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Language principles (Lorica)

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LoricaLogo

Lorica | T | E | Au

Setting | Society | Magic system | Spells | Places | History | Language | Misc || (old)

Language principles | Normal words | Pro-words | Logicals | Prepositions | Affixes | Etcetera

--Bona al la encycla lorica.

Vowels

  • a (apple)
  • e (ever)
  • i ('in, easy)
  • y (yes)
  • o (on, ought)
  • u (under)
  • w (wood, way)

Compound vowels

  • ae (pay)
  • ai (item, high)
  • au (auburn, out)
  • ou (ode)
  • yu (utopia)

Consonants

  • c (kay)
  • t (to)
  • p (pay)
  • d (day)
  • b (bay)
  • g (gay)
  • ph (phase)
  • v (vet)
  • m (may)
  • n (nay)
  • l (lay)
  • r (ray)
  • s (say)
  • z (zap)
  • sh (shin)
  • th (thin)
  • ch (ch'in)
  • h (hay)
  • Note: 21 letters in alphabet, 30 discrete sounds

Grammar

The grammar in this language is very simple and easy to learn. The rules are in bold.

A single concept encompasses verb, noun, adjective, adverb, and gerund. For example:

loira <- this is the root concept

  • loira (imagination) (dream)
  • loirae (to imagine) (to dream) <- adding an -e gives the infinitive, imperative and exhortative form.
  • loirade (imagined) (dreamed) <- adding a -de gives the adjectival form.
  • loiradae (imaginable) (dreamable) <- adding a -dae gives the 'possible' form.
  • loiraenai (not to dream) <- adding a -nai negates the meaning.
  • loiranaide (unimagined) (undreamed)
  • loiranaidae (unimaginable) (undreamable)
  • loirar/loirara (dreamer) (visionary) <- adding a -r or -ra gives the doer of the action, -r for male and -ra for female.
  • loiryn/loiran (dreaming) (imagining) <- adding a -yn or -an or -in gives the gerund form.

The root concept can be used directly as noun, verb, adjective or adverb provided the meaning is clear, meaning the conjugations aren't necessary. The root concept can be a noun (as in the above case) but it can also be an adjective or adverb. If it's an adjective or adverb then there's no -de (adjectival) version.

Capitalization

  • Initial letters in a sentence, and abbreviations, are not required to be capitalized.
  • Capitalize the first letter of each word in a proper noun, including modifiers.

Conjugation and tense

  • Verbs are not conjugated according to subject.
  • Plurality is never an issue.
  • Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs end in '-a'.

Let's work with the subject, I, me, and verb, to see / to look, vean. Then these are the tenses:

  • vea
    • The root concept by itself is the "sure tense".
    • Used for the present tense. me vea = I see.
    • Used for the past tense. me vea = I saw. Past tense is used for what is commonly thought of as present tense. So, me vea means "I see it". The rationale is that by the time you could righteously say this statement, part of the event has already passed (even if it's still ongoing).
    • Used for the present perfect, preterite, and past imperfect tenses. So me vea also means "I saw it", whether it was for an instant or over a period of time. This is because the time period length does not have a particular cutoff.
    • Used for the past perfect. This is because the order doesn't affect whether or not it was done in the past, and sometimes the two past events would overlap anyway.
    • Used for the indefinite form. me vea = "I" see.
    • Used in literature.
  • veae
    • Adding -e makes it the "imperative" form.
    • Used for imperative tense. For example, veae or te veae means the order to "(you) see it!"
    • Used for the exhortative tense. (which is the imperative form directed at your own group ("let's"). However, the te is replaced by me. me veae means "let's see it!"
    • Used for the indirect imperative form. ("(let) him see it"). However, the te is replaced by se. So, se veae means "(let) him see it".
  • vean
    • Adding -n makes it the "unsure tense".
    • Used for the future tense. me vean = I will see.
    • Used for the subjunctive, imperfect subjunctive, and perfect subjunctive tenses.
    • Used for the conditional ("if I see it, I would see it")
    • Used for the conditional perfect. ("if I had seen it, I would see it")
    • Used for any other time when the action is unsure.
    • Used for predictions and as general rules about the nature of things.

Sentence construction

The sentence order is: ((subject noun or pronoun) (adjectives) (adverbs)) ((verb) (adverbs)) a ((object noun or pronoun) (adjectives) (adverbs)).

  • When there are more than one modifiers, they are placed in order of importance.
  • When there are adverbs modifying multiple other modifiers, the adverbs come immediately after whatever they were modifying.
  • Compound nouns always have ((primary half) (secondary half) (all other modifiers)).

Nouns are very closely related to verbs and adjectives in this language. For example, the word for the noun harm, nocea, is merely conjugated differently from the verb (harms), nocean and conjugated differently from the adjective and adverb forms, noceade.

For example:

  • 'Harm harms.' = nocea nocean.
  • 'Harmful harm harms.' = nocea noceade nocean.
  • 'Harm harms harmfully.' = nocea nocean noceade.
  • 'Harmfully harmful harm harms harmfully.' = nocea noceade noceade nocean noceade.

In transitive sentences, a is used to separate the end of the verb with the beginning of an object. The modifiers before this a are adverbs modifying a verb; the word immediately after the a is the object noun, followed by any modifiers of that object.


Numbers

In writing Lorican uses Arabic numerals, not Roman ones.

The final -a is omitted. To string them up, simply say them one after another, without spaces. So, two hundred and forty six (246) becomes ethabutahex. Decimal points are inserted like this: (24.6) becomes ethabutapuntahex. (4001) becomes butay'yuna.

Vocabulary tables

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