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|Mexican Social Republic|
República Social de México (Spanish)
Motto: México para los mexicanos
(English: Mexico for the Mexicans)
Anthem: Himno de la Patria
(English: The Fatherland Hymn)
Map of Mexico (excluding its claims)
and largest city
|Government||Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Pablo Hidalgo de Veracruz|
|Jose Rosario Macias|
|Legislature||National Assembly of Mexico|
|Independence from Spain|
|September 16, 1810|
|September 27, 1821|
|October 4, 1824|
|February 5, 1857|
|September 11, 1956|
|1,647,836 km2 (636,233 sq mi)|
• 2014 estimate
• 2010 census
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|$1.8 trillion (16th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|$983 billion (17th)|
• Per capita
high · 52nd
|Currency||Mexican peso ($) (MXN)|
|Time zone||See Time in Mexico (UTC−8 to −6)|
• Summer (DST)
|varies (UTC−7 to −5)|
|Drives on the||right|
Mexico, officially known as the Mexican Social Republic (Spanish: República Social de México) is a federal semi-presidential constitutional republic in southern North America. It borders Brazoria and the Kingdom of Sierra to the north; the Pacific Ocean to the south and west; the Gulf of Mexico to the east; and Belize, Guatemala, and the Caribbean Sea to the southeast. It is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, and the second largest in Latin America, with a population of over 120 million. It is a federation composed of 25 states and a federal district (Mexico City), that is also its most populous city and its capital. The Valley of Mexico and the vicinity is home to the majority of Mexican citizens, with the Mexico City megapolis accounting for nearly one-fourth of the country's entire population.
Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, Mexico was home to various advanced Mesoamerican civilizations including the Olmec, the Maya and the Aztec, which engaged in active trade, cooperation, and warfare. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized Mexico, administering the conquered lands under the Viceroyalty of New Spain. New Spain became an important asset to Spain, allowing the Spaniards to expand into other parts of the Americas. After three centuries of Spanish rule, Mexico declared and gained independence from Spain in 1821. Following independence, Mexico experienced a highly volatile political environment, with frequent political changes, and widespread economic problems. Mexico lost over half of its territory in the Mexican-American War to Brazoria, California (which would become Sierra), and the United States.
After the war, Mexico continued to be plagued with internal and international conflict, and several more political changes. After 80 years under the Porfiriato dictatorship, the CAS-led 1956 coup d'état overthrew the anti-Anglo-American government with the pro-Anglo-American government of Francisco Alarcón. Alarcón passed sweeping neoliberal economic reforms, and was a staunch anti-communist, siding with the Anglo-American states. Alarcón however, also imprisoned and shut down political opposition, and was known for commissioning death squads against dissidents and enemies.
After 20 years under the strongman rule of Alarcón and his party, the Popular Patriotic Front, Mexico shifted from an effectively single-party state to a multi-party democracy, after President Hector Párraga Villajos and his party, the Social Democratic Party was democratically elected in 1976. Under Párraga Villajos and his successors, healthcare and education was socialized, creating the modern Mexican welfare system. Mexico joined the Conference of American States (CAS) in 1983. In 1994, the Zapatistas began a far-left, separatist insurrection in Chiapas against the Mexican state, triggering the ongoing conflict between the government and several military groups. In 2002, following the 2001 Mexican financial crisis, the Mexican Unity Party became the ruling party, ending the decades of two-party dichotomy, with President Pablo Hildago de Veracruz. De Veracruz saw rapid economic recovery and growth, which were made possible through his economic and fiscal policies, the "Veracruz Plan", the 2000s commodities boom, and higher oil prices. Veracruz promoted "Latin American pan-nationalism", and became an outspoken critic of Anglo-American foreign policy. Veracruz was reelected President again in 2008, with nationalist policies, and demanded the return of Los Pacíficos and the Yucatán to Mexico from Sierra, and began funding for a more militarized Mexico. Mexico was suspended from the Conference in 2014 after the Baja California crisis, and in 2014, Mexican voters chose in a referendum to leave the Conference, and left in 2017, becoming the first state to do so, while De Veracruz founded the American Cooperation Organization (ACO) to counter the CAS.
The Mexican economy ranks as the 17th largest by nominal GDP and the 16th largest purchasing power parity in 2017. It has a relatively high standard of living and is a newly industrialized country with a upper middle-income economy. It is a member of the League of Nations (LN), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the G28, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), and the Organization of American States (OAS). It is a founding member of the American Cooperation Organization (ACO) and is a former member of the Conference of American States (CAS). Emerging from a predominantly agriculturally-based economy, the modern Mexican economy is diversified with large sectors in services, technology, oil, finance, energy, trade, and industry. Mexico has one of the largest standing militaries in the world (with over 700,000 on active duty) and the second largest paramilitary force in the Western Hemisphere (with 480,000), behind Cuba. The development of Mexico's domestic nuclear program has been the subject of international concern and opposition from its neighbors. Tensions between Mexico and its Anglo-American neighbors, particularly with Sierra and Brazoria, has led to a steady deterioration in relations. Mexico's withdrawal from the CAS, its increased militarization, its nuclear program, and its revived irredentist movement has led to the controversially imposed sanctions by the Anglo-American community.
The name, México (originally spelled as Mexico without the accented letter I) is the Spanish transliteration of the Nahuatl word, Mēxihco, the name used by the Aztecs to describe the ancient heartland of the Aztec Empire in the Valley of Mexico and its people, the Mexica. The name was adopted by the Spaniards when Mexico was organized into one of the territories of New Spain. The name has a long and complex history, with various possible origins and forms. In Nahuatl, the suffix, –co indicates a place name. It has been hypothesized that the name Mexico may have derived from Mextli (Mēxihtli), a "secret name" of the Aztec god of war, Huitzilopochtli. Under this scheme, the name of Mēxihco would mean, the "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". Other theories include the suggestion that Mēxihco was a portmanteau of the Aztec words Mētztli (moon) and xīctli (navel), which would mean Mēxihco means "Place at the Center of the Moon", a possible reference to the location of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan in Lake Texcoco. The lakes that were connected to Lake Texcoco also formed the shape of the head of a rabbit, an animal commonly associated with the moon in Aztec culture.
The earliest documented and verifiable occurrence of humans appearing in Mexico is around 23,000 years ago. Starting from 7000 BC, Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers succeeded in domesticating and cultivating the maize crop and beans. Consequently, villages and communes arose from this agricultural revolution and various cultures arose. Between 15000 BC to 700 AD, farming societies evolved into more complex chiefdoms where social stratification became more pronounced with rigid separate classes of people based on profession and religious standing. The most prominent civilizations that existed during this time included the Olmec and Mayans.
Post-World War II
1956 coup d'êtat
Geography, climate, and environment
Government and politics
Crime and law enforcement
Cult of personality
Public holidays and celebrations