|Province of Laguna (en)|
Đầm Phá (vn)
|— Province of Sierra —|
|Nickname(s): Sunshine Province|
|Motto(s): The Noblest Motive is the Public Good|
|Provincial song(s): "Sandy Are You Laguna"|
|Official language(s)||*Nationally recognized languages|
(and largest city)
Ranked 18th |
Ranked 3rd |
|Admission to the Union||November 28, 1858 (7th)|
|Lord Superintendent||Nathan Afara|
|Lieutenant Governor||Sebastian Gomez-Inez|
Laguna Provincial Legislature |
Mark Robles (DR)|
Lisa Hudgens (DR)
|K.S. House delegation||
23 total commoners|
Pacific Time Zone |
UTC –8/UTC –7
Category • Topics
Laguna was originally inhabited by the Kumeyaay (also called Diegueño), Luiseño, Cupeño, and Cahuilla Indians who lived in the area for more than 10,000 years. The first European to arrive and explore the province was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese explorer commissioned by Spain in 1542. Docking in San Diego Bay, he claimed the area for Spain whose exploration was followed up by Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602. The first European settlement of Laguna was the establishment of the San Diego Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá by Spaniards in 1769. Laguna became part of the Alta California, a colony of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, during this time and would remain so until Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1810.
Laguna became part of the California Republic following the Mexican-American War through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. Ten years later, California reformed into the present-day Kingdom of Sierra, thus creating the province of Laguna. After an initial period of economic failure and slow development, a new government plan and aggressive advertising program attracted investment and immigrants into the province. The city of San Diego quickly grew and expanded as the international trading community began to depend on the Port of San Diego in the Pacific. The installation of military bases further increased the province's strategic value. During and following the end of World War II, Laguna's industrial sector exploded. Since the 1980s, Laguna's economy has depended on the biotech and defense sectors, and continues to be a major economic powerhouse in the region.
|The Flag of Laguna.|
|The Seal of Laguna.|
|Reptile||Green sea turtle|
|Colors||Gold, white, maroon|
|Slogan(s)||Adventures begin here|
|Song(s)||Sandy Are You Laguna|
| || |
Part of a series on the provinces and territories of Sierra
Laguna is situated along the Pacific Coast and features 70 miles (110 km) of coastline. The topography of the province is varied with the San Diego metropolitan area lying atop low-leveled, coastal plains while to the east, the northwest-southeast moving Laguna Mountains consisting of mesas, canyons, and hills, separate the coast from the Sonoran Deseret. The majority of Laguna's residents live to the west of these mountains. Along the mountains, the Cleveland National Forest spreads across central Laguna, bordering the chaparral plains to the far east.
In northern Laguna, the land along the coasts consist of low-rolling hills while those further inland become increasingly pronounced and higher. The majority of natural lagoons in Laguna by which the province owes its name to are found in this region. River and creeks atop the mountains flow westward and deposit in the area's four major lagoons along the Pacific. In the northernmost parts of Laguna, the Santa Margarita Mountains and Palomar Mountain Range dominates the area with canyons and valleys in between them.
San Diego has two main climate zones: a Mediterranean climate in the north (Köppen climate classification: CSa) and a semi-arid climate (BSh) in the south and east. Laguna's climate is characterized as having warm, dry summers and mild winters with precipitation usually occurring the most between November and March. Much of the province is generally dry and on average, has 201 days above 70 °F (21 °C). Annually, on average, Laguna receives 9-13 inches (22–33 cm) of rain although it may snow atop the peaks of Laguna's mountains. Precipitation is infrequent but when rain does arrives, it often releases large quantities of rainfall, sometimes causing flash floods. Along the coast, during the summer, the weather is relatively mild with average highs of 70–78 °F (21–26 °C) and lows of 55–66 °F (13–19 °C). Temperatures exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) typically occur only four days of the year. Further inland, east of the Laguna mountains however, the desert summers are hotter and temperatures have even reached up to 122 °F (50 °C).
Much of Laguna falls within the Sierra coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion with indigenous flora adapted to the province's generally dry climate. Many being drought-resistant, local floral species include the Encelia farinosa (brittlebush), the Lonicera subspicata (southern honeysuckle), Rhus integrifolia (lemonade berry), and the Epilobium canum (Sierra fuchsia).
