|Kingdom of Sparta|
Βασίλειο της Σπάρτης (el)
|Motto: Death Before Dishonor|
|Anthem: Light of Aidan - Lament|
- King of the Agiad Dynasty
- King of the Eurypontid Dynasty
- Kingdom of Sparta
- Water (%)
13,285 sq mi
- 2013 estimate
- Per capita
- Per capita
|Gini (2012)||26.7 (N/A)|
|HDI (2012)||0.916 (N/A)|
|Currency||Spartan Sovereign (ϛ) (|
|Time Zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|Date formats||mm-dd-yyyy (CE)|
|Drive on the||right|
|Calling code||+3 & +301|
The Kingdom of Sparta, Sparta or KoS, is the hereditary kingdom of sparta and resides in control of the Pelopennese. Its capitol is Sparta, the current population of the kingdom is close to 1,300,000 and has one of the most elite military forces in current existance.
The prehistory of Sparta is difficult to reconstruct, because the literary evidence is far removed in time from the events it describes and is also distorted by oral tradition. However, the earliest certain evidence of human settlement in the region of Sparta consists of pottery dating from the Middle Neolithic period, found in the vicinity of Kouphovouno some two kilometres south-southwest of Sparta. These are the earliest traces of the original Mycenaean Spartan civilisation, as represented in Homer's lliad.
This civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze age, when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north marched into Peloponnese, where they were called Dorians and subjugating the local tribes, settled there. The Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state. They fought against the Argive Dorians to the east and southeast, and also the Arcadian Achaeans to the northwest. The evidence suggests that Sparta, relatively inaccessible because of the topography of the Taygetan plain, was secure from early on: it was never fortified.
Between the 8th and 7th centuries BC the Spartans experienced a period of lawlessness and civil strife, later testified by both Herodotus and Thucydides. As a result they carried out a series of political and social reforms of their own society which they later attributed to a semi-mythical lawgiver, Lycurgus. These reforms mark the beginning of the history of Classical Sparta.
The decisive Greek victory at Plataea put an end to the Greco-Persian War along with Persian ambition of expanding into Europe. Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.
In later Classical times, Sparta along with Athens, Thebes, and Persia had been the main powers fighting for supremacy against each other. As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, a traditionally continental culture, became a naval power. At the peak of its power Sparta subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to overpower the elite Athenian navy. By the end of the 5th century BC it stood out as a state which had defeated the Athenian Empire and had invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia, a period which marks the Spartan Hegemony.
During the Corinthian War Sparta faced a coalition of the leading Greek states: Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos. The alliance was initially backed by Persia, whose lands in Anatolia had been invaded by Sparta and which feared further Spartan expansion into Asia. Sparta achieved a series of land victories, but many of her ships were destroyed at the battle of cnidus by a Greek-Phoenician mercenary fleet that Persia had provided to Athens. The event severely damaged Sparta's naval power but did not end its aspirations of invading further into Persia, until Conon the Athenian ravaged the Spartan coastline and provoked the old Spartan fear of a helot revolt.
After a few more years of fighting in 387 BC, the Peace of Antalcidas was established, according to which all Greek cities of lionia would return to Persian control, and Persia's Asian border would be free of the Spartan threat. The effects of the war were to reaffirm Persia's ability to interfere successfully in Greek politics and to affirm Sparta's weakened hegemonic position in the Greek political system. Sparta entered its long-term decline after a severe military defeat to Epaminondas of Thebes at the Battle of leuctra. This was the first time that a Spartan army lost a land battle at full strength.
As Spartan citizenship was inherited by blood, Sparta now increasingly faced a helot population that vastly outnumbered its citizens. The alarming decline of Spartan citizens was commented on by Aristotle.
Hellenistic and Roman Sparta
Sparta never fully recovered from the losses that the Spartans suffered at Leuctra in 371 BC and the subsequent helot revolts. Nonetheless, it was able to continue as a regional power for over two centuries. Neither Philip II nor his son Alexander the Great attempted to conquer Sparta itself.
