Tỉnh Trái Cam (vn)
|Province of Sierra|
|Nickname(s): The Pearl of the Occident|
Motto(s): Das Wasser fließt von Freiheit |
(German: The water flows of freedom)
|Provincial song(s): "Bountiful Shores"|
|Official language(s)||*Nationally recognized languages|
Ranked 21st |
Ranked 4th |
|Admission to the Union||November 28, 1858 (8th)|
|Lord Superintendent||Timothy Sheraton|
|Lieutenant Governor||James Crenshaw|
Orange Provincial Legislature |
Ryan Pimentel (R)|
Mark Chan (R)
|K.S. House delegation||
22 total commoners|
Pacific Time Zone |
UTC –8/UTC –7
|Abbreviations||OR, OC, Ora., Oran.|
Situated between the coastal plain of the Porciúncula Basin and the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains, Orange is situated next to the Pacific Ocean featuring a warm Mediterranean climate and 42 miles of beaches. It borders the provinces of the Gold Coast and the Inland Empire to the north, the Inland Empire to the east, the province of Laguna to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Originally inhabited by the Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño Native Sierrans, the province received its first contact from outsiders when the Spainish-Catalan explorer Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan friar Junípero Serra explored the province in 1769. Following the establishment of Mission San Juan Capistrano, Spanish settlers followed suit, quickly enhancing the colonization and development of the province.
After Mexico gained independence from Spain, the province's mission system was dissolved and converted into ranchos such as those under the Rancho Los Nietos system. This form of development would dominate the province and vicinity until Alta California's independence from Mexico during the Mexican-American War.
Originally featuring a predominantly agrarian economy, Orange's shift towards aerospace, manufacturing, and tourism has greatly altered the province's landscape from farm fields to urban sprawl. Home to various attractions and points of interest including Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, the province's affinity to the beach spawned the prevalent surf culture in the region. Orange is also home to one of the Kingdom's wealthiest and most affluent neighborhoods, within reach of hundreds of retail businesses and beaches.
|The Flag of Orange.|
|The Seal of Orange.|
|Crustacean||Sierran spiny lobster|
|Slogan(s)||Prosperity in every corner|
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Part of a series on the provinces and territories of Sierra
With a total area of 948 square miles (2,460 km2), Orange is the smallest province in the Kingdom in terms of land size. Nestled in the center of the South Coast, Orange is situated between the coastal plains of the Porciúncula Basin to the northwest and the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains to the southeast. Most of the populated parts of Orange lies within two shallow coastal valleys: the Santa Ana and the Saddleback Valleys.
The Santa Ana Mountains define the eastern boundary of Orange and lies within the Bachelor National Forest. The highest point in Orange and most prominent mountain of the Santa Ana range is Santiago Peak which stands at 5,689 ft (1,734 m). The Santiago Peak, alongside the Modjeska Peak (which is only 200 feet shorter), form a ridge known as the Saddleback, a geographic feature that can be seen at almost any point in the province, and seen further in the Gold Coast, Laguna, or the Inland Empire on exceptionally clear days.
The Peralta Hills and Loma Ridge are other notable raised geographic features that lie to the west of the Santa Ana Mountains. The former branches off of the Mountains while the latter runs parallel to the range near the central region of the province and separated by the Santiago Canyon.
The Santa Ana River is the province's primary source of freshwater and runs through the center of the province from the northeast to the southwest where it flows into the Pacific Ocean. Other rivers, tributaries, streams, and other watercourses flowing through the province include the Aliso Creek, Coyote Creek, San Juan Creek, and Horsethief Creek. A small portion of the San Gabriel River crosses through Orange from the Gold Coast in the north before reaching the sea between Long Beach and Seal Beach. The only naturally occurring lakes in the province are found in Laguna Beach which were formed from water pushed up by the pressure of an underwater fault. The three other large bodies of water include Irvine Lake, Lake Mission Viejo, and Sulphur Creek Reservoir, all of which were man-made and planned.
