|Republic of Newfoundland|
Republæc jaf Niwofinaǵelen
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Mi'kmaq|
• Prime Minister
|Legislature||Parliament of Newfoundland|
• Colony of Wessex
• Seized by England
• Declared Independence from British Empire
|15th June 1773|
|108,860 km2 (42,030 sq mi)|
• 2013 census
|1.63/km2 (4.2/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2013 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Newfoundland Yeo (NOY)|
|Time zone||Newfoundland Standard Time (UTC-3)|
|Drives on the||left|
Newfoundland is a Parliamentary Republic, with the President of Newfoundland as the ceremonial head of state, while the Prime Minister of Newfoundland is the Head of Government, in which real political power is vested in. The legislative arm consists of the Parliament of Newfoundland. A General Election is held every 5 years, in a first past the post system which elects the Prime Minister by relation to parliament seatings. The President is elected by the general populace in a separate vote.
Newfoundland was first discovered by the Icelandic Viking, Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who named it Vinland. The later European Settlers were the Wessen in the 15th century, with an expedition led by Jon Agbert, who was commissioned by King Alfred III of Wessex to find passage to Asia. Agbert landed on Newfoundland in 1499 and an attempt was made to begin a colony there, with further expeditions a colony was founded, which was named in honour of King Alfred III, Alfredburgh. In 1532, Tensions between Wessex and England broiled over as Henry VIII of England ordered the Conquest of Wessex ending in 1534 with the incorporation of Wessex as a client vassal state of the Kingdom of England. During this time, the trading between Bristol and Alfredburgh, its lifeline, ceased, with several months of being cut off, until English Ships arrived, claiming the colony. The colonists fought back, with a hefty arsenal of Wessen Military personnell at the colony, the ships were defeated leaving the colonists largely independent without rule from Wessex or England. However further attacks from English forces brought the colony to its knees, to which it surrendered. Under English rule, its Wessen inhabitants refused to bow to the English first policy introduced and strictly adhered to their Wessen traditions. Trading with the Thirteen Colonies in the 17th century, led to an influx of wealth and supplies not seen since being under Wessex. Following the start of the American Revolutionary War in 1775, Newfoundland held the Alfredsburgh Conference, and declared independence from British Rule on June 15th 1775, effectively bringing them into the war. Alongside the United States, Newfoundland sought independence at the end of the war in 1776, however conflicts between Newfoundland and the United States occurred when attempts were made to include it as a state were made.
Newfoundland, like its mother nation, Wessex, has very unique ideologies. Policies sway towards pacifism, and liberal socialist ideas. Anglo-Saxon qualities are mirrored through in Newfoundland, still practicing Wessen traditions whilst having a new culture of its own. Newfoundland commonly allies itself with Wessex in many international issues however is seen as less radical in its policies and actions.
The English name Newfoundland, comes from a direct translation of the Wessen name, Niwofinagelen. The name was given by Jon Agbert the explorer commissioned by Wessen King Alfred III to establish an overseas colony in 1499. Newfoundland is referred to by natives as Niwofinagelen, or Niwgelen for short.
Wessen ColonisationJon Agbert to find passage to Asia, in a similar attempt to what John Cabot had attempted under commission from 1497. Agbert set sail in March 1499, and, like Cabot had before mistakenly believing he had discovered Asia, discovered America, which was later named Niwofinagelen. Straight away, attempts were made to begin a colony. The colony became known as Alfredburgh named for King Alfred III of Wessex. Soon word reached back, and an influx of colonists wanted a taste of the new world. Trading between the two ports began in 1502, as further regions around Niwofinagelen were explored, leading to the discovery, and settlement of Summerset Isle. Alfredburgh grew into a major trading hub in the Americas, trading was underway with Spain and Portugal, and later France.
English Invasion & Rule
In 1532, tensions between Wessex and England broiled over, and Henry VIII ordered the invasion of Wessex. The Conquest brought Wessex to its knees, and was reformed as a client vassal state of the Kingdom of England with the Monarchs of Wessex ousted. In 1534, English ships arrived in Newfoundland declaring that England had seized the colony. Several days of conflict and unrest ensued, with Newfoundland later being incorporated into England's international posessions. Under English rule, its Wessen inhabitants refused to bow to the English first policy introduced and strictly adhered to their Wessen traditions. Trading with the Thirteen Colonies in the 17th century, led to an influx of wealth into the colony, allowing the purchase and stock up of supplies.
Revolutionary War & Independence
Following the start of the American Revolutionary War in 1775, Newfoundland's leaders held the Alfredsburgh Conference, and with consultation with the Americans, declared independence from British Rule on June 15th 1775, effectively bringing them into the war. With aid from France, the Netherlands, United States and Spain, Newfoundland was able to attain their independence alongside the United States in 1776m with over 14,000 Newfoundlander troops taking part in the conflict under the leadership of Andsware Stormott. Following 1776, a series of conflicts with the United States ensued, when attempts were made to invade Newfoundland for the United States. Newfoundland retained its independence. The new independent parliamentary system was created in 1776, with the first meeting taking place on the 12th March 1776. The Constitution was drawn up in the Constitutional Conference on the 16th March 1776.
GovernmentNewfoundland, according to its establishment, is a Parliamentary Republic, with the Head of State being the President of Newfoundland, who holds a ceremonial role fulfilling certain responsibilities and engagements. The Executive arm of the government consists of the Prime Minister of Newfoundland, the head of government, in which the real political power is invested. The Prime Minister is elected by a general election every five years in a first past the post system in parliament. The Prime Minister has the power to form and dissolve a Cabinet consisting of heads of executive governmental departments.
