- This article is about the sovereign state in Altverse. For the constituent country with the same name, see Sierra.
Motto: Libertas sine sacrificio (Latin)
Liberty without sacrifice
Anthem: For the Love of Our Union
Map of Sierra and its territories
and largest city
Korean, Thai, Han
|Recognised regional languages||
|Ethnic groups (2010)||
1% Native Sierran
1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
20% Mixed or other
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|Angelina II (I)|
|Daniel McComb (R)|
|House of Commons|
|Independence from Mexico|
|June 14, 1846|
|February 2, 1848|
|November 27, 1858|
|June 23, 1950|
|1,473,799 km2 (569,037 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2014 estimate
• 2010 census
|53.08/km2 (137.5/sq mi) (124th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
|$5.377 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
|$5.377 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
very high · very high · 3rd
|Currency||Sierran dollar ($) (KSD)|
|Time zone||HAST, PST, MT (UTC−10 to −5, +12 to +14)|
• Summer (DST)
|MST (UTC−10 to +15)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||KS|
The Kingdom is composed of four parts: the Deseret, Hawaii, New Mexico, and Sierra, all of which are constituent countries which share the same unified government and monarchy as co-equal members. Most of the Kingdom's affairs however, occur within the country of Sierra, which comprises over 90% of the Kingdom's population and area. Due to this, both the Deseret and Hawaii are heavily dependent on Sierra on matters and policy on foreign affairs and defense. Nonetheless, both countries enjoy substantial autonomy with their own devolved legislatures, while Sierra has none. The Kingdom historically existed as Sierra alone, wherein the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico were territories of Sierra, with Sierra as the successor state to the California Republic through the Constitution of 1850. The Kingdom in its current form was established by the Charter for the Kingdom of Sierra in 1950 when the Parliament of Sierra gave the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico a great extent of autonomy as countries while simultaneously reducing Sierra to equal status.
The nature of the Kingdom is unique, in that, although all four are subject to the same Crown, government, and charter as co-equals, the Kingdom itself is an asymmetrically federal state, wherein Sierra holds the most influence and powers by de facto. Lacking its own devolved parliament but holding both the seat of government of the Kingdom in its territory and with the most representation (due to its population size), Sierra is fundamentally integral to Kingdom affairs and policy. Within Sierra, it features its own federal system, with 23 provinces and 8 territories and its own constitution. Its head of government, the Prime Minister, serves as the entire Kingdom's head of government, while the Monarch, serves as the head of state for both entities. In the Deseret, the country is a theodemocratic unitary state that is nonetheless statistically divided into five regions. It has its own legislature, the unicameral Council of Fifty, and is led by the executive Quorum of Twelve. In Hawaii and New Mexico, both feature federal systems similar to Sierra with seven states and one special administrative division in Hawaii, and three provinces in New Mexico respectively. Hawaii's legislature is the National Hawaiian Congress and the islands' executive is the Premier of Hawaii. New Mexico is governed by its own executive, the First Minister of New Mexico, and its legislature, the Ranch-Estates of New Mexico.
The Kingdom of Sierra's originally formed through the promulgation of the Constitution of 1858, a legal document that formally ended the California Republic and established the Kingdom. California gained its independence from the Centralist Republic of Mexico in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, a treaty that ended the nearly two-year long Mexican-American War. Ten years later, due to political instability and corruption, Californian leaders met together in a convention to form a new constitution that would strengthen the country. Two political camps arose: the Monarchists and the Republicans, the former desiring a monarchy while the latter a continuation of the American-styled republican model used at the time. Eventually, a compromise was struck, with California slated to become a limited monarchy with American federal republican elements infused into the constitution. The convention president, Smith C. Miller, would be crowned Sierra's first king in 1858, thus forming the Kingdom.
