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Kingdom of Mariana
Koninkrijk Mariana

Flag of Mariana
Coat of Arms of Mariana
Flag
Motto: Iustitia et Libertas (Justice and Liberty)
Anthem: The Ambrosian
Map of Mariana
Map of Mariana
Capital
and largest city
Palma
Official languages English, Dutch
Recognised regional languages Barzuna
Demonym Marianan
Government {constitutional monarchy
• Queen
Helene of Mariana
Peter Wostor
Legislature Congress of Deputies
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from Venice
• Establishment of monarchy
1236
• Independence
9 June 1427
Area
• Total
4,992 km2 (1,927 sq mi)
Population
• 2015 estimate
1,102,980 (mainland Mariana)
HDI (2016) 0.917
very high · very high
Currency Marianan lira (MAL)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +1
ISO 3166 code MA
Internet TLD .ma
Website
www.mariana.go.ma
Marianan people

Notable Marianans

The Kingdom of Mariana (Dutch: Koninkrijk Mariana) is an island nation in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.. It is a member of the European Union. Mariana is composed of four large islands: Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Middleton. There are many minor islands and islets close to the larger islands, including Cabrera, Dragonera and S'Espalmador. Mariana also has several overseas areas in the Caribbean.

Due to its strategic location, Mariana has been ruled over or invaded by the Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Aragonese, Venetians, Dutch, French and Nazi Germans. Mariana thus came into contact with many cultures and ideas which have helped form Marianan culture and traditions.

Geography

The country is geographically very rich, having mountains, rolling hills, valleys and many varied geographic features.

As a Mediterranean country, Mariana has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate, with mild winters and warm summers. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. The average yearly temperature is 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) during the day and 15 °C (59 °F) at night.

Administrative divisions

Provinces of mariana

Mariana's first-level subdivisions are provinces. There are 10 provinces in Mariana. The provinces were created in 1885 following constitutional reform, as prior to this period Mariana's next level of administration was the municipality, or church parishes. Despite this, provinces have little administrative or legislative power, with most residing with the government and the rest with municipalities.

Parishes by population
Flag Province Capital Population
Cape cross flag Cape Cross Cape Cross -
Carrington Carrington -
Drenthe S. Hendrikstad -
Helmond Roodstad -
Ibiza Ibiza -
Mariaberg Donderstad -
Ibiza flag Menorca Ciutadella -
Middleton Middleton -
Sint-Anders S. Anders -
Sint-Willemstad S. Willemstad -

History

Early history

For most of history, the islands were largely uninhabited. Almost certainly did the Greeks know of Mariana's existance though no records of settlement have been found. It is also beleived that the Carthaginians may have settled Mermaid Island, or briefly occupied it, given the discovery of pre-Roman ruins there. Recent discoveries in the past decade, including at several Byzantine ruins in Cape Cross, point to Carthaginian rule in Mariana. It is generally believed that Hamilcar Barca (father of Hannibal) took over Mariana around 235-34 BC, as part of his Iberian campaign.

In 276, the Romans established a colony at Villa Fulvia. Villa Fulvia was considered to be the only Roman settlement in the islands but others have been found in Central and Cape Cross Parishes. Around 380, the settlement was abandoned by the Romans and largely forgotten. Other Roman settlements in the islands were abandoned around 420-440. In the chaos surrounding the fall of the Roman Empire, the islands were briefly conquered by the Vandals in 525, but the islands soon came under the control of the Byzantines after a naval engagement forming part of the Vandalic War (535). They were the first to begin colonization attempts here in over a century. Around 535-540 they began the foundations of the city of Brezonde.

By the year 600 Mariana fell under the control of the Visigothic Kingdom. King Witeric (Witerico) Invasion led several campaigns against the Byzantines and in 604 was able to drive them out of Mariana, along with his general, Eusebius of Toledo. Visigothic rule over Mariana was fairly weak, though largely after 650 due to an increased instability in the Visigothic mainland (Spain). By 685 the islands were back under the control of the Byzantines, though it would only be consolidated until 700 AD. Around 712 some colonists from Brezonde moved south and founded Niesium (modern-day Niesburg), the second major settlement in the islands. With mainland Spain falling to Moorish invaders in 711 it was soon feared that Mariana might fall, and despite their weakening the Byzantines were preparing to repel any invasion. Being the only Christian area in Mediterranean Spain, many Spanish came to Marianan to escape Muslim rule.