Laguna's chaparral environment supports a variety of animals that are adapted to the semiarid climate and landscape. It is home to nearly 30 species of native snakes, 25 of which are native, including the Pituophis catenifer annectens (San Diego gopher snake), the Masticophis flagellum (coachwhip), the Diadophis punctatus similis (San Diego ring-necked snake), and the venomous Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus (Southwest speckled rattlesnake). Laguna is also home to various species of lizards, turtles, frogs, and toads, among these being the Uta stansburiana elegans (Western side-botched lizard), Phrynosoma blainvillii (horned lizard), Actinemys pallida (Southern Western pond turtle), and the Anaxyrus serra (Arroyo toad). The majority of Laguna's terrestrial mammals are rodents and other small vertebrae including rabbits and squirrels. The Canis latrans (coyote) and Procyon lotor (raccoon) are common Sierra mammals that also live in Laguna. Aquatic mammals living along or off the coast of Laguna are the Phoca vitulina (harbor seal), Zalophus serra (Sierran sea lion), and the Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale).
Laguna was originally inhabited by the Kumeyaay, Luiseño, Cupeño, and Cahuilla Indians who lived in tribes and relied on a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. However, new archaeological discoveries have suggested that earlier peoples had settled in the area known as the La Jolla people and the San Dieguito. The first European to explore the province was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese man commissioned by the Spanish kingdom of Castile to explore the Pacific North American coastlines. Aboard the San Salvador, Cabrillo landed in San Diego Bay in 1542 and named it the "San Miguel". After a brief excursion on land, Cabrillo continued up the Sierran coast. Cabrillo never completed his expedition, as he died on the way home on the Gold Coast island of Santa Catalina from an infectious wound. The next European to explore Laguna was by Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno in 1602 who was ordered to map the Sierran coast. On his ship, the San Diego, he surveyed Mission Bay and Point Loma before naming the area, "San Diego", in honor of the the Catholic saint Didacus of Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, Vizcaíno's crew held the first recorded Christian service in the entire Alta California region.
The first permanent settlement established in Laguna was the Presidio of San Diego, a fort under the command of Gaspar de Portolà who led the Portolà expedition in May 1769. The next month, Junípero Serra, a Franciscan monk established the first of 21 missions in Alta California, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. In 1774, a substantial group of Spaniard civilians arrived with the purpose of permanently settling there. The next year, the Kumeyaay rebelled, killed the priest and two others, and burned the mission to the ground. Father Serra rebuilt the mission, this time with fire-proof adobe material and by 1797, the mission was the largest in California, with a population of 1,400 of converted Mission Indians.
In 1821, Mexico revolted against Spanish rule and gained its independence, thus assuming control over Laguna and all of Spain's former possessions in New Spain. The Mission of San Diego de Alcalá was secularized and its land was sold off to wealthy Mexican landowners. Outside the mission area, the rest of Laguna was divided into parcels for buyers to purchase and form their own individual ranchos. These practice would be the staple means of revenue for the Mexican government in the region.
During the Mexican-American War, Laguna Californios and American settlers revolted, trying to displace Mexican authority and joining the Californian independence movement. Mexico eventually lost, and was forced to recognize California's independence through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and Laguna was officially incorporated into the new California Republic as the State of San Diego.
Under Californian administration, Laguna quickly fell behind its more successful neighbors to the north financially. Without sufficient funding or public interest, Laguna quickly descended towards bankruptcy and population abandonment. By the time Sierra was created, succeeding the Californian government in 1858, Laguna was on the verge of collapse with a dwindling population of less than 3,000.
Interest in Laguna revitalized when William Heath Davis, a local merchant financed and oversaw the construction of a wharf in the San Diego Bay in 1851. Although it proved to be a failure, Davis' continued investment in San Diego's development led to support from other financial backers including Alonzo Horton who saw potential in the province. Purchasing over 900 acres of land, Horton advertised the land, luring in potential clients and residents to the area, and encouraging urban development. By the 1870s, the San Diego area had expanded ten times its original size and other settlements were established provincial-wide.
The completion of the San Diego and Maricopa and the Southern Coast Railways by the Southern Pacific Railroad helped establish viable links between other populated regions in Sierra with Laguna, thereby encouraging increased trading and migration. Eventually, the former was revamped as the San Diego and Maricopa Eastern Railway, a rail line that continues to exist in the present day.