The Kingdom faced early opposition and controversy during its inaugural years, particularly over the disputed legitimacy of the Monarchy. Many Republicans felt that the monarchy was unrepresentative of the people, and saw the brokered Constitution as merely a temporary agreement that would rescinded once the Sierran government abolished the monarchy. However, the royal institution had become firmly rooted into the system by the 1870s and was backed by a powerful coalition of businessmen, industrialists, conservative citizens, and merchants. Following the rise of Democratic-Republican leadership, the monarchy faced the real threat of dissolution, especially under the helm of Prime Minister Ulysses Perry, who strongly advocated for its abolition. Perry was assassinated before his goals were realized, and his death served as a catalyst for the Sierran Civil War, which pitted Monarchists against Republicans over the state of the Kingdom.
The war ended in 1877 with the Republicans defeated, and the monarchy preserved. During the war, the Deseret region attempted to secede on its own, and fought against the Kingdom. In the aftermath, the Deseret was granted much more autonomy than it had prior to the war, although not to the extent it would enjoy in the post-Charter era. Hawaii, which was an independent kingdom at the time, became part of the Sierran sphere of influence as Sierran businessmen and missionaries began to settle in the islands. By 1864, following the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, the islands were forcefully annexed into Sierra and would not receive home rule until the Organic Act of 1896. New Mexico had always been a part of Sierra, and was granted to it through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo when the country was then-known as California. New Mexico remained a sparsely populated territory throughout the 19th century, but gained gradually increasing autonomy as its population grew through the culmination of several parliamentary statutes.
Other islands in the Pacific were acquired during the late 19th century under an imperialist-driven Sierra including the Rapa Nui, the Samoan Islands, Bénieîle, and the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Like Hawaii, these islands would not receive home rule until the Organic Act of 1896, but to this day, remain unincorporated territories of Sierra, rather than constituent countries of the Kingdom or independent states.
On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese launched an attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, a multinational military installation that hosted Sierran and other American naval ships and troops. The attack triggered the entry of Sierra and the other Anglo-American states into World War II, and inadvertently paved the way to the modern version of the Kingdom. Following the war, impressed by the service and camaraderie shown by Hawaiian, New Mexican, and Deseretian troops, coupled with strong, vocal movements in both territories greater autonomy and freedoms, the Parliament of Sierra drafted a resolution to promote the status of the territories. Inspired by the British 1931 Statute of Westminster, the Kingdom stopped short of granting the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexicoindependence, but allowed them to self-govern themselves in nearly all of their own affairs except in the case of national defense and foreign affairs, and remaining subject to the Sierran Crown.
| Percentage of|
| Percentage of|
| Population density|
|Gilbert and Ellice Islands †||104,341||TBD||313||TBD||TBD|
|Pacific Crown Islands†||0||0.0%||456.5||TBD||TBD|
|Kingdom of Sierra||88,237,101||100.00%||659,337||100.00%||397|
|† Is an unincorporated territory of Sierra; not officially considered part of Sierra geographically and politically|
‡ Is a crown dependency of Sierra; not officially considered part of Sierra administratively, geographically, and politically.
Sierra is a representative semi-presidential democracy organized as a federal state with 23 semi-republican provinces. In addition to its own national constitution, all of the provinces have their own constitutions, governments, legislatures, and elected officials. Each province is further divided into counties or county-equivalents, which in turn, is divided into municipalities or townships. Legislation concerning federal government in Sierra is determined by the Kingdom's Parliament of Sierra and the Government of Sierra as Sierra has no devolved legislature. Sierra's head of state, is the Monarch, whose primary residence lies in Porciúncula. The head of government of Sierra is the Prime Minister, who is also the head of government of the Kingdom.
