River. A year later he explored what is now Guyana and Guayana Region|eastern Venezuela in search of "Manoa", the legendary city of the king known as El Dorado. Sir Walter Raleigh described the city of El Dorado as being located on Lake Parime far up the Orinoco River in Guyana. Much of his exploration is documented in his books The Discoverie of the Large, Rich, and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana, published first in 1596, and The Discovery of Guiana, and the Journal of the Second Voyage Thereto, published in 1606.
After the publication of Raleigh's accounts, several other European powers developed interest in the Guianas. The Dutch joined in the exploration of the Guianas before the end of the century. In the 80 years between 1568, when the Netherlands became a loose affiliation of Walloon and Flemish provinces, and 1648, when the Peace of Münster was signed with the Spanish, the Dutch had been practising the delicate art of cobbling together different ethnicities and religious faiths into a viable economic entity. When beginning an empire, the Dutch concerned themselves more with trade and establishing viable networks and outposts than with claiming tracts of land to act as a buffer against neighboring states. With this goal in mind, the Dutch dispatched explorer Jacob Cornelisz to survey the area in 1597. His clerk, Adriaen Cabeliau, related the voyage of Cornelisz and his survey of Indian groups and areas of potential trade partnerships in his diary. Throughout the seventeenth century, the Dutch made gains by establishing trading colonies and outposts in the region and in the neighboring Caribbean islands under the banner of the Dutch West India Company. The company, established in 1621 for such purposes, benefited from a larger investment of capital than the English, primarily through foreign investors like Isaac de Pinto, a Portuguese Jew. The area was also cursorily explored by Amerigo Vespucci and Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, and in 1608 the Grand Duchy of Tuscany also organized an expedition to the Guianas, but this was cut short by the untimely death of the Grand Duke.
English and Dutch settlers were regularly harassed by the Spanish and Portuguese, who viewed settlement of the area as a violation of the Treaty of Tordesillas. In 1613, Dutch trading posts on the Essequibo River and Corantijn River were completely destroyed by Spanish troops. The troops had been sent into the Guianas from neighboring Venezuela under the premise of stamping out privateering and with the support of a cédula passed by the Spanish Council of the Indies and Philip III of Spain. Nonetheless, the Dutch returned in 1615, founding a new settlement at present-day Cayenne (later abandoned in favor of Suriname), one on the Oyapock River and one on the upper Amazon. By 1621, a charter was granted by the States-General of the Netherlands, but even a few years prior to the official chartering a fort and trading post had been built at Kijkoveral, under the supervision of Aert Groenewegen, at the confluence of the Essequibo, Cuyuni, and Mazaruni Rivers. British settlers also succeeded in establishing a small settlement in 1606 and a much larger one in modern day Suriname in 1650, under the leadership of former Barbadian governor Francis Francis Willoughby.
The French had also made less significant attempts at French colonization of the Americas|colonization, first in 1604 along the Sinnamary River. The settlement collapsed within a summer, and initial attempts at settlement near modern-day Cayenne, French Guiana|Cayenne, beginning in 1613, were met with similar setbacks. French priorities — land acquisition and Roman Catholicism|Catholic conversion — were not easily reconciled with the difficulties of initial settlement-building on the Wild Coast. Even as late as 1635, the King of France granted permission to the whole of Guiana to a joint-stock company of Norman merchants. When these merchants made a settlement near the modern city of Cayenne, failure ensued. Eight years later, a reinforcement contingent led by Charles Poncet de Brétigny found only a few of the original colonists left alive, living among the aborigines. Later that year, among the combined total of the original surviving settlers, the reinforcement contingent led by de Brétigny, and a subsequent reinforcement later in the year, only two individuals remained alive long enough to reach the Dutch settlement on the Pomeroon River in 1645, begging for refuge. Though some trading outposts that could be considered permanent settlements were founded as early as 1624, French “possession” of the land now known as French Guiana is not recognized as having taken place until at least 1637. Cayenne itself, the first permanent settlement of comparable size to the Dutch colonies, experienced instability until 1643.
