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Plumas (en)
Nieuw Holland (nl)
Nouvelle-Hollande (fr)
Plumas (es)
普盧默斯 (zh)
Plumas (vn)
팔루마스 (kr)
พลูมัส (th)
普盧默斯 (hn)
プルマース (ja)
Serran PSerran LSerran USerran MSerran ASerran S (sb)
Province of Sierra
Flag of Plumas Coat of arms of Plumas
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Dutch Province, New Holland, Wine Country, Grape Province
Motto(s): Landbouw – Industrie – Vrijheid
(Dutch: Agriculture – Industry – Freedom)
Provincial song(s): "Plumas, My Home"
"Providence Led Us Here"
Map of Plumas
Official language(s) *Nationally mandated official languages
Demonym Plumasonian(s), New Hollander(s)
Capital Ukiah
Largest city New Rotterdam
Area Ranked 6th
 • Total 22,307 sq mi
(59,215 km km2)
Population Ranked 6th
 • Total 5,800,666 (2010)
 • Density 66.64/sq mi  (25.1/km2)
Ranked TBD
Elevation
 • Highest point Mount Tehama
9,239 ft (2,816 m)
 • Lowest point sea level
Admission to the Union November 28, 1858 (5th)
Lord Superintendent Pablo Gilroy
Governor Leslie Kovac
Lieutenant Governor Albert Van Schoorel
Legislature Plumas Provincial Legislature
 • Upper house Plumas Provincial Senate
 • Lower house Plumas Provincial Assembly
K.S. Senators Gustaff Meeuwis (DR)
Danielle Kappel (DR)
Lord Brian Hall (DR)
K.S. House delegation 4 commoners
3 Democratic-Republican
1 Royalist
Time zone Pacific Time Zone
UTC –8/UTC –7
Abbreviations PL, KS-PL., Plu.
Plumas Symbols
Flag of Plumas
The Flag of Plumas.

Coat of arms of Plumas
The Seal of Plumas.

Animate insignia
Amphibian Northern red-legged frog
Bird(s) California scrub jay
Butterfly Sierra pipevine swallowtail
Crustacean Dungeness crab
Fish Chum salmon
Flower(s) Thistle
Mammals Northern flying squirrel
Reptile Western yellow-bellied racer
Tree Jeffrey pine

Inanimate insignia
Colors Bright vermillion, white, cobalt blue
Poem Here Lies Blue Lilies
Ship(s) HRH Plumas
Slogan(s) Where Old Meets New
Song(s) "Plumas, My Home"
"Providence Led Us Here"

Route marker(s)
Plumas marker


Part of a series on the provinces and territories of Sierra
Plumas ([ˈplu.mäs]; Spanish for "feathers"), also known as New Holland (Dutch: Nieuw Holland, French: Nouvelle-Hollande), is a province in the northwestern region of Sierra. Plumas is the 8th largest and 6th most populous of the 23 provinces of Sierra. The province's capital is Ukiah while the largest city is New Rotterdam. It is ranked 5th in the order of admission into the Kingdom, being admitted on November 28, 1858, the inaugural day of the Kingdom of Sierra. It is the only second-level administrative region in the Kingdom to have Dutch as one of its official languages, and one of three PSALTs to include French as one.

Plumas shares borders with Shasta to the north, Washumko and Reno to the east, San Francisco and Tahoe to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Although Plumas is officially part of the Pacific Northwest region, it is sometimes considered a part of the Styxie and was historically a constituent state in the Second California Republic during the Sierran Civil War. Geographically diverse and expansive, the province is divided into three main regions: Western Plumas, Central Plumas, and Eastern Plumas. Western Plumas is primarily hilly with minor topographic variations within the North Coast Range. Central Plumas lies within the northern end of the transnational Central Valley and is flat at sea level, and suitable for farming. Eastern Plumas is dominated by the Sierra Nevada with steadily rising elevations eastward, reaching over 14,000 feet in some parts.

Numerous indigenous tribes originally inhabited Plumas before the first Dutch settlers arrived in the mid-17th century to establish New Holland. Although Plumas was under de jure control of Spain, the Dutch administered a colonial autonomous government in present-day New Rotterdam, who eschewed Spanish detection by maintaining secrecy of its existence until the late 18th century. After the French overthrew the old Dutch Republic in favor of the Batavian Republic, the new Dutch republic ceded New Holland. New Holland came under the administration of the French-Spanish Condominium before Spain gained full control after the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. After Mexico gained independence from Spain, New Holland was automatically transferred to Mexican administration. The Dutch colonists were permitted to continue living on the land as Mexican citizens, but were forced to adopt Catholicism and speak Spanish, which angered the predominantly Protestant population. Angered by Mexican attempts to suppress the Dutch way of life, many New Hollanders participated in the Bear Flag Revolt, and the much larger Mexican-American War in 1846, and helped the Anglo-Americans in toppling the Mexican government. Plumas became a state in California after the war ended in 1848. On November 27, 1858, Plumas became a province of Sierra.