Like parliamentary nations, the Prime Minister is both a member of the executive and legislative branch. However, unlike true parliamentary prime ministers, the Sierran prime minister is elected directly by the people to assume the office of the Prime Minister (similar to a presidential republic) and a seat in Parliament simultaneously. Since the Prime Minister is directly elected by the general public, the Prime Minister serves on a fixed term of four years (which can be renewed indefinitely by winning more elections), as opposed to commanding the confidence of the Parliament. Without a fusion of government, and instead, a near-complete separation of power, the Parliament is a co-equal institution with the executive government and the Supreme Court, and does not possess parliamentary sovereignty seen in other parliamentary systems. However, Sierra is not a full presidential system either, with the Prime Minister as the head of government while the Monarch as the head of state, making it a semi-presidential system.
The "federal government" expressed by the Constitution of Sierra is homonymous with the government at the Kingdom-level as prior to the 1950 Charter, the Sierran Constitution and its government was the highest-tier of government in all of the Kingdom. As a result, while Sierra's government is practically the Kingdom's, Sierra's constitution and federal system is confined to its own territory, and does not extend or apply to the Deseret and Hawaii which maintain their own governments and laws. Nonetheless, the Charter reaffirms the status of the Constitution as the source and regulator of the Kingdom's various institutions including the Parliament and the Supreme Court. Due to this, Sierra is the only one of the three countries that operates its affairs domestically and internationally as the Kingdom of Sierra.
Bénieîle is an unincorporated, organized territory of Sierra consisting of 83 islands (65 of which are inhabited) which are administratively divided into five parishes: Espiritu Santo, Pénot, Pentecôte, Vate, Torrès, and Yasur. Located in the South Pacific Ocean, Bénieîle was originally known as Vanuatu and was colonized by Sierra in 1861 alongside the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Bénieîle was administered as a part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands until 1901 when the French-majority inhabitants and indigenous natives sought their own autonomous government.
Its executive head is the Territorial Governor, overseen by the Kingdom's representative, the Lord Proprietor of Bénieîle, and its legislature is the bicameral Bénieîle Legislative Assembly. Heavily reliant on tourism and shipping, Bénieîle has been described as the "Kingdom's Tropical Jewel". Since the 2000s, political groups in Bénieîle have pushed to change the status of the islands, leaning towards either constituent country-status, or provincehood. In 2003, 52% of Bénieîle's citizens voted to maintain the status quo of the territory's political status. However, voter turnout was lower than expected, and pressure advocacy groups called for another vote. Another referendum regarding the future of Bénieîle's status is scheduled to take place in October 2016.
The Channel Islands (also known as the Channels or Île-du-détroit in French) are an archipelago of eight islands off the coast of the Sierran southern mainland across the Santa Barbara Channel. The newest territory of Sierra, the Channels seceded from the province of the Gold Coast on February 9, 1999 after a successful campaign demanding autonomy for the islands. The only incorporated organized territory in Sierra, the Channels are divided into three parishes and one special district: Boudeuse, Étoile, Galaup, and Cabrillo.
The majority of the Channel's inhabitants are descendants of the French settlers who arrived to the islands in the late 19th century as part of the French-Spanish Condominium. Most Channeliers live on either the Santa Catalina Island (Île-de-Catherine) or Santa Cruz Island (Île-du-Croix). The capital of the Channels is Avalon, where the Territorial Governor resides, and where the Channel Islands Legislature and Territorial High Court convenes daily. Unlike other territories, in the Channels, the viceregal representative of the Monarch is the Earl of Catalina as opposed to the Lord Proprietor. Due to the Channels' proximity to the mainland (Santa Catalina is only 20 miles off the coast of Orange), many of its inhabitants regularly commute back and forth between the Channels and the mainland. The Channels' lax and lenient economic policies have made it a tax haven for some Sierran corporations and businesses. In addition, a number of Sierran naval installations are based in the Channels. A significant portion of the uninhabited parts of the Channels are privately owned by nature conservancy and wildlife protection groups.