During Alexander's campaigns in the east, the Spartan king, Agis III sent a force to Crete in 333 BC with the aim of securing the island for Sparta. Agis next took command of allied Greek forces against Macedon, gaining early successes, before laying siege to Megalopilis in 331 BC. A large Macedonian army under general Antipater marched to its relief and defeated the Spartan-led force in a pitched battle. More than 5,300 of the Spartans and their allies were killed in battle, and 3,500 of Antipater's troops. Agis, now wounded and unable to stand, ordered his men to leave him behind to face the advancing Macedonian army so that he could buy them time to retreat. On his knees, the Spartan king slew several enemy soldiers before being finally killed by a javelin.
Even during its decline, Sparta never forgot its claims on being the "defender of Hellenism" and its Laconic witL. An anecdote has it that when Philip II sent a message to Sparta saying "If I enter Laconia, I will raze Sparta", the Spartans responded with the single, terse reply: "If."
When Philip created the league of the Greeks on the pretext of unifying Greece against Persia, the Spartans chose not to join—they had no interest in joining a pan-Greek expedition if it was not under Spartan leadership. Thus, upon the conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great sent to Athens 300 suits of Persian armour with the following inscription "Alexander, son of Philip, and all the Greeks except the Spartans, give these offerings taken from the foreigners who live in Asia".
During the Punic Wars Sparta was an ally of the Roman Republic. Spartan political independence was put to an end when it was eventually forced into the Achaean League. In 146 BC Greece was conquered by the Roman general Lucius Mammius. During the Roman conquest, Spartans continued their way of life, and the city became a tourist attraction for the Roman elite who came to observe exotic Spartan customs. Supposedly, following the disaster that befell the Roman imperial army at the Battle of Adrianople (AD 378), a Spartan militia phalanx met and defeated a force of raiding Visigoths in battle.
Kingdom of Sparta
The Kingdom of Sparta was formed in 1951 after two greeks soon to be kings: Leonidas Agiad (Leonidas III) (ruled 1951 - 1992) and Agis Eurypontid (Agis V) (ruled 1951 - present), announced spartan independence. They were supported by a small army of 25,000 men from the Pelopennese, the greek government immeadiately moved to crush the rebellion with a force of 20,000. They met Leonidas and 10,000 of his supporters in Corinth the battle that followed ended in only 201 rebel casualties and 8,000 + loyalist wounded and 1,000 + dead due to the superior skill of the rebels and the superior commanding ability of Leonidas. After this 50,000 men with tanks and air support were sent south to quell the rebellion once and for all but Agis had been equipping the now larger rebel army with new weapons and had aquired many anti-air guns from the black market. After just 3 more battles the rebels had crushed the loyalist army, Leonidas then negotiated spartan independence in 1951 and gained control of the peloponnese.
After this they set up their government and economy however in 1992 Leonidas declared that he wished to bring the whole of greece under spartan rule and so declared war, he led an army of 50,000 however he was killed when the army was ambushed just 50 miles away from Athens by both military and militia forces with huge ammounts of artillary bombardment. The offencive was called off and the war ended however the spartans that where abushed fought to the death and reduced the greek army to a tiny fraction of what it was at the start of the battle, none made it to the artillary lines. Since then the Kingdom of Sparta has been reserved in its foreign affairs though still holds great contempt for its northern neighbor.
The Kingdom of Sparta, developed a constitutional monarchy. The state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families, both supposedly descendants of the original families (who themselves claimed to be decendents of Hercules) and equal in authority, so that one cannot act against the veto of his colleague. The democratic senate governs the country but holds little power over the country.
The duties of the kings are primarily judicial and militaristic. The Kings handle many of the countries civil matters and even extend their governance to the court rooms in special cases. Civil and criminal cases are normally decided by a group of officials who are called the ephors, as well as a council of elders known as the Gerousia. High state policy decisions were discussed by the senate who could then propose action alternatives to the two kings, who would select one of the alternatives by consulting each other then giving a decision to the senate in person.