Plumas features variable geography and landscapes, with two major mountain ranges straddling either side of the province in a northwest-southeast orientation (the Sierra Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada), and the Central Valley running in between the slopes of these two ranges. Coastal Plumas is studded with low to mid-rolling grassy hills, while Central Plumas' elevation dips to flat, fertile farmland at sea-level, before giving way to deciduous and coniferous forests that cover the steadily rising levels of the Sierra Nevada in Eastern Plumas.

Agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry, chemicals, and tourism are major industries in Plumas. The province also has a rich history in shipbuilding and manufacturing, and these industries continue to play an important, albeit reduced role in the economy. It is the leading producer of rice, potatos, apples, pears, cherries, ginger, and soybeans in the country, and one of the highest producers of these aforementioned crops in the world. Annually, Plumas receives over 9 million unique visitors, mostly from Sierrans in other PSAs, who visit New Rotterdam, Lassen Volcanic National Park, Auburn Provincial Recreational Park, the Town of Juno, and Lake Oroville Provincial Recreational Park.

Etymology

Feather River

Feather River at Mariastad and Druifstad.

The name Plumas derives from the Spanish name for Feather River, El Rio de las Plumas (The River of the Feathers). The river is a major waterway that runs through most of the province, and was given its name by John Marsh, Jose Noriega, and their company of men when they explored eastern Plumas in 1836 along Sacramento River. When they happened upon one of Sacramento River's tributaries, there was a bed of feathers covering one particular spot near the river. Usage of the name "Plumas" became immensely popular among both English and Spanish-speaking people in the area, and was the name chosen by the California National Legislature when it admitted Plumas as a state. When Plumas was incorporated into the Kingdom of Sierra, it was officially known as the Province of Plumas.

Another commonly used name to refer to Plumas is New Holland to reflect the province's long history of the Dutch who were the first Europeans to inhabit the region, and who has maintained a rich, thriving community in the present-day. New Holland was the name for the Dutch colony established along the Pacific in present-day New Rotterdam, and itself a reference to Holland, a region in the Netherlands. The official Dutch translation for Plumas is New Holland (Nieuw Holland), although both Nieuw Holland and Plumas are used interchangeably with no clear preference among Sierran Dutch speakers. In addition, the official translation in French, another working language within the Plumasonian government, is also New Holland (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Geography

Sacramento rice fields

Rice fields growing in Sacramento Valley.

With an area of 22,307 sq mi (59,215 km km2), Plumas is slightly larger than Togo and the Netherlands. It is the eighth largest province in Sierra, and the 10th largest PSA in the Kingdom. Plumas shares borders with five other provinces: Shasta (north), Washumko (east), Reno (east), Tahoe (south), and San Francisco (south). It and Shasta form the Sierran Pacific Northwest, although the province is often culturally and politically grouped alongside the Styxie, a region which includes its southern neighbors.

Topography

Calistoga from Mount Saint Helena

View of Calistoga from Mount Saint Helena.

The province's topography is mainly divided into three regions: the Coastal Ranges, Sacramento Valley (Central Valley), and Sierra Nevada.

The coastal section of the province is mostly hilly, though few areas exceeding 8,000 ft in elevation. The Mendocino Range, alongside the Mayacamas Mountains, Sonoma Mountains, and Vaca Mountains help define the Northern Coastal Ranges that run parallel to the Pacific Ocean. Much of the coast lies within the Coastal Range Physiographic Province, and features various valleys in-between ranges including Sonoma Valley and Napa Valley, both renowned areas for wine-making.

Lake Oroville from the distance

View of Lake Oroville.

Immediately east of the Coastal Ranges lies the Sacramento Valley. The valley is the northernmost extension of the nationwide-long Central Valley. Situated in the center of the province, Sacramento Valley is an extremely fertile region of grassland and arable soil nestled between the surrounding mountain ranges. Unlike the western and eastern regions of Plumas, central Plumas is almost entirely flat, with few exceptions including the Sutter Buttes (referred to as the "world's smallest mountain range"). Water derives from both sides of the valley, and feeds into the Sacramento River and its tributaries.