In 714-15 Umayyad governor Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa led an attempted invasion of Mariana but was thwarted shortly after landing his troops on the beaches near Brezonde. In 775 Abd al-Rahman I, the Emir of Cordoba launched a second offensive against Mariana but unfavorable winds and rains led him to lose many ships and call off the attack.

Arabian Mariana

The islands of Mariana were conquered by the Umayyad emirs in Spain around 817-818. By this time Byzantine control was heavily weakened and could provide little in defense against the Muslims. In 817 an Umayyad fleet set in Brezonde harbor and offered the inhabitants their terms for occupation, which were readily agreed. The troops under emir Al-Hakam faced no opposition though a few settlers in Niesburg took up arms in a short skirmish.

Unlike previous conquerors of the islands, the Arabs expanded their area southward and founded other settlements into present-day Carrington, Central and Helmond Parish, with some 15-20 found in northern Mariana. They also contribute by turning Brezonde from a small settlement to a sizable town, with some 5000 people by 900. Around 860 the Swedish king Björn Ironside raided the Marianan coast and set fire to a number of small villages, though his devastation was not as great as that in the Balearics.

In 1019, weakening Umayyad control over Mariana prompted the Taifa (Kingdom) of Dénia, which had recently occupied the Balearics to conquer Mariana, doing so with a swift naval invasion and a total rout of the local governor Al-Ibris at the Battle of Brezonde.

The rulers of Dénia imposed strict order over the Marianans and by 1040 had forced many Christians to leave the islands after imposing religious taxation on them and effectively making them second-class citizens. In 1104, the cities of Jabaladar and Bur Taif rose up in revolt against Dénia and it's Marianan governors. The military commander in Brezonde sent some 500 troops to crush the insurgents, routing them at the Battle of Bur Taif and then attacking anyone resisting in Jabal-Akdar.

Foundation of the kingdom

Marigalante map

Marigalante map

In the 14th century Marianan soldiers took Tenes, in present-day Algeria, the oldest special possession of the kingdom.

In the 16th century, the royal government began a colonization exploration. Portuguese explorer Baltasar de Saldanha led an expedition to the Caribbean and claimed the the islands of Marigalante and Islas de los Santos. These and other small territories would later form the basis to the concept of the "Petty Empire" in the 19th century.

Early modern history

Mariana, though having a constitution had an increasingly autocratic monarchy. While Ambroos I of Mariana was heavily inspired by the enlightenment and was the modern monarch, his grandson Johan I of Mariana was much more right-wing and absolutist in nature. Eventually in 1881 a large revolt by the populace in Palma and a putsch by several units near the capital saw him deposed and a modern constitution enacted in 1882. Johan's son Pieter was declared king and he pushed for the creation of the Prime Minister of Mariana, but for the first 20 years loyal army colonel Felix van Biancator was the sole prime minister.

Modern history

The death of Biancator in 1902 led to a series of short-lived governments, led by the White (conservative catholic) and Liberal (center-leftist). Growing discontent with unstable governments, rising inflation and other issues led to the rise of a secretive right-wing republican faction within the White Party and the military, and coupled with the actions of republican Anarchists, led to the October Plot in 1913, a regicide and attempted coup against the monarchists.

Politics

The 2016 Marianan general election failed to see any one party receive a plurality of votes and discussions are still underway to determine a government.

Political parties in Congress

Name Logo Ideology Leader Reps Sens
Green Party
Groene Partij
GP
GP Logo
Ecologism Peter Wostor
21 / 100
3
Christian Democratic Union
Christen-Democratische Unie
CDU
CDU logo
Christian democracy Adrian Vandreck
18 / 100
2
Yes to the Future YES
Yes to the future logo
Alternative politics
Anti-austerity republican
none
17 / 100
0
Social Democrats
Sociaal-Democraten
SDP
Social Democrats logo
Social democracy Pieter Van Buskirk
16 / 100
3
Free Liberal Party
Vrije Liberale Partij
FLP
FLP Logo
Classical liberalism Eric Peitersson
12 / 100
2
Socialist Left Party
Socialistische Links Partij
SP
SLP logo
Socialism Oliver Hewton
11 / 100
2
Better Mariana ABM Centrism Avaline Porter
3 / 100
0
Marianan People's Party MPP National conservatism
Right-wing populism
Wilhelm Gent
1 / 100
0
Social Anarchy Party SAP Anarchist
libertarianism
Charlotte Ryberg
1 / 100
0