In the 1880s, Sierra's imperialist endeavors in the Pacific helped propel Laguna to high military strategic importance. With the opening of the Panama Canal and increased traffic in the Port of San Diego, Sierran lawmakers and defense officials recognized the area's potential. The Royal Army and Navy began to establish their presence in Laguna, with the first of the bases being Naval Base Point Loma (then called Fort Rosecrans). The area began to depend on both the shipping and defense industry to fuel its economy. Continued development of the military infrastructure in Laguna eventually led to the defense industry accounting for twenty percent of the province's total GDP.
At the turn of the century, Laguna was among the first provinces to embrace the new wave of social progressivism in Sierra and a stronghold for the new liberal attitudes towards race, gender, and class. Progressive members of the Democratic-Republicans campaigned massive economic reforms in the province, including the institution of minimum wages, 8-hour work, and right to form labor unions, many of these laws and ideas that would be adopted elsewhere across the Kingdom.
After hosting the Panama-Sierra Exposition in 1915-1916, and the Sierra-Pacific International Exposition in 1935-36, San Diego's attempt to become an international city was meant with great success. In the 1920s, Laguna began to aggressively portray itself as center for aviation by improving its airfields and housing emergent aviation companies. Convair and the Ryan Aeronautical Company were the two major companies that flourished and bolstered Laguna's aviation image, with the latter constructing American pilot Charles Lindbergh's famous Spirit of St. Louis. During the Great Depression, Laguna fared comparatively better than other provinces in Sierra, and even saw its population continue to grow during such economic downturn.
During both World War I and World War II, Laguna's industrialization helped contribute to the provincial economy and migration from Mexican workers from the Los Pacíficos territory helped made agriculture a serious, although supplementary factor to the economy. Following the end of the Cold War, the declining demand in military equipment and products led Laguna to shift towards a biotech-oriented economy. The growing skyline of San Diego and suburban sprawl seen in the 1980s to the present-day have also indicated Laguna's continuous growth and improvement as a province.
On June 6, 2015, San Diego was attacked by Mexican terrorists, leading to an excess of nearly $50 billion in damages and over 3,500 casualties. The attacks triggered massive relief efforts from the international and domestic community, and was the primary motivation for the invasion of Mexico a week after. Since the attacks, Laguna and the city of San Diego have worked to recuperate and rebuild from the losses inflicted, as it destroyed a significant part of the province's services sector and delivered a heavy blow to infrastructure and investment.
The Sierra Royal Bureau of Census estimates that the population of Laguna in July 2015 was 8,633,292. In the 2010 census, 8,554,231 people were counted as citizens of Laguna. The prevailing influx of recent immigration has stemmed from Latin America and those from the Los Pacífico territories in the south due to the province's locale and proximity to this region. The province's population has been projected to continue increasing at stable, steady levels through 2020, with immigration rates slowing down by 2030.
Racial and ancestral makeup
- 52.3% White (4,473,862)
- 33.1% Non-Hispanic White (2,831,450)
- 19.2% Hispanic (1,642,412)
- 15.9% Asian/Pacific Islander (1,360,122)
- 9.7% Black (829,760)
- 1.9% Native Sierran (162,530)
- 20.2% Mixed/Other (1,727,954)
With most of Laguna's population living more than 100 miles away from Porciúncula, the epicenter of southern Sierran life, Laguna has been able to develop a more distinct culture of its own compared to its neighbors, Orange, and the Inland Empire which are closer to the Gold Coast. More heavily influenced by Mexican culture than Asian, the province's location near the Los Pacíficos territories and long history of Spanish-Mexican presence has impacted Laguna. The presence of Sierra's military in San Diego have long been a source of province pride and Laguna's affinity with the ocean has spawned a unique beach culture different from the more famous Orange variant. Laguna has long been hailed as the birthplace of Sierran fusion cuisine and experimental cooking, and also internationally known for its craft brewing. The province also has a thriving local arts and theater community.
|Affiliation||% of Sierra population|
|Eastern Orthodox||1|| |
|Other Christian||1|| |
|Other Faith||12|| |
|Don't know/refused answer||2|| |
Roughly 70% of Laguna residents identify themselves as Christian with 37% of citizens identifying themselves as a Protestant, 31% Catholic, 1% Eastern Orthodox, and 1% nondenominational or a member of another Christian sect. The largest religious denomination in Laguna is the Roman Catholic Church, which accounts for 31% of Laguna and is strongly in due to the large community of Hispanics and Latinos who are traditionally Catholic. The next largest churches in Laguna include the Baptists, Lutherans, Evangelicals, and Adventists.