Crown Pacific Islands
The Crown Pacific Islands are a collection of numerous small islands and islets distributed throughout the Pacific Ocean. The territory encompasses any islands Sierra controls that do not fall in the jurisdiction of any other territory. None of the islands are inhabited, although on some of the larger islands, non-permanent residents reside seasonally to conduct scientific research or military operations. Directly administered by the Parliament, the Crown Pacific Islands are unorganized, unincorporated territory. The islands included in the Crown Pacific Islands are as follows:
- Baker Island
- Clipperton Island
- Guadalupe Island
- Howard Island
- Jarvis Island
- Johnston Atoll
- Kingman Reef
- Revillagigedo Islands
- Rocas Alijos
- Santa Margarita
- Wake Island
Although in the past, there have been attempts to implant a sustainable, permanent population in some of the islands (such as the Revillagigedo Islands), there have been no current plans by the government to lease its lands to the public. Over 80% of the islands are directly owned by the Sierran federal government, with the remaining 20% privately owned by nature conservancy or scientific research organizations. Access to nearly all the islands are restricted to the public.
Gilbert and Ellice Islands
The Gilbert and Ellice Islands (also known as Kiribati locally) are unincorporated, organized territory comprised of 34 atolls and reef islands across the equatorial line in the central Pacific Ocean. Its administration consists of the Territorial Governor and the Lord Proprietor, the latter who represents the Monarch, and the Executive Council. The people are represented in the unicameral House of Assembly. Administratively, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands are divided into six districts. Unlike the other territories of Sierra, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands uses the Australian dollar, as opposed to the Sierran dollar. The Australian currency has been in use since 2007 after it discontinued the circulation of the Gilbertese dollar, the territory's official currency.
The Los Pacíficos refer to the two territories (Pacífico Norte and Pacífico Sur) located directly to the south of the Sierran mainland on the Baja California peninsula and the southern region of the Sonoran Desert. Both are unincorporated but have organized governments, and have been Sierran territory since their acquisition through the Mexican-American War. Their control by the Sierran government was formalized through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo although during the early 21st century, the Mexican Social Republic disputed these claims over the region aggressively, actions that would eventually lead towards the Baja California crisis, the 2015 San Diego bombings, and ultimately, the invasion of Mexico.
Both of the Los Pacíficos' citizens are predominantly of Mexican heritage, and primarily speak Spanish. As such, the Los Pacíficos maintain a distinct culture and identity from the rest of the Anglospheric Kingdom although the Pacifican voters have repeatedly demonstrated their preference to remain Sierran territories rather than reunify with Mexico, becoming provinces of Sierra, or constituent states of the Kingdom.
Both of the Los Pacíficos are headed by a Lord Proprietor and governed by an elected governor, and its people are represented by the respective Legislative Assembly of both territories. The territories exercise a great extent of autonomy, ranging from jurisprudence on issues on education, transportation, and healthcare. Like all other territories, the citizens of the Los Pacíficos are also citizens of Sierra and the Kingdom, and as such, have, with few exceptions, unrestricted movement in the Kingdom. While residing in the Los Pacíficos however, citizens may not participate prime ministerial elections, are not represented by voting delegates in Parliament, do not pay federal income tax, and are excluded from certain government programs and benefits.
The Sierran Samoa is unincorporated, organized territory comprised of the five easternmost islands and two coral atolls of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. Over 90% of Sierran Samoan citizens are ethnic Samoan, with Samoan and English the territory's official languages. Its seat of government is the capital, Fagatogo, where the Territorial Governor and Lord Proprietor resides, and where the Samoan bicameral legislature, the Fono, convenes. Its political status is similar to that of the Los Pacíficos where the Sierran Constitution only applies partially. In Parliament, the Sierran Samoa is represented by a non-voting Resident Commissioner in the House of Commons.
The crown dependencies are self-governing entities that do not form a part of Sierra or the Kingdom, and are not territories. Crown dependencies are merely possessions of the Crown, and as such, are directly administered and receive their right to rule by the Government of Sierra as opposed to the Parliament (as in the cases of the territories), the Constitution (as in the case of the provinces), or the Charter (as in the case of the constituent countries).