The Legislative Arm consists of the unicameral Parliament of Newfoundland, which consists of 63 seats. Members of Parliament are known as Felaparlamentna, and are elected directly from each of the 33 constituencies in Newfoundland. Two members are elected from each.
Foreign RelationsNewfoundland is a member of the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, and OECD. Culturally, Linguistically, and historically, Newfoundland is linked to Wessex of which Newfoundland is a former colony of, which has been its closest ally since the early 20th century. Wessex and Newfoundland have been referred to as 'Father and Son.' Newfoundland cooperates with Wessex on international issues, despite having a reputation of being less opinionated compared to Wessex.
Though physiographically a part of North America, Newfoundland has been politically, culturally, and economically associated with Europe, and stands apart form North American politics.
Newfoundland has no official standing military force. Following the Mutual Securities Pact of 2004 Newfoundland's security is looked after by its closest ally, Wessex. Despite pacifist ideology, Wessex stated that 'an attack on Newfoundland, our most important and closest ally, would be deemed as a due cause for violent force.' Newfoundland however does have a guard, known as the Leodna Bewitan, which is reponsible for Coastguard duties, and patrol duties, alongside the unarmed Newfoundland Police Force.
Newfoundland is divided into Geographical Regions, Provinces and Tithings. Provinces are led by a Ieldra, who is elected by a local election every two years. Unlike many local governments, there is no local council.
In 2013, Newfoundland ranked 18th in GDP (PPP) Per Capita, and ranked 149th in GDP (PPP). Newfoundland has a capitalist system, with socialist influences. Despite ranking low in economic scales, Newfoundland has been classed as a highly developed country by the United Nations, with a high standard of living. The national currency of Newfoundland is the Newfoundland Yeo (¥).
Until the early 20th century, Newfoundland was among the poorest countries in North America. Currently it is among the most developed. Strong economic growth occured between in the late 20th century, with aid from Wessex and Canada. Newfoundland has been ranked in the top 10 for highest quality of living alongside close ally Wessex.
Newfoundland has a diversified economy, centred around the service and production industry. Newfoundland fisheries are vital to economic stability, and many methods have been taken to ensure renewable fishing sources. The Service Industry acconts for approximately 65% of the gross domestic product of Newfoundland, with a further 27% consisting of the Production Industry, and 3% Agriculture. Newfoundland has a small agricultural industry, and a large proportion of its food produce is imported as it is unable to produce enough food for itself. Imports usually come from Canada and Wessex.
GeographyNewfoundland is located off of the coast of North Western America, sharing maritime borders with Canada, the United States, and St Pierre and Miquelon. The nation itself consists of two islands, Newfoundland (Niwofinagelen), often known by locals as 'the mainland', and Summerset Isle (Summersete Ealende). Most of the population is concentrated on Newfoundland, while fewer than 2,000 live on Summerset Isle, which is largely a nature reserve known for wilderness.
Newfoundland is among the most sparsely populated nations in the world, with a small population of 178,324 over an area of 108,824 km2. Much of the country is wilderness, consisting of pine forests, tundras, gorges, lakes and rivers. Much of the population is concentrated around the capital, Alfredburgh.
Flora and Fauna
Newfoundland is divided into two biomes, Tundra and Taiga. Much of Newfoundland is covered by such Taiga. However during the last Ice Age, Newfoundland was entirely wiped clean of animal life, and only those who could recolonise the island through glaciers returned, alongside those species introduced by humans. Many common animals and plants have been introduced to Newfoundland, either by mistake or deliberatley, these include the Moose, Hare, Red Squirrel, Chipmunk and Shrew. Many others were brought specifically for agricultural methods, these may include Cows, Sheep and Pigs, many of which were introduced by European settlers from Wessex in the 16th century.
The official language of Newfoundland is Wessen, a germanic language originating in Wessex. Wessen was introduced in the initial colonisation of Newfoundland. Following the English Siezing of the colony of Niwofinagelen, the Wessen language was threatened by the English first policies put in place. Colonists refused to abandon their cultural and linguistic heritage and defiantly spoke Wessen.
Newfoundland had originally no native peoples, aside from the Beothuk, a Dorset Culture existing in the 15th and 16th centuries, at the time of Wessen colonisation. The Beothuk became extinct in 1829. Newfoundland has no native languages. The Mi'kmaq language is spoken in isolated pockets in Newfoundland from small portions of immigrated Mi'kmaq people from Quebec and Labrador.
Newfoundland is an enirely secular state as per its foundation. In the 2013 census, a total of 35% stated they had no religious beliefs, or stated they were agnostic or atheist, a further 40% stated they belonged to a Christian Denomination, alongside 23% Wessen Pagans, and a further 2% other (including Judaism, Islam, and Hindusim).
HousingNewfoundland is a developed country, that has an extremely low homelessness rate. Much of the population live in private homes, with a percentage living in social housing provided by the government. Homes in Newfoundland are similar to those found in Northern Europe, and are often brightly coloured ranging from Green, Yellow, Red and Blue. Most commonly consisting of a wooden slatted facade, with a brick or stone inside. Many homes are built in sections, or privately by independent builders.
Due to Newfoundland's small population, and low population density, it consists of tight-knit communities, outside of the capital, or major towns. Cultural Traditions, centuries old still play a major part in local life. WIth major influences from it's Wessen heritage, most notably the Wessen language, and Pagan Faith.
Newfoundland Cuisine, Dance, Folk Music and Architecture remain distinct from its 'mother culture', however due to many cultural similarities, both Newfoundland and Wessex, are treaty similarly, in such fields as Marketing, Products, and Media.