As with the rest of southwestern Sierra, Orange features a Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. With a Köppen climate classification of Csb, Orange is relatively cooler year-round compared to the inland provinces due to its proximity to the ocean. In addition, the variation in temperature between the seasons is less extreme than most Mediterranean climates with the temperatures on average, being a consistent 70 degrees year-round. In the summer, average high temperatures generally peak at 79 degrees Fahrenheit, compared to further inland where temperatures may reach to the 100s. Snow is exceedingly rare in Orange and of the little times it may occur, it appears on the mountaintops of the Santa Ana.
On average, Orange receives a precipitation of 13 inches with an average of 278 days of sunshine. During the late spring and early summer, Orange, like much of the rest of southwestern Sierra, may experience a daily marine layer known as "Gray May" or "June Gloom" (named so for its frequent occurrence during the months two ) that forms in the morning and dissipates by noontime. From time to time, especially during the summer in the higher, drier elevations, wildfires may start and pose a threat to nearby communities. During the fall, the infamous Santa Ana Winds may occur, further increasing the chances of wildfires and fueling any existing ones.
Predominantly a Sierra coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion, Orange's natural flora includes the coastal-growing Sierra sagebush (Artemisia serra), the brittlebush (Encelia serra), Sierra buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), and the Munz's sage (Salvia munzii). Succulents such as the Sealettuce (Dudleya caespitosa) and yucca grow along the coast of Orange.
Further inland in the mountains, in the Mediterranean forest environment, conifers such as the sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) grow in abundance.
Orange is a home to a diverse community of wildlife that are adapted to the province's environment and climate. Reptiles and amphibians such as the Western field lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), Speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii), the Sierra tree frog (Pseudacris cadaverina), and the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) are commonly found in the thick vegetation and wetlands in the province. Birds such as the Great egret (Ardea alba), green heron (Butorides virescens), and brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) typically inhabit the estuaries along the Santa Ana River and along the beaches. The Sierra gull (Larus serra) is one of the many seagulls known to inhabit Orange and although the birds are typically found at the beaches, the gulls can be found further inland, as far as 80 miles from the ocean. Birds of prey including the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) also call Orange their home. The majority of native terrestrial mammals are rodents and members of the Carnivora order including coyote (Canis latrans), long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata), eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes macrotis).
Prior to European contact, the natives of Orange included the Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño Indians who lived and organized themselves into tribal communities or clans with their own governments and religions. Making use of their land and resources, the Indians traded each other with a barter system, fished with boats, and ate diets consisting primarily of soup, cakes, and bread utilizing game, berries, nuts, and fish. The Juaneños, whose living self-identified descendants call themselves Acjachemen, lived in cone-shaped huts made out of willow tree branches with tule roofing and flooring.
The first documented European presence in Orange occurred when Spanish-Catalan explorer Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan friar Junípero Serra explored the province in 1769. During their trip, they named future capital Santa Ana, Valle de Santa Ana (Valley of Santa Ana) and continued northward, heading to Monterey. Following the trip, the Spanish established Mission San Juan Capistrano, as part of the larger Spanish mission system in the new Spanish colony of Alta California. This development brought Spanish settlers in, who began settling in the province.
Two men from the Portolá expedition, José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba, were given large land grants: the Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively. The descendants of the men would own additional ranchos, and encouraged other Spaniards to lay stake in the province. The ranchos system revolved around individual owners and their families who managed their land and used it for cattle farming and grazing. Ranchos varied in size, largely depending on the status and wealth of the owners. Measured by leagues (about 4,428 acres), most ranchos were no larger than 2 square leagues although the Rancho Los Nietos was about 10 square leagues.
In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and consequently gained the territorial rights to Orange and the rest of present-day Sierra. Although the Mexican government retained the Spanish rancho system, the missions were confiscated from the Church and sold to the public due to the new nation's official secular policy.
In 1846, the Mexican-American War broke out at a time when the Californios and American settlers in Orange and the rest of the territory grew disoriented and resentful toward the Mexican government. The Californios desired greater autonomy and independence from Mexico City while the Americans yearned to live freely uninhibited by a "foreign", hostile government. When the Bear Flag Revolt broke out up north in Sonoma, residents in Orange responded to the news by rebelling against local Mexican authorities through an armed resistance. Although Orange never saw any significant battles within its territory, it was pivotal in the logistics and movement of both the rebels (who were supported by the Americans) and the Mexican government.