The Dutch appointed a new commandeur of the Guiana settlements in 1742. In this year, Laurens Storm van 's Gravesande took over the region. He held the position for three decades, coordinating the development and expansion of the Dutch colonies from his Netherlands home in Soestdijk. Gravesande’s tenure brought significant change to the colonies, though his policy was in many ways an extension of his predecessor, Hermanus Gelskerke. Commandeur Gelskerke had begun pressing for change from a trading focus to one of cultivation, especially of sugar. The area east of the existing Essequibo colony, known as Demerara, was relatively isolated and encompassed the trading areas of just a few indigenous tribes, thus it contained only two trading outposts during Gelskerke’s term of office. Demerara, though, showed great potential as a sugar-cultivating area, so the commandeur began shifting focus toward the development of the region, signifying his intentions by transferring the administrative center of the colony from Fort Kijkoveral to Flag Island, on the mouth of the Essequibo River, further east and closer to Demerara. These operations were carried out by Gravesande, acting as the Secretary of the Company under Gelskerke. Upon Gelskerke’s death, Gravesande continued the policy of Demerara expansion and the move to sugar cultivation.
Conflict among the British, Dutch, and French continued throughout the seventeenth century. The Treaty of Breda sealed peace between the English and the Dutch. The treaty allowed the Dutch to retain control over the valuable sugar plantations and factories on the coast of Suriname which had been secured by Abraham Crijnssen earlier in 1667.
All the colonies along the Guiana coast were converted to profitable sugar plantations during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. War continued off and on among the three principal powers in the Guianas (the Netherlands, France, and Britain) until a final peace was signed in 1814 (the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814), heavily favouring the British. By this time France had sold off most of its North American territory in the Louisiana Purchase and had lost all but Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana in the Caribbean region. The Dutch lost Berbice, Essequibo, and Demerara; these colonies were consolidated under a central British administration and would be known after 1831 as British Guiana. The Dutch retained Suriname.After 1814, the Guianas came to be recognized individually as British Guiana, French Guiana, and Suriname. Interest in these far-flung colonies was low, even after they gained independence as republics, however.
The longtime inhabitants of the region, many of whom were partly descended from escaped slaves, lived in communities known as quilombos, often built on stilts, along rivers, mostly in the Guiana Highlands. As these communities occupied land which controlled access to the interior, they began to lose out as their land was seized as unclaimed (since most had no title for it). Additionally, the carefully tended ecosystem, in many places made up of complex human-made agroforests and their chief source of livelihood, was being destroyed.
Leaders of these communities began to meet in secret . They hired a Chechen mercenary named Semyon Darkhan to act as their military adviser. He began to stockpile modern arms in concealed camps within the Amazon Basin, train troops, and prepare detailed plans for an armed rebellion. As the Amazon Campaign and resultant destruction reached a head, they decided to strike. On December 24th, 2008, militant forces seized control of the state of Guyana in a series of armed uprisings. Troops captured Cayeene, in Suriname, three days later, and advanced into French Guiana, which they occupied, expelling French forces.
The new state was named the Republic of Palmares, after a state made up of escaped slaves and natives from the 16th century. However, Darkhan and several other extremist leaders opposed a republic, They believed that, to ensure protection of the land and water, the government would need to adhere to deep ecological principles. Accordingly, they executed a coup, proclaiming the Kingdom of Palmares on November 1st, 2009 and instating the present system of rule. The previous republican government was merged into the new system, with several leading republicans settling for positions in the Council. The King was randomly selected at a public speech.