There are currently only two crown dependencies, Cancún and the Yucatán, both of which were seized by Sierra from Mexico during the Mexican Revolution as the fascist Veracruzists took over. Due to the large size and population of the Yucatán Peninsula, an area where immediate jurisdiction and supervision rests under Sierran authority, the Sierran government created two special local governments similar to territories to administrate the region. To avoid the implication that the act would mean the region would become integrated into Sierra, Parliament passed an act thereby creating the concept of a crown dependency, to keep the crown dependencies separate from the Kingdom, while remaining under direct control of the government as originally desired. Politicians have described the crown dependencies as "territories by which the Kingdom is responsible for", stopping short of claiming them as actual territory under supreme Sierran authority. The move was criticized by some, with various member states refusing to recognize the act.
Cancún is a pene-enclave of the larger Yucatán and consists of the city of Cancún, and the offshore islands of Cozumel and Isla Mujeres. Under fascist Mexico, Cancún constituted a part of the Mexican state, Quintana Roo, specifically, the Benito Juárez municipality. The Cozumel Island on the other hand, formed a part of the Cozumel Municipality. Comparatively wealthier than the rest of the region, Cancún was deliberately administered under its own government separate from the Yucatán due to its economic status. A resort city, even under fascist rule, Cancún enjoyed a considerable degree of freedom compared to the insular regions of Mexico and was one of the few cities the Mexican government permitted foreigners to visit. Originally a prime destination for powerful Mexican officials and sanctioned drug lords, Cancún saw the elimination of these powers following its liberation from the Veracruzist regime.
Cancún is currently led by the Provisional Governor, who, unlike the case in Yucatán and most other regions under the Mexican Provisional Authority, is elected by the local populace. Enrique Juarez, a former political prisoner of the Mexican government, was elected the Provisional Governor shortly after the formation of the crown dependency. Queen Angelina II is represented in Cancún by the Lord Proprietor Robert Leech, who was appointed by the Queen's father, Smith, Duke of Cabo during his reign a month prior to her ascension.
The legislature is the unicameral 15-member Legislative Assembly, representing the crown dependency's wards, and the High Court is the principal court of the Cancúnese judicial system. As a crown dependency, Cancún is not represented in Parliament and do not currently have a resident commissioner or non-voting delegate in the House of Commons as other territories do, with the prospect of such unlikely due to its potential implications. The Sierran Constitution and Kingdom Charter have no binding jurisdiction in Cancún at all, with all powers and rights passed down to the crown dependency through statutes passed by Parliament and normalized by the Cancúnese legislature. The City Code of Cancún is the primary leading document in Cancún and functions as the dependency's constitution even though the municipal laws described within it itself do not apply on Cozumel Island and Isla Mujeres.
Yucatán is a crown dependency with similar administrative characteristics to Cancún and composes three former Mexican states: Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán. Rich in oil and agriculture, Yucatán fares better than most other regions in Mexico. Administratively, Yucatán is divided into three counties, each corresponding to the historic boundaries of the states which Yucatán was formed from. The crown dependency is headed by a Provisional Governor and the Lord Proprietor serves as the Queen's representative. The bicameral Parliament of Yucatán consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Royal Court of Yucatán sits as the highest court in the Yucateco legal system. The Yucateco Charter is the principle legal document in Yucatán.
The Deseret is a unitary constitutional sacerdotal-theodemocratic state. Its administration (based in Salt Lake City) consists of the President who heads the Executive Quorum of Twelve, a body that is simultaneously a component in the leadership of the separate Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Deseret's official state church. Its own devolved legislature, the unicameral Council of Fifty, represents the people across the Deseret's fifty stakes. The political framework is defined within the Constitution of the Deseret, although the Mormon "standard works" including the Bible and the Book of Mormon are also considered part of the Deseretan legal system to some extent.