Through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, California gained independence in 1848 from Mexico and Orange became the "State of Orange". The Republic, which would last for only 10 years, eventually reformed as the Kingdom of Sierra through the promulgation of the 1858 Constitution. Under this new constitution, Orange was reorganized as the "Province of Orange" and the province implemented its first version of the modern provincial constitution in 1859. Orange has continued retaining the same form of government initially created following Sierra's foundation to this day.
With its neighbor the Gold Coast growing rapidly, population spillover and immigrants from around the world arrived to Orange for its ideal weather conditions, idyllic geographic location, and excellent farming viability. Profiting off of the name "Orange", the province was particularly popular among Asian immigrants who were lured in with the prospects of affordable housing and limitless economic opportunity.
Orange's agricultural success warranted attention from the national government, and under the Royal Agricultural Subsidy Act of 1860, farms and ranches in Orange alongside Central Valley, received thousands of dollars to specialize in crops and convert family plots into large commercial farms. The success of this subsidy was meant with limited success in Orange and exacerbated further when a severe drought struck the province. The drought and loss in confidence crippled although did not completely devastate Orange's progress and economic prospects. In the 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, thus reinvigorating the province at a time where farming and ranching yielded more profits than pre-drought production.
While the Gold Coast shifted away from farming towards heavy industry, Orange remained heavily dependent on agriculture and oil extraction. Nonetheless, towns such as Santa Ana, Anaheim, and the capital, Orange, ballooned in population. In 1904, the Pacific Electric Railway was completed, connecting Santa Ana to the Gold Coast city of Santa Monica, boosting population flow and travel.
The addition of highways and growing interest in Orange as a beach vacation destination increased development in the province and appeal. Following World War II, Orange shifted from being an agrarian society to a bedroom community for workers in the Gold Coast. Cheap housing, diverse venues, and fair weather were cited as key factors to Orange's exceptional population growth during the 1950s and 60s. The opening of Disneyland in 1955 marked Orange's ascension as the primary tourist hub in the southwestern Sierran region. Other attraction parks such as Knott's Berry Farm and Disneyland's extension park, Sierra Adventure were later constructed, increasing variety.
Since the 1980s, Orange has remained the choice destination for tourists for its beaches, attractions, and landscape. Although the housing market remains prominent in the province, in recent years, people have gravitated towards neighboring province, the Inland Empire, where there is more land and cheaper housing. In addition, Orange's cost-of-living, especially in the southeastern region, has increased dramatically. Much of this has been evidenced by the growing prominence of Orange's most affluent neighborhoods in the southeast and homelessness in the northwest (which had been the historic population center of the province).
The Sierra Royal Bureau of Census estimates that the population of Orange in July 2015 is 7,436,926. In the 2010 census, 7,228,845 people were counted as citizens of Orange. Orange receives heavy immigration from Asia and substantial flow from Latin America. Orange's domestic migration rate has, in recent years, slowed however, with citizens moving out, mostly to the Inland Empire, or prospective buyers choosing said province, where housing is more affordable.
Racial and ancestral makeup
- 39% Non-Hispanic White (2,819,249)
- 34% Hispanic (2,457,807)
- 18% Asian/Pacific Islander (1,301,192)
- 6% Black (433,730)
- 2% Mixed of any race (144,576)
- 1% Other races inc. Native Sierran and Hawaiian (72,291)
Orange has the highest concentration and second largest population of Asian Sierrans, and second largest Hispanic and white populations.
A coastal province that has attracted millions of immigrants, Orange's culture has been profoundly influenced by Asian and Latin American culture. Contemporary Orange has been depicted as idyllic, lofty, and laid-back with its weather, real estate, and access to various beaches, venues, activities, and points of interests. The summer is strongly associated to Orange where the province is the ideal choice for beachgoers and tourists alike. The Sierran surfer culture developed in Orange where surfing has been very popular among locals. The world-famous Huntington Beach is a hot spot for surfers both professional and casual. "The Wedge", located on the tip of the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach is commonly cited as one of the world's best and most famous surfing sites. Other activities such as volleyball, bonfire gatherings, yacht sailing, bicycling, and snorkeling are also popular choices on the beach.
|Affiliation||% of Sierra population|
|Eastern Orthodox||1|| |
|Other Christian||1|| |
|Other Faith||14|| |
|Don't know/refused answer||1|| |
About 67% of Orange residents identify themselves as Christian with 46% as Protestant or Evangelic, 18% Catholic, 1% Eastern Orthodox, and 1% another denomination or church. The largest religious Christian denomination by number of adherents is the Roman Catholic Church with 18% of the province. The Church's local body is represented by the Diocese of Orange. The next largest churches are the independent Evangelical churches, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Mormons, Restorationists.