Culture

Mariana has a very rich and diverse culture, having Spanish, European and Arab influences. Marianan culture is said to have been born with the legent of Adenis and Virsise in the 13th/14th century. Marianan literature, music and art have developed over the centuries to achieve great variety, from the haunting paintings of Eugenio Cavall to the films of Herbert S. Hosen.

Sport

Sport is also very important to Marianans, in particular football, which has been around for over 100 years. Leagues and the national team are highly followed, as are the clubs. Basketball is also a popular sport. Other sports native or historic in Marianan include Bolas (a form of boules), Pedbola, a precursor to football and bullfighting.

Major football clubs include FC Kings, Ciutadella FC, Palma CF and Dortmund SFC.

Media

Mariana has RTM (Radio television Mariana) as the state broadcaster, founded in 1937. Other broadcasters present in Mariana include StarTV, Channel 5, Channel Six and others.

Music

The Music of Mariana has been around for hundreds of years and has been influenced by many peoples and styles. Early music was influenced by Arabic sounds and instruments, and later on also by Spanish music of the 13th-15th century. Due to hundreds of years of influences, Marianan music is very diverse; it can range from traditional Jitanèses to techno and folk-pop in the contemporary age.

Ye-ye music was popular in the 1960s. Rock groups of the period were The Manchester Four, The Dragons and Duo. Pop singers like Diana Barton and Conny Meeuwsen have led to more contemporary musicians like Cristiane Melker, Ivan Bloom, Matt Brights, Empress of the Future (and Hania).

Film

Film in Mariana has been around for over 100 years. The major film studios are Europa Films, Studio 5 and Liberal Arts Pictures.

Cuisine

Marianan cuisine is a variation on the Mediterranean diet, as it has many things in commons with Spanish, Italian and French cuisine. However, it is influenced by British and Dutch cuisine, too. This makes it a little "heavier" compared to classic Mediterranean cuisine. Brunanter cuisine is not much influenced by Arabian diet, though immigrants since the 196s have introduced new foods such as hummus and pita bread.

Up until the 1980s, Brunanter cuisine was heavily based on classic recipes and cooking styles. Beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, younger chefs pioneered "modern Marianan cuisine, abandoning the heavier and larger dishes for smaller and better-presented dishes. Nowadays most "Marianan haute-cuisine" is solely in the modern style, while traditional cuisine has not evolved. Furthermore some contemporary cuisine, including molecular gastronomy, is abandoning traditional ingredients altogether to create completely new dishes using Marianan methods.

Notable dishes include Dronkengeit stew, stuffed chicken, seafood dishes and Pitana sandwiches. Well-known Marianan chefs include Max Hassel, Beatrix Simon and Ricardo Villes.

General gallery

Flag of Mariana Kingdom of Mariana Flag of Mariana
Government Monarchy (Queen Helene) • Prime MinisterCongress of Deputies (HouseSenate)
Judiciary (Supreme Court • Constitutional Court • Judicial Courts • Regional Courts • Municipal Courts)
Marigalante Flag of Marigalante Settlements (Capesterre • Grand Anse • Grand-Bourg • Little Anse • Marigot • St. Louis • Terre de Haut Town) • Government (President • Parliament of Marigalante)
Bequia
Flag of Bequia
Settlements (Diamond • Fernando's Hideaway • Friendship • La Pompe • Paget Farm • Park Estate • Port Elisabeth • Saint Hilary • Spring Estate) • Government (President of the Parliament • Bequian Parliament • Pink House) • Education (Martin Paget Primary School • Eustatius Horton College)
Desiry
Coat of Arms Desiry
Settlements (Beausejour • Headley • Mowalt • South Side) • Government (Mayor of Desiry • Municipal government) • Education (Justus Pinckney Primary School • Princess Marianne College)

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