While many view the Kingdom of Sparta as an oligarchy, true kingship happens on while at war as nothing can be done in wartime (even small changes or actions) without cunsulting one of the kings. Recently there have been atempts to limit the kings powers but all have failed due to minority support. The spartan people proudly veiw thier kingship as one of the last real kingships alive and the common veiw is that others are mainly just figureheads.
Not all inhabitants of the Spartan state are considered to be citizens. Only those who had undertaken the Spartan education process known as the agoge are eligible or if they marry a Spartiate. However, usually the only people eligible to receive the agoge are Spartiates (born of the kingdom of Sparta by a women with citizenship), or people who could trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of the city.
There are only two exceptions. First that their citizenship is awarded to them by either king. The other exception is that the sons of a Helot or Perioikoi could be enrolled in the agoge if a Spartiate formally adopts them. If they do exceptionally well in training, they might be allowed to become a Spartiate.
Other people in the kingdom are the Perioikoi, who are free inhabitants of Spartan territory but are non-citizens, and the Helots, who are the state-owned workers. The current laws mean that Sparta can readily replace citizens lost in battle. Currently the Spartiates outnumber the Perioikoi and Helots however the numbers of the non-citizens are on the rise according to the last census.
Helots and Perioikoi
The Helots were originally either criminals or loyalist Greeks who supported the original governance. They were caught and sentenced to become a Helot (a state owned worker). Since most Spartan men are full-time soldiers, they are not available to carry out manual labour. The Helots are used as unskilled or (rarely) skilled workers, working in Spartan agriculture or industry. Helot women are rare and often used in the same jobs as their male counterparts. Helots also travel with the Spartan army as non-combatants. When Leonidas III was ambushed, the Spartan dead included not just the fifty thousand Spartan soldiers but also several hundred Helots. Relations between the Helots and their Spartan masters are frequently hostile but can be relaxed and some Spartans are even known to have Helots as friends. Helots do not have voting rights, although compared to true slaves in other parts of the world they are relatively privileged. The Spartans allows Helots to marry. They are also allowed to own a limited amount of personal property.
The Perioikoi come from rebel Greeks or those who did not object to Spartan rule. Although they do not enjoy full citizen-rights, they are free and not subjected to the same treatment as the helots. The exact nature of their subjection to the Spartiates is not clear, but they seem to serve partly as a kind of military reserve, partly as skilled workers and generally as occupants of seats in society that are too powerful to allow Helots to inhabit them. Although Perioikoic soldiers occasionally serve with the Spartan army, the most important function of the Perioikoi is almost certainly the managing of Spartan agriculture and industry.
Spartiates are debarred by law from trade or manufacture until they reach 30 years of age. Trade, Industry and management rest in the hands of the Perioikoi, and are forbidden to possess anything but a small ammount of gold or silver. Spartan currency consists of the Spartan Sovereigns (made from iron), this money is worth less melted down than it is as a coin. Although Spartiates are the full citizen class, Perioikoi are richer on average however they are not permitted retirement unlike the Spartiates which allows the Spartan economy to thrive even more. Helots do earn money but the money they earn is given to their allotted Perioikoi or Spartiate.
Currently the Spartan agriculture is thriving and can support the current populace and leave a good ammount to trade, the Manufacturing and Construction Industrys however are much less developed and so it has to import a good amount of its manufacturing needs such as vehicles, materials and weapons although they still produce a large amount of food which supplies they country as a whole. They make a large amount of money from tourism, which took over greeces tourism income very recently.
Birth and death
Sparta is above all a militarist kingdom, and emphasis on military fitness begins virtually at birth.
If the parents are Spartiates, shortly after birth, the child is brought before a Spartiate doctor by the child's father. The doctor then decided whether it was to be raised or not. If they considered it "puny and deformed", the baby was taken and given treatment to try and correct these problems, if sucessful then the child would be raised however should it be unable to be treated it is given to the Perioikoi Adoption Agency. If the child was considered well and fit then it would go on and be enrolled in the Agoge.