Feather River Canyon

Railroad bridge crossing over Feather River Canyon.

Eastern Plumas contains the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountain ranges, as well as portions of the Basin and Range Geological Province to the far east. The relief is moderately varied, although the region as a whole is topologically more consistent than the coastal region. The Sierras were created and formed by continuous uplift and historical glacial movement.

Climate

Like much of Sierra's Californian region, Plumas' climate is generally hot-summer Mediterranean (Köppen: Csa), although in higher elevations, the climate is milder with a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Summers are characterized by high daytime temperatures and little to no precipitation, while winters are milder and wetter, with foggy mornings. Due to the cooling effect of the California Current along the Pacific Ocean, coastal Plumas is significantly cooler than the central inland year-round, and has stabler, consistent temperature gradients.

Overall, Plumas receives some of the highest levels of precipitation in federal Sierra, with some areas averaging rainfalls as high as 28 inches a year. Generally speaking, as temperature cool by increasing elevation, the amount of precipitation in the province increases. A noticeable rain shadow exists east of the Coastal Ranges within Central Plumas, with the region experiencing wetter conditions as one moves eastward due to the Sierra Nevada. Snowfall does occur, but is generally restricted to high-elevations with altitudes of 7,000 feet and up, with the majority of the province's snowfall occurring in the Sierra Nevada in the east. Certain areas can receive up to 10 feet of snow per year. Snow in the Sierra Nevada is the primary source (aside from subterranean groundwater) and provider for water in Plumas, and the entire country, contributing as much as 70% of the province's water needs. The area, known as the Sierra National Water Project, is crucial to agriculture and other industries, and is carefully supervised by the Plumas Central Water Authority. When droughts occur, retentive measures are laid down in place to limit natural water loss and human consumption.

Ecology

Flora

Sculpted puffball

A specimen of the rare endemic species of the sculpted puffball (Calvatia sculpta) growing in Plumas.

Plumas is home to hundreds of species of plants, some of which are unique only to the region. The province is divided into several distinct ecoregions, and are dependent on location, altitude, and climate. The flora in Plumas are one of the most environmentally sensitive in the Kingdom, and are threatened by drought, deforestation, wildfires, and grazing.

Plumas' lower-lying forests within the transition zone include species such as the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Other native trees found in Plumas include the tanbark oak (Notholithocarpus), pepperwood (Umbellularia), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), madrona (Arbutus), and the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The forest floors are home to ferns and flowering plants such as the swordfern (Polystichum), barrenwort (Epimedium), huckleberry, azalea, the tulip, mariposa, tiger, and leopard lilies.

On higher elevations, the colder climate can sustain specieis including the Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), the red fir (Abies magnifica), the foxtail pine (Pinus balfouriana), the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), the sculpted puffball (Calvatia sculpta), the western redbud (Cercis occidentalis), and the dwarf manzanita. The alpine mountains are also covered with a variety of wildflowers ranging from the Sierra primrose (Primula suffrutescens), yellow columbine (Aquilegia flavescens), the yarrow (Achillea millefolium), blue elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. caerulea), buttercups (Ranunculus), and the alpine shooting star (Dodecatheon alpinum).

Fauna

There are many species of terrestrial and marine animals in Plumas, reflecting the biological diversity and richness of the province. Covering a large area of territory, Plumas covers several biotic zones including montane, subalpine, and alpine. In the province's transition and Canadian zones, there are American black bears, gray foxes, mountain lions, bobcats, Roosevelt elk, mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, chipmunks, squirrels, several species of garter snakes and rattlesnakes, kingfishers, chickadees, towhee, water puppies, and redwood salamanders. In higher altitudes, species including the coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep exist.

Aquatic life is as equally diverse as Plumas' terrestrial biosphere, and includes numerous species of salmon and trout. Deep-sea lifeforms that live off the coast of Plumas include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Along the shores, there are seals, sea lions, and various kinds of shorebirds.

History

Early history

Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer, the founder of New Holland.

Numerous Native Sierran tribal groups inhabited the area in what is now known as Plumas. Among the groups which existed within the province's modern boundaries were the Pomo, Coast Miwok, and Wappo. Other groups in the area included the Patwin, Nisenan, and Konkow people. It is widely believed, based on archeological findings, that the earliest peoples first arrived and settled in Plumas between 8000 and 5000 BC. The first settlers demonstrated some command in tool-making and art, as evidenced by rock carvings found throughout the province.

When the Europeans began exploring Sierra starting in