Originally a territory of Sierra, the Deseret has been a Mormon stronghold with a Canaanite minority since the early 19th century. The Deseret first gained a substantial degree of autonomy following the Canaanite-Mormon War during the Sierran Civil War in the late 1870s. Attempting to secede and form an independent Deseret, the Parliament amended the Constitution guaranteeing the right to secede and officially established an organized government in the Deseret through the Organic Act of 1878, permitting its own elected head, legislature, and laws. However, the Act mandated that the territorial government remain secular under the Constitution's separation of church and state principle. The Deseret received further autonomy when Parliament conferred additional rights to the Deseret and other territories through the Organic Act of 1896, allowing the Deseret to create its own constitution and deviate from the political model established in the 1878 Organic Act.
The organization, government, and status of the Deseret remained unchanged up until 1950, following the conclusion of World War II when the call for more autonomy was met with support from within, and in Porciúncula. Through the passage of the Charter for the Kingdom of Sierra, the constituent state of the Deseret was created, allowing it to maintain a high degree of independence and self-government, save for certain issues such as foreign policy and national defense. Under the new Charter, the Deseret reformed its government, approving the modern theodemocratic model on the day of the Charter's promulgation. The Deseret has maintained this model ever since.
Hawaii is a representative semi-presidential democracy organized as a federal state with 8 states through its Constitution (which is similar to Sierra's). Each of the states maintain their own governments, legislatures, constitutions, and laws. As a constituent state of the Kingdom, Hawaii's head of state is the Monarch, and there is no viceregal representative in Hawaii as having such would imply that Hawaii's (and the Deseret's) status is subservient to that of Sierra's which has none either. The head of government is the Premier, who is elected on a four-year term. Unlike the Prime Minister of Sierra, the Premier has no official role in the legislature, the National Hawaiian Congress, where the executive and legislative branches are completely separate. The Congress, a bicameral legislature with the Senate as the upper house and House of Representatives as the lower house, is responsible for legislation and fiscal appropriation. The Supreme Court of Hawaii is the highest court in the Hawaiian legal system and is composed of one chief justice and six associate justices.
Hawaii has been under the Sierran sphere of control since at least the early 1860s when Sierran businessmen, merchants, and missionaries first began settling and living on the islands alongside the natives, and other foreigners. As Sierran dominance and influence grew, Sierra was poised to have Hawaii become a strategic trading ally in the Pacific. However, the Sierrans who had transplanted in Hawaii and developed the islands' sugar plantation economy, desired to gain political power, who had been denied so by the native Hawaiian monarchy. In order to gain traction, the white Sierrans organized together to apply pressure on the Hawaiian government, to concede privileges and rights onto them. Although the Hawaiian government complied to the Sierrans' demands, these were deemed insufficient and in a rebellion in 1865, forced the Hawaiian monarchy to sign the Bayonet Constitution, a document that stripped the Hawaiian monarchy much of its powers.
When King Kamehameha V attempted to rewrite the constitution, the Sierran elites deemed this a threat and a conspiracy to overthrow the Hawaiian government completely was formed and executed in the 1869 coup d'état. Establishing the Provisional Government of Hawaii, the Sierrans stripped the natives of their rights and created a new legislature composed entirely of landowning white males to vote for annexation into Sierra. The Sierran government, which had supported imperialist projects in the past, faced international scrutiny when it negotiated the annexation with Hawaii. In 1870, despite international concern, Sierra declared its acquisition of Hawaii and created the Territory of Hawaii. The rights of the natives would be restored gradually over the years, and the government of Hawaii was formally organized through the Organic Act of 1896. Hawaii would remain a territory until the 1950 Charter when it and the Deseret were elevated to constituent countries of equal status with Sierra. Having had been the site of the Pearl Harbor bombing, Sierran politicians believed that the Hawaiians deserved their own autonomous nation, believing that the local populace understood the islands' needs more than those in Porciúncula. Through the legacy of Sierran governance, the new Hawaiian government adopted Sierra's federal system and organized itself in 8 individual states.