The new government set about reorganizing the military, instituting compulsory military service and building up the arms industry. They also launched a massive tree planting program in deforested areas, which were to be transformed into massive agroforests. They also instituted a nationwide ideology of deep ecology, basing the new state's law system off of this. Accordingly, vegetarianism was mandated by law, animal cruelty made a crime equal to murder, cars and logging declared illegal, and so forth. Protests at this in the cities of Georgetown and Cayenne were put down with the assistance of conscripted tribesmen from the Central Amazon, creating an ongoing controversy. Regardless, the government transferred itself to Cayenne, as the best location from which to govern the nation and the largest city.
The government's refusal to allow environmentally damaging methods of mining, harvesting, or logging caused the economy to take a severe downturn, causing a rise in dissatisfaction and unemployment. However, after two years, the nation became more successful. Its success in genetic engineering and the creation of artificial islands brought the Kingdom both relative international prominence and a highly necessary influx of wealth. Additionally, the replanted agroforests in the South began to prove surprisingly profitable, remaining both ecologically healthy and producing a considerable amount of foods and valuable materials. Exports of these began to rise, helped by the government's authorization of severely limited mining.
King The ostensible head of government is the King, who appoints municipal and provincial leaders and possesses some veto powers. Otherwise, his only responsibilities are appearing at public occasions and overseeing the Parliament. The King lives in the Palacio Real, (the old Opera House) in Manaus. Parliament The Parliament of Palmares is composed of 70 members elected from each province. Legally, it makes all decisions in the country, excepting those judged to be too trivial, which are left to provincial or municipal leaders. The Parliament holds weekly meetings in which any menber can make a proposition for a new law, which will then be voted on. It is overseen by the King, who can veto any bill the Parliament attempts to pass. Also, most bills are sent to the Council, who dictate how each Member of Parliament will vote. This ensures that blame can be deflected onto scapegoats chosen by the Council.
In fact, however, the government is controlled by the ten-man Council, each of whom has responsibility for a different aspect of the nation's government. The Palmarista government has not yet acknowledged the existence of the Council, but it is generally known nonetheless. All decisions are made by this group without consultation. Important army officers automatically gain posts on the council. Otherwise, the posts only change hands at the death of a councillor, who can select their successor. The council can opt to put decisions up for a general vote, but has done so only three times. Provincial At a lower level, provincial and municipal leaders are selected by the King on recommendation of the inhabitants of the area. They hold their position for life, or until the King or council sees fit to remove them. They control some affairs in their provinces, but otherwise play a relatively small role in the governance of the nation. All decisions made by them are subject to review and modification by the Council. Judiciary The Parliament doubles as the Supreme Court, making all final decisions in regard to law. All major cases are reviewed and, if necessary, overturned by them. This enables the Council to control interpretation of the constitution and prevent embarrassing precedents. Many lower courts also exist to handle cases considered unimportant.
The Military of Palmares compromises all branches of the Palmarista Armed Forces except the Strategic Missile Command. This includes the infantry, air force and navy. The Kingdom imposes compulsory military service on all people between the ages of 20 and 24, excepting the unhealthy. These people are also subject to reserve duty for a further ten years, according to the will of the government. Due to the difficult terrain of Amazonia, the military includes very little armour. Virtually the entire army operates as infantry or some variation thereof. The largest arm is the Palmarista Infantry, which numbers 8 million and operates as the general soldiery and police force of the nation. The Palmarista Commando Forces is the most highly trained, especially to operate in conjunction with the Air Force, and numbers 100,000. The air force is also a large arm, with about 5,000 combat aircraft and 2 million personnel. Its most important plane is the S3 Anaconda, a high-speed transport used to move troops from place to place at speeds of Mach 3. It also has a large air-to-ground arm. The navy is made up almost entirely of remote-controlled midget submarines, which number in the thousands, although it does maintain several Mobile Airfields to provide planes with landing spots. It has about 17,000 personnel. The Strategic Weapon Command consists of an unknown number of miniature robots containing tiny thermonuclear devices. Concealed in multiple spots on various continents, these robots can deploy into the sewers of foreign cities, where they then detonate their devices. As yet, this capability is purely theoretical, as these robots have never been used.