The next largest group are the irreligious (including atheists, agnostics, and others) who comprise 16% of Laguna. The largest non-Christian religions in Laguna are Mahayana Buddhism at 5% and Canaanism at 3%. The remaining 4% include Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Jains, and Unitarians.
The official languages of the province include the nine languages recognized nationally (English, Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Thai, Tagalog, Japanese, and Serran), thus requiring all official government documents in the province to be published with all of the aforementioned languages. English and Spanish are by far the most spoken languages in Laguna.
Historically dependent trade and agriculture, Laguna's economy has now relied primarily on the defense and biotech industries with trade and agriculture, alongside tourism as significant contributors to the provincial economy. It is home to several dozen major companies in Sierra including Qualcomm, Jack in the Box, and Torp International. The province has aggressively advertised its suitable environment for businesses, and is home to one of the fastest growing places for new start-up businesses with an attractive real estate market. The 2015 San Diego bombings has had an adverse effect on Laguna's economy, skyrocketing insurance costs and debt for companies and the government alike, and the province currently continues to suffer from economic downturn as a result from these attacks.
Tourism is an important contributor to the economy of Laguna, with San Diego as the epicenter of tourist activity. Boasting 70 miles of coastline, Laguna offers swimming, boating, surfing, fishing, and snorkeling within its beaches. Three major amusement parks: SeaWorld San Diego and Belmont Park (both based in San Diego) alongside Legoland Sierra Resort (based in Carlsbad), attract millions of visitors each year. The San Diego Zoo (in San Diego's Balboa Park) and its Safari Park (in Escondido) extension are one of the world's most famous and 10th largest zoo in the world, featuring over 650 species of animals. The Balboa Park, a 1,200-acre urban park contains the zoo, several theaters and museums, gardens, stadiums, and restaurants, offering visitors a variety of places to experience. The province features several prominent shopping centers and outlets, including the Fashion Valley Mall, the province's largest with over 1.7 million square feet of area available for leasing and 200 individual stores.
The San Diego Gas & Electric is the primary energy provider in Laguna, and receives most of its energy from traditional power grids and the San Onofre Nuclear Plant. The move towards alternative fuels such as solar and wind has been on the rise, as Laguna has one of the highest demands in electricity in the Kingdom. Like much of Sierra, Laguna depends the majority of its oil from foreign sources and imports.
Sierrail and the San Diego Metropolitan Transit System provide Laguna a public rail and transit system which includes buses and streetcars. The commuter rail system is managed primarily by Coaster although the Metrolink and Pacific Surfliner lines also run through and stop at stations in Laguna.
The San Diego International Airport (KSAN) is the province's primary commerical airport in the Greater San Diego area. Located just 4 miles northwest of Downtown San Diego, the airport is the busiest single-runway commercial airport in Sierra and the world's second busiest with a total of 18,756,997 in 2014.
A domestic flights-only airport (McClellan–Palomar Airport, KCRQ) is located in the north of the province near Carlsbad. There are a number of general aviation airports in the province as well, among these being the Brown Field Municipal Airport (KSDM) in Otay Mesa, the Gillespie Field (KSEE) in El Cajon, the Montgomery Field Airport (KMYF) in San Diego, and the Ramona Airport (KRMN) in Ramona. There are eight other general aviation airports in Laguna, all of which lack a tower and where on-site use is minimal.
The province is served by the Port of San Diego, a public-benefit corporation managed by Laguna and based in the San Diego Bay. Receiving an annual cargo tonnage exceeding 4 million, the Port of San Diego is the third-busiest port in Sierra after the Port of Porciúncula and the Grands Ballons. The Port of San Diego is the busiest cruise ship port in the country, and the second largest along the Pacific Coast with a traffic of 800,000 passengers annually after Port Metro Vancouver in Canada. There are three main terminals in the Port: the Tenth Avenue Marine Terminal, the National City Marine Terminal, and the B-Street Cruise Terminal. Several facilities owned by the Royal Navy and Army are also situated within the bay and cooperates with the Port of San Diego.
The Colorado River and its irrigation systems account for 70% of Laguna's water use and dependence. 95% of Laguna relies on the service of the Metropolitan District of Southern Sierra, which services Laguna, Imperial, the Inland Empire, Orange, and the Gold Coast, for its water. Provincial-wide, water management and service is administered by the provinces' five water districts, the largest of these being the San Diego County Water District (SDCWD) based in San Diego County. Due to drought and water shortages affecting Laguna and much of the rest of Sierra, the province has worked towards conserving water and relying more on local sources, instead of outside sources. By 2020, local water supplies from desalination, groundwater, and recycled water is projected to account for more than 37% of Laguna's total water use.