|Kingdom of Sierra|
This article is part of the series:
Charter and constitutions
The Charter for the Kingdom of Sierra is the supreme legal document governing the Kingdom. The constitutions of Sierra, the Deseret, and Hawaii, govern and regulate the political and legal structures of each respective country, but the Sierran constitution establishes and regulates the institutions of the Kingdom confirmed through the Charter. Additional provisions for clarifications are added onto these constitutional institutions in the Charter and are only applicable when they affect Sierra, the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico. Any affairs that do not affect the Kingdom as a whole but only in Sierra are handled within the Sierran constitution, the most prominent being the Sierran federal system (although Hawaii and New Mexico have similar but separate systems). With regards to its own affairs, Sierra operates in both capacities as an independent state and as the Kingdom of Sierra. The Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico cannot do the same for affairs of the Kingdom that apply solely to themselves and not to federal Sierra either. Modifications to the Charter may be only done through legislation in the Parliament and the approval of the legislatures of the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico.
The Crown is the political entity considered as the legal foundation of the government of the Kingdom, seen as the embodiment and living incorporation of the Sierran nation itself, along with its laws and sovereignty. The monarch, who possesses the Crown, is thus seen as the Kingdom's head of state. In actuality however, the Monarch is greatly limited by the Constitution, with most of the powers and rights granted to the Monarch being invested into the hands of the popularly-elected Prime Minister, who for all intents and purposes, wields the true duty of leading the nation as its head of government.
While the Monarch entrusts most of their responsibilities and duties to the Prime Minister, there are several reserve powers (known as the royal prerogative) which the Monarch retains. However, out of customary convention and political reasons, such use of the reserved powers are almost always conducted through the informed advice of the Prime Minister. The Monarch executing their royal prerogatives independent of prior consultation and advice by the Prime Minister is exceedingly rare and heavily discouraged, especially if used for wholly political purposes. Among these royal prerogatives include the act of assent, the issuance of letters patent and edicts, the issuance of pardons, and the declarations of war and peace with the consent of Parliament. The Constitution declares that all of the Monarch's royal prerogatives may be carried out on their behalf by the Prime Minister. This constitutes the basis of much of the powers the Prime Minister has in addition to their capacity in heading the civilian department of the executive branch.
The Parliament is the supreme legislature of the Kingdom, and house members from Sierra, the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico in both the Senate and the House of Commons. The Parliament is also the de facto national legislature of Sierra, which has no intermediary-level devolved legislature as the Deseret and Hawaii do (which has the Council of Fifty and National Hawaiian Congress respectively). The Kingdom Parliament is responsible for legislating the Kingdom's laws and is composed of 341 members (76 in Senate and 265 in House), all of whom are elected directly by the general populace from a single-member district (from a secondary-level political division such as a province or state in the Senate and a population-based constituency in the House). In the Senate, members are elected every 6 years, with terms staggered so that approximately a third of the Senate's seats are open to election every two years. In the House, members are elected every 2 years with all seats open to election at the same time.
The Supreme Court of Sierra is the court of last resort in the Kingdom and is the highest court in the Sierran federal system. The primary function of the Supreme Court is to interpret constitutional law including the Charter, and to review cases whose issues are applicable by such law. As the final arbiter and interpreter, the majority of the cases it reviews are of appellate jurisdiction as opposed to original jurisdiction. As a result, it is the job of the Supreme Court to determine which cases may be reviewed, and if reviewed, determine the constitutionality of issues raised in a case, rather than the actual substantive case and the judgmental outcome of the defendant. Generally, unless the issue itself is a matter concerning the Charter, the Supreme Court defers to the decisions made by the Supreme Courts of the Deseret and Hawaii in their respective jurisdictions.