Culture in the Kingdom is largely based off of Brazilian culture. However, various immigrant groups also have cultural influence. The most populous language is Dutch, which is spoken by most of the population. The most populous single religion in the Kingdom of Palmares is Christianity, which counts about 35% of the population as adherents. 20% of the population are disciples of Afro-native religions, with another 20% following closely connected indigenous religion. These religions include practices which have been widely condemned by the international religious community, including the lack of a concept of good or bad, and the use of hallucinogenic drugs. About 5% are Buddhists, a religion which is expanding the most quickly of any of the various religions in Palmares. Another 5% are various minority religions, with the last 15% being atheists or agnostics.
Vegetarianism is mandated by law in the Kingdom. However, many still eat animals or fish, especially in remote areas where fishing is an important part of their livelihood. The government generally does not enforce this too strongly, although there are plans in place to totally weed out meat-eating by 2020. Pets are very common. Dogs, cats, moas, thylacines and koala lemurs are among the most popular. All animals have a set of guaranteed rights, while monkeys, cetaceans, apes and pigs have a more extensive set. The penalty for killing an animal is the same as that for killing a human (life imprisonment), unless proof can be provided that it was "ethically necessary or in self-defence".
All inhabitants are required to keep their carbon footprint below a certain level. Those who keep it especially low receive tax cuts, while those with high carbon footprints suffer greatly increased taxes. Also, they are required to prevent "environmental damage" and respect the "inalienable right of the natural environment to flourish free from human interference". Firearms are highly illegal, except for members of the military. Cars are also (although the military is allowed to use wikipedia:jeep-type trucks for transport), along with wooden furniture and gas/coal power.
Soccer is the most popular sport, followed by . The Palmarista Football League (PAFL) has 30 teams and a viewership of 7 million. Other popular entertainment includes films (largely foreign and dubbed, as there is little to no native Palmarista film industry) and television (likewise). Capoeira, both as a dance and martial art, is popular. Literature is also largely translated, although an increasing native literature is growing.
The government has tried to reduce dependence on environmentally damaging forms of technology, with the result that technological use and familiarity is much lower than in other countries. While most Palmaristas own computers, televisions, and phones, the ban on cars and gas power has resulted in, as one foreign journalist said, "total unfamiliarity with the internal combustion engine". Additionally, the additional expense of producing appliances with as little environmental impact as possible has tripled the cost of such things. The Kingdom is notable for having one of the world's lowest marriage rates, with approximately 45% of the population being unmarried.
Palmarista cuisine is vegetarian by requirement. Rice and beans is a popular dish, sometimes substituted with pasta. Salgadinhos, small snacks similar to Spanish tapas, are also eaten. Tapioca and other cassava products also make up a significant part of the local diet.
The Kingdom is a world leader in some types of technology, but very backward in others. It is most successful in genetic engineering and cloning. It has successfully cloned the Wooly Mammoth, several varieties of moa, thylacine, solendon, Iberian ibex, Caspian, Javan and Bali tiger, Great Auk, Mauritius Pigeon, Laughing Owl, Puerto Rican Barn Owl, Auroch and Caribbean Monk Seal. Many genetically engineered plants have also been created, mostly modified to increase productivity and nutritional benefits. The most successful include coffee (increased caffeine content). Genetically modified trees have also been created, with growing speed and carbon dioxide absorption rates increased. The government has limited the creation of new genetically engineered species for fear of wiping out non-modified species, who would be unable to compete.
Another technology is the creation of artificial islands, which has been put to use in the Arctic and the Indian Ocean. These are generally created by drilling into magma using a laser. The resultant lava flow is directed to form an island. Ships are then scuttled to create breakwaters, followed by the application of tons of dredged sand and dirt. Grasses and trees are then planted to prevent erosion. These are usually used to claim mineral resources or achieve strategic objectives in international waters.