The next largest group are the irreligious (which includes atheists, agnostics, antitheists, and apatheists) who comprise of 12% of the population. The largest non-Christian religion is Buddhism at 6% with the Mahayana branch as the largest (accounting up to 90% of Orange's Buddhists). Orange also has significant Canaanite, Muslim, Jain, Sikh, and Hindu communities.
The official languages of the province include the nine languages recognized nationally (English, Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Thai, Tagalog, Japanese, and Serran), thus requiring all official government documents in the province to be published with all of the aforementioned languages. The push for the inclusion of Persian as one of the province's official languages has grown in recent years. Persian, which is the province's sixth most spoken language, claims nearly 5% of the population with 361,442 speakers.
Approximately 45% of the population (3,252,980) spoke English as their primary language at home in 2010. The second most commonly spoken language at home was Spanish. The third most spoken language in Orange is Vietnamese, followed by Korean, Chinese, and Persian. Orange has the largest concentration of Cambodian, Hmong, and Vietnamese speakers; the second largest concentration of Persian, Russian, Korean, Tagalog, and Thai; and third largest concentration of Chinese speakers.
Orange is home to a vibrant, lucrative amount of businesses and corporations. The headquarters of several Fortune 500 companies, Orange is also home to the most start-up companies in the Kingdom including music group O.P. Entertainment. Heavily reliant on the services sector, the aerospace industry, manufacturing, and tourism, Orange's eased regulations and low corporate tax rates as well as competitive real estate has made the province an attractive location for businesses.
Orange's technological sector is particularly strong in the Irvine metropolitan area where companies such as computer manufacturer Gateway Inc., router manufacturer Linksys, video game creator and producer Blizzard Entertainment, and in-flight entertainment manufacturer Panasonic Avionics Corporation are based. Orange is also home to several regional headquarters of international companies including Toyota, Samsung, Kia Motors, Hyundai, and Toshiba.
Tourism and retail are Orange's vital strengths to its economy. Disregarding the beaches, the city of Anaheim is the main tourist hub for Orange, most notably for being home to the Disneyland Resort which includes two theme parks: Disneyland and Disney Sierra Adventure. In addition to the Disneyland Resort, the city of Buena Park is home to Orange's other significant theme parks: Knott's Berry Farm and Knott's Soak City. The Anahiem Convention Center is one of the region's largest and busiest exhibition centers and hosts several major venues and events annually. Beach resorts and recreational parks are other major attractions that bring in millions of guests yearly.
One of the largest provinces in the Kingdom in terms of electrical consumption, Orange receives the majority of electrical supply from one in-province nuclear plant and three in neighboring provinces. Private use of solar panels are comparatively higher in the region than other provinces with 1 out of 3 households in the province owning one or multiple solar panels to power their own homes. Coal and natural gas are also used to support the province's energy use. Although parts of Orange sits atop oil fields of the Porciúncula Basin, Orange's high dependence on oil is satisfied through imports from foreign countries.
Orange's public rail and transit system is provided by Sierrail while the commuter rail system is managed by the Metrolink, which links major cities from Orange to the Gold Coast, the Inland Empire, and Laguna. Stations established include those in Anaheim, Tustin, Buena Park, and Laguna Niguel. The Pacific Surfliner (managed by Sierrail) is a passenger train that runs through eight stations in Orange and travels from San Luis Obispo, Kings to San Diego, Laguna.
A streetcar line has been proposed to link major attractions within Anaheim including Disneyland and the Angels Stadium. A plan to extend the line beyond the city to other towns has also been considered since 2011.
