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Kurdistan
Flag of North Iran
Flag
Kurdistan Map
Location of Kurdistan.
Capital Arbil
Government Parliamentary Democracy
Massoud Barzan
Nechirvan Barzani
Establishment
• Independence
12 January 2008
Population
• Estimate
4,690,939
Currency Kurdistan Dollar (KD)
Time zone GMT+3
Calling code +964
Internet TLD .kd
The Islamic Republic of Kurdistan or Kurdistan is a landlocked nation in Western Asia. The capital is Arbil, which is also the largest city by both population and square area. Kurdistan is bordered by Iraq to the South, Turkey and the Democratic Islamic Republic of Iran to the North and Northeast, Iran to the East, and Syria to the West.

History

Modern Times (2008 - Present)

When the United States of America collasped during the Political Crisis of 2007, the Kurds were building up an stockpile of weapons to protect themselves when they seperated from the country. The economic collaspe of Iraq in 2008 was the perfect oppurtunity for the formation of Kurdistan.

On January 1, 2008, the Kurds in Arbil began their uprising against the weak and unstable Iraqi goverment and declared the Islamic Republic of Kurdistan. Intially, the uprising was meant with brutal retaliation from the "new" Iraqi Army. However, the Kurds used guriella tatics against the Iraqi Army, such as attacking supply convoys or assassinating key personnel. On January 8, the Iraqi Army begins to retreat from Kurdistan, and leaves behind weapons, ammunation, tanks, vehicles, etc.

The withdrawal came to an end on January 11, after the last Iraqi soldier crossed the border, and the Republic of Kurdistan is declared on January 12. The new National Assembly unaminiously elected Massoud Barzan as the first President of Kurdistan under the Kurdish Constitution. Barzan and the National Assembly has passed numerous laws and bills to help with the reconstruction of infastructure and the improvement of the economy.

Geography

Kurdistan Landscape

Fertile landscape in Kurdistan

Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). The mountains are part of the larger Zagros mountain range which is present in Iran as well. There are many rivers flowing and running through mountains of the region making it distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature.

The Great Zab and the Little Zab flow from the east to the west in the region. The Tigris river enters Kurdistan after flowing from Turkey. The mountainous nature of Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters, make Kurdistan a land of agriculture and tourism. The largest lake in the region is Lake Dukan. In addition, there are several smaller lakes such as the Duhok Lake.

Goverment

See also: Government of Kurdistan Kurdistan's political system is an parlimiamentary democracy and has an Parliment and an President. The Parliment approves all bills proposed by the President, and has the power to veto bills. Parliment also has the power to impeace current goverment officals, overturn or veto state laws, and declare war. The President has the power to approve government officals, and command the Armed Forces of Kurdistan. During wartime, the President is automatically approved to use the "emergency powers".

Administrative Divisions

Administrative Divisions of Kurdistan
Governorate Capital
Diyala Baqubah
Dohuk Duhok
Erbīl Erbil
Kirkuk Kirkuk
Nineveh Mosul
Saladin Tikrit
Sulaymaniyah Sulaymaniyah

Disputed Territories

Disputed Territories of Kurdistan
Name Disputed With
Al-Hasakah Governate Syria

Foreign Relations

See also: Foreign Relations of Kurdistan

Kurdistan has good relations with most Middle Eastern and North African countries. The country, as of 2012, has strained relations with Syria and Iraq. Kurdistan is an member of the Arab Leauge, United Nations, and a member of the Partner of Peace with NATO.

Economy

The economy of Kurdistan is dominated by tourism, agriculture, and the oil industry. Due to relative peace in the region it has a more developed economy in comparison to other parts of former Iraq. The Goverment of Kurdistan hopes to turn Arbil into one of the economic center in the Middle East. The Kurdistan Goverment continues to research into ways to expand the fertile land avaible to Kurdistan and improve the land of Iraqis to the south in an attempt to aquirre more territory and destabilize Iraq more and more.

Demographics

See article: Demographics of Kurdistan

Religion

Kurdistan has a diverse religious population. The dominant religion is Islam, adhered to by the majority of its inhabitants. These include Kurds, Iraqi Turkmen, and Arabs, belonging mostly to the Sunni branch of Islam. Christianity is adhered to by Assyrian and Armenian peoples (as well as by a few Kurds and Turkmen), and Yezidism make up a significant minority. Yarsan, Mandean and Shabaki religions are also followed. Kurdistan allows the freedom of religion, which is uncommon among the other Arab states.

Infastructure

Healthcare

Healthcare in Kurdistan is provided by the state, with well maintained hospitals and clinics. Much of the population rely on the free healthcare the goverment provides, as they cannot afford the benefits of private. Private healthcare is normally used by people who have a higher income, as state healthcare is generally just as good as private, due to the small population and many people go to neighboring Turkey to recieve surgery or other major operations.

Communications

See also: Communications in Kurdistan

With the growing economy and buisness sector, Kurdistan had to improve its phone and wireless networks. Before the formation of Kurdistan, WiFi was pratically non-existant in the area. Following the independence of Kurdistan, the networks had to be improved. Cellular Communications continue to be developed and all televisions are recieving better channels with an new and improved satellite and cable network.

Transport

Kurdistan's roads are one of the safest in the Middle East, as the government has spent large amounts of money into funding infastructure. The largest airport in Kurdistan is Erbil International Airport and smaller airports can be found across the three major cities.

Science and Technology

Kurdistan continues to fund research into more sufficient ways for agriculture, and also military technology to help deal with its Iraqi and Iranian neighbors. Kurdistan relies on Russia for its satellite program, and have established the Russo-Kurd Space Agreement. However, Kurdistna maintains an large number of cruise missiles capable of striking at Tehran, Baghdad, and Damascus.

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