Strategic Deterrent Weapons (SDWs) consist of small robots with miniaturized thermonuclear devices. Controlled at long range, these can be deployed into the sewers of foreign cities where they can detonate their bombs. These robots are also fitted with incendiaries or conventional bombs. These robots have, as yet, never actually been used, but tests have been, according to the government "extremely encouraging".
The Palmarista economy is heavily based on the export of raw materials, especially minerals, and food. Industry generates slightly above 30% of the gross national product, stemming primarily from mineral exploitation. Industrial enterprises are concentrated in the capital Manaus. The bauxite, gold, iron and tin ore mining industries are the major focus of this section of the economy. Major efforts are underway to reduce the environmental impact of these mining operations; however, they still do considerable damage. Energy is important also, with major hydroelectric and solar power plants located throughout the nation. Wind power is also important. The Kingdom's sole nuclear plant focuses on providing enriched uranium for the production of nuclear weapons. Recently, the government has tried to implement an "economic self-sufficiency" plan to reduce dependence on foreign countries for manufactured products. Accordingly, production of these things has been increased. However, strict environmental regulations mean that technological use has to be minimized, making production much more expensivee, and the plans' effects - and results - are still questionable.
Agriculture is common, with soybeans, sugar cane and rice being grown. Agroforestry is extremely popular, with farmers growing large numbers of trees and plants of various species together in an attempt to create a functioning ecosystem which nonetheless supplies valuable food and resources. This uses the seven-layer system, which greatly increases production (see agroforestry in the Kingdom of Palmares). The most common plants grown are coffee, tea, rubber, cashews, pequi, oranges, lemons, brazil nuts, acai, peach palms, guarana and pataua palms. Many GM plants are grown, for example; the highly addictive Ultracoffee, with its caffeine content tripled. Domestic animals are also common. Water buffalo, capybaras, llamas and Asian elephants are to be found throughout the Kingdom, where they are kept for milk and for labour, due to the restriction on cars.
The Palmarista currency is the amazona. Its GDP was, as of 2012, approximately $2 trillion. The Kingdom has no paper currency; its currency is entirely fiat money. Payments are made exclusively electronically. The government carefully regulates the stock market and controls the ability of foreign nations or interests to purchase land, mineral concessions, or Palmarista companies. Banking is a major interest in the nation, as the Act for the Security of Financial Interests made the Palmarista bank system one of the most secure in the world, banning "freezing of assets" or releasing funds to anyone except the original depositor. This makes the nation a major centre for money laundering, as well as the concealing of profits from crime. Beneficiaries of this system include Yakuza, Mafia, and Somali pirates.
Education is run by the government, and is compulsory for all citizens between the ages of 6 and 16. Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten. Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory school. After completing the 9th grade, most of the students continue with a 3-year upper secondary school, which can lead to both a job qualification or eligibility to enter a university. This includes political indoctrination and basic military training.
There are many prestigious secondary institutions in Palmares. These include the University of Manaos, the University of Amazonas, Essequibo University, and many other schools, including colleges which offer less academic programs. There are also many officer schools for those who decide to remain in the army after completing their military service. University/college students are exempted from compulsory military service so long as they maintain a certain average. This is thought to motivate academic success and ensure a good supply of university-qualified people.
Since the entire machinery of the state is directed to minimize environmental impact and damage, Palmares is perhaps the most environmentally-friendly country in the world. The country's carbon dioxide emissions were 4,118 tons in 2012, one of the lowest in the developed world. Additionally, Palmares has been estimated to absorb the most carbon dioxide (60,000 tons) of any nation, due to the predominance of genetically modified trees which absorb huge amounts of CO2. Large areas of the country are national parks. Being centred around the Amazon River, Palmares has an extremely strict water-quality policy. Sewage is largely used as fertilizer rather than being reintroduced to the water supply. Chemical fertilizers are entirely illegal, along with pesticides. Instead, crops are usually genetically modified to resist pests.