The Queen Angelina International Airport (QAA) is Orange's only major and commercial airport and is the second busiest airport in the region (with nearly 9 million passengers in 2008) after the Porciúncula International Airport (LAX) in the Gold Coast. Queen Angelina is located in an unincorporated land adjacent to the cities of Newport Beach and Costa Mesa. There are only two other airports in Orange, these being: the general aviation Fullerton Municipal Airport (FUL) in Fullerton and the Los Alamitos Army Airfield (SLI) in Los Alamitos.
The Balboa Island Car Ferry is a ferry service based in Newport Beach that docks every 5 minutes, allowing passengers to move from the mainland to Balboa Island. The Catalina Flyer and the Catalina Express are the primary connection links between the mainland and Avalon with daily round trips throughout most of the year. Aside from the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach, Point Dana is the only other major port in the province and it mostly accommodates small sailboats and yachts.
Orange receives and depends on most of its water intake (over 70%) from the Orange Groundwater Basin, not the ocean. Water from the Santa Ana River as controlled by the Inland Empire-based Prado Dam is used to replenish this underground supply. The ongoing drought crisis affecting the entire Kingdom has threatened the basin's supply and has forced citizens to reduce water intake by as much as 40%.
Government and politics
Run by a semi-republican form of government, Orange's government is divided into three branches: the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judicial. The governor of Orange heads the executive branch and is charged with signing or vetoing legislation, appointing judicial and civil positions, granting pardons, assembling an annual provincial budget, and commanding the Orange National Guard. The current governor of Orange is Daniel Vo, a Royalist from Westminster. The executive branch also includes the Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller, Treasurer, Superintendent of Education, and Historian.
As part of the Kingdom, Orange falls under the realm of the Crown, and shares the Crown co-equally with the rest of the provinces. The Monarch is represented in Orange by the Lord Superintendent, an official appointed by the Monarch (with the counsel of the Governor), who is responsible for carrying out all the ceremonial functions of the Monarch when the latter is not within the province, or is unable to execute their duties in a given circumstance.
The Senate and House of Representatives of Orange compose the province's legislature. The Senate consists of 20 members while Orange has 45 members and all are elected on two-year terms. The province is divided into senatorial and legislative districts with a corresponding senator or representative to represent his/her constituents. These districts and boundaries are irrespective of the parliamentary districts set by the national Parliament.
The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court of Orange which is composed of a chief justice and four associate justices. The Court is the only authority in the province with the power to interpret Orange constitutional matters and its decisions on binding on all lower courts in Orange. Its members are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Provincial Legislature and may serve an unlimited amount of 6-year terms.
Orange has historically been a conservative Royalist stronghold although northern Orange has begun to shift in favor of the Democratic-Republicans in recent years. The current senators representing Orange in the national Senate are Ryan Pimentel and Mark Chan who are both Royalists.
Education is an issue relegated to the provinces by the federal government and as such, public education and education standards are managed by the Orange Department of Education.
Due to Orange's geographic location near the ocean and its year-round sunny climate, the province has been ideal for a wide range of sports. Its beaches allow surfing, swimming, sailing, jetskiing, and volleyball, with accommodation bicycle routes. The Santa Ana Mountains and other geographic features within Orange also offer residents and visitors a chance to mountain bike, hike, or rock climb. During the winter, skiing and snowboarding is approximately an hour and a half hours away in the Inland Empire at Big Bear and Lake Arrowhead.
The two major league sports in the province are the Porciúncula Angels of Anaheim (MLB) and the Anaheim Ducks (NHL) which are both based in Anaheim. The Angels have won the World Series once in 2002 World Series against the San Francisco Giants while the Ducks won the Stanley Cup in 2007 against the New Jersey Devils.
Huntington Beach is the host city for several major sport venues among these including the Pacific Open of Surfing, the AVP Pro Beach Volleyball, and the Vans World Championship of Skateboarding. The Toshiba Classic, a golfing event part of the PGA Champions Tour, is held every March in Newport Beach.
|Gold Coast||Gold Coast||Inland Empire|
| Pacific Ocean|
|Pacific Ocean|| Pacific Ocean|
|Laguna • Inland Empire|