If the parents are Perioikoi, they may want to let a Spartiate take it as its own (should it qualify). However unlike the Spartiates they do not get free treatment for their child, they have to pay for the treatment however should the treatment be unsucessful and the child remains deformed or puny then they get a small amount of compensation.
Should the parents be Helots, they may want to let a Spartiate or Perioikoi adopt it. They are not allowed to get treatment for their child, they are allowed to keep it however and the assigned Perioikoi or Spartiate must pay a small sum to own a Helot family.
When Spartiates begin military training at age seven, they enter the Agoge system. The Agoge is designed to encourage discipline and physical toughness and to emphasise the importance of the Spartan Kingdom. Boys and Girls live in communal messes and are deliberately underfed, to encourage them to master the skill of stealing or catching food. Besides physical and weapons training, they study Maths, English, all 3 sciences, Enginering and I.C.T they may also learn a language if they wish. Spartiates who have shown remarkably higher standards of both physical and mental talent will be given special training which will allow them to become special forces when they become of age. Special punishments were imposed if they failed to answer questions sufficiently 'laconically' (i.e. briefly and wittily). At the age of twelve, the Agoge obliges Spartan boys to take an older male mentor, usually an unmarried young man or older person passing through the Agoge. The older man is expected to function as a kind of substitute father and role model to his junior partner.
At the age of fifteen, Spartan boys become emergency reserve members of the Spartan army and are sorted into Army, Naval, Marine and Air initiates. On leaving the Agoge they would be sorted into groups, and each group is then sent into different training grounds around the world to survive in the wild with only a knife and forced to survive on their skills and cunning. This was called the Krypteia, and the immediate object of it was to seek out and kill any Criminals who had been placed there due to the severity of their crimes.
The Perioikoi are given the same schooling however with the absence of weapons training. At age twelve they are split into classes, At age fifteen they are given specialist education in 3 subjects of their choosing plus maths, english and a science. At age eighteen they graduate and leave. The Helots are given no education. Most are taught by their parents.
Many of the reservist spartains choose to become teachers. This is so that young spartians learn from those who have been through the same training which gives the young spartians a sense of respect for their teacher.
At age twenty, the Spartan citizen begins his membership in one of the syssitia (dining messes or clubs), composed of about fifteen members each, of which every citizen is required to be a member. Here each group learns how to bond and rely on one another. The Spartans exercise the full rights and duties of a citizen at the age of twenty. Spartans are on active military duty from age twenty to thirty, they are then reserves until age sixty at which time they can retire. While they serve as a reserve they will be able to work in different sectors of work such as idustury and agriculture which will allow they economy to steadly increase. Young Spartans were encouraged to marry at age twenty but could not live with their families until they left their active military service at age thirty.
So far Spartans have not developed any new technologies. There are a reasonable amount of electronics users throughout the country, mainly among Perioikoi. It is rare to see cars as only rich Perioikoi (however Spartiates use them alot after they retire) use them as most have their home within a few miles of their work.
In the Kingdom of Sparta, All Spartiates who are 7 years of age will be called up to enter the Agoge, All Perioikoi will be called up to enter standard education. They leave education at 18 years of age and the Spartiates enter full military service when they are twenty. The current army numbers more than 500,000 (260,000 active) including reserves. The whole military is known as the Spartan Armed Forces:
- The (Army) is the largest branch of the Spartan Armed Forces. Its specialist branches are: Infantry, Armour, Artillary, Engineers, Signal, Medical and Special Forces.
- The (Navy) is the second largest branch of the Spartan Armed Forces. Its specialist branches are: Surface, Submarine, Auxilary and Supply.
- The (Marine) is a joint branch that works closely with the navy. Its specialist branches are: Assualt, Defence, Commando and Engineer.
- The (Airforce) is the most recently instated branch however it is very small in proportion to other nations air forces. Its specialist branches are: Superiority, Support, Transport, Reconnaissance and Naval.
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