Government and politics
The foundation, structure, functions, and operations of Laguna's government is defined by the Laguna Provincial Constitution which outlines basic law and guarantees certain rights and freedoms to its citizens. Laguna's government is divided into three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.
The executive branch is headed by the Governor who is in charge of signing or vetoing legislation, appointing officials and judges, granting pardons or reprieves, managing and preparing the provincial budget, and commanding the Laguna National Guard. The current governor is Tyson Morales (DR) from Encinitas. The executive branch also includes the Lieutenant Governor, the Prosecutor General, the Solicitor General, the Provincial Comptroller, the Provincial Treasurer, the Provincial Superintendent, and the Insurance Commissioner. Like all other Sierran provinces, Laguna is a constituent part of the Crown's realm, and shares the Monarch co-equally with the rest of the Kingdom. The Monarch is represented in the province through their appointed viceregal official, the Lord Superintendent, who carries out the ceremonial functions and role of the Monarch whenever the latter is not present in Laguna, or otherwise unable to execute their duties. The current Lord Superintendent is Nathan Afara.
The Laguna Provincial Legislature is bicameral and comprises up of the 30-member Senate and the 100-member General Assembly. All are elected to two-year, renewable terms. The province is divided into 30 senatorial districts, each with its own senator, and 100 assembly districts, each represented by an assembly member. The province is also divided into parliamentary districts with these boundaries set by the Parliament of Sierra, which have no bearing on Laguna's immediate legislature but organizes Laguna's constituencies and their representation in the House of Commons.
The Supreme Court is the highest court in Laguna and has appellate jurisdiction over nearly all cases originating in Laguna and has original jurisdiction over cases concerning issues found within the provincial constitution. Below the Supreme Court sit 4 Courts of Appeal, followed by the 12 Circuit Courts, and the 19 Superior Courts at the county-level. In 1994, the Supreme Court attracted national attention when 2 of its justices and a high-profile attorney were involved in bribery and charged with corruption. All three were convicted and sentenced to 25+ years in prison.
Laguna has traditionally leaned conservative, much similar to its neighbors, Orange and the Inland Empire. In all but the 2012 election, Laguna voted for Royalist candidates. In 2012, Laguna narrowly voted for Democratic-Republican candidate and prime ministerial incumbent Steven Hong by 1.21%. The city of San Diego, Laguna's largest and its capital, is much more liberal than the province's average overall, and has been a Democratic-Republican stronghold since the 1960s. Its continued growth (and consequently, the Democratic-Republican party base) have been cited as the reason Democratic-Republican Governor Tyson Morales was elected in 2014 and the choice of Steven Hong for prime minister in 2012 was achieved.
Public primary and secondary schools are under the direct jurisdiction of the Laguna Provincial Department of Education with school districts organized and established within the 18 counties of Laguna. Each district is headed by an elected Board of Education and the Department is directed and administered by the Provincial Superintendent.
The two major league sports teams in the province are the National Football League's San Diego Chargers (based in Qualcomm Stadium) and Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres at the Petco Park. The NFL Super Bowl championships have been held at the Qualcomm Stadium three times in 1988, 1998, and 2003 respectively and the stadium also hosted the World Series in 1984 and 1998.
Prominent collegiate sports teams are also based in Laguna, among these include San Diego Province Aztecs, the San Diego Toreros, and the ULSD Tritons. Two college bowl games: the Holiday Bowl and the Poinsettia Bowl are played annually at the Qualcomm Stadium.
Other significant sports events held annually include the San Diego Surf of the American Basketball Association and the Farmers Insurance Open golf tournament. Laguna has also hosted the 2008 NA Open Golf Championship and the America's Cup yacht race three times from 1988 to 1995.
Laguna has never claimed victory in any contemporary North American major league championship and have not won a significant championship game for any sport since 1963 with the AFL Championship. This phenomenon has been known as the "San Diego curse".
| Pacific Ocean|
Channel Islands • Orange
|Orange • Inland Empire||Inland Empire|
| Pacific Ocean|
|Pacific Ocean||Pacífico Norte||Pacífico Norte|