Within the international community, the Kingdom of Sierra is recognized as a sovereign state by all member states of the League of Nations. It has been a member state of the Conference of American States, a supranational union comprised of all sovereign states in North America except Mexican Social Republic, since 1965. The Kingdom has a permanent seat in the League of Nations Security Council, and is a member state of various organizations including the Trans-Pacific Allied Community, G8, and an observer of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. As stipulated by the Charter, only the Kingdom may operate and conduct foreign affairs on behalf of its constituent states although in practice, it is Sierra which unofficially controls the Kingdom's foreign policy and receives diplomatic representatives and dignitaries in Porciúncula. Generally, when Sierra initiates and concludes negotiations with other nations that applies to the entire Kingdom, it confers with the legislatures of the Deseret and Hawaii prior to ratifying the agreement although the Charter does not explicitly obliges it to. The Charter simply affirms provisions from the Constitution which states that the Parliament must review any treaties negotiated by the Prime Minister prior to taking effect to Sierra (and thus the Kingdom). Out of courtesy and formality however, the Sierran government usually discusses the plan with the governments of the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico, which in turn, generally assent without contest.
The Charter provides for provisions where its constituent states may engage in international organizations or agreements separately and individually, although in all cases, they must be approved by Parliament and be consistent with the Charter and the Kingdom's policies. For instance, if the Deseret wishes to enter into a bilateral agreement with Jefferson without the rest of the Kingdom, it may, so long as such an agreement does not violate or contradict an existing agreement or precedent set by the Kingdom. Conversely, the Charter allows constituent states to opt out agreements or organizations that includes the Kingdom although the criteria for such is stricter and more difficult to achieve.
Distinction between Sierra and the Kingdom
Both within and outside the Kingdom of Sierra, the English short-form name "Sierra" is generally understood to mean the constituent part of Sierra (this may include Sierra's territories and crown dependencies). The "Sierran mainland", "federal Sierra", "Sierra proper", or the "mainland" are sometimes used to add clarity when referring to only the continental and contiguous part of Sierra (excluding the Los Pacíficos which are not considered an integral part of Sierra). However, it is much more common for outsiders to use Sierra to refer to the entire Kingdom, often assuming that the Deseret, Hawaii, and New Mexico are merely territorial subunits within Sierra, the country. The designation of the names to their corresponding areas may even be reversed, with those using the terms "Kingdom" or the "Kingdom of Sierra" to refer to the Sierran mainland, excluding the Deseret and Hawaii, and to a lesser extent, Sierra's territories, rather than the Kingdom itself through its capacity made by the Charter. This confusion is similarly carried over to flags, with the flag of the Kingdom sometimes associated and labeled as exclusively with Sierra, neglecting the fact that Sierra itself has its own flag (which is merely a simpler variant of the Kingdom's flag containing no encircled star).
Due to Sierra's organization as a federal government, and the almost nonexistent distinction between Sierra's own government with the Kingdom, the term "federal" is often erroneously used to refer to the government of the Kingdom. When used properly, the term "federal" refers to Sierra's federal system and the governments primarily subject to the Sierran Constitution. "Provincial" is exclusively used to refer to Sierra's or New Mexico's federal provinces, and never used to describe the Deseret or Hawaii, as well as their subdivisions (which are stakes and states respectively). The terms "central" or "royal" are seen as the correct adjectives to describe the government of the Kingdom.
The "Kingdom" is the prevailing and officially accepted short-form term within the Kingdom to refer to the entirety of the Kingdom by which the Charter applies. When the name "Sierra" is applied to the Deseret, Hawaii, or New Mexico, it is considered erroneous, or even offensive by residents from these two states, with this mistake almost exclusively used by few in Sierra proper and foreigners.
Timeline of the Kingdom
|1848–1858||Gains independence from Mexico|
|1858–1950||Succeeds the California Republic through the 1858 Constitution|
|1950–present||Charter for the Kingdom of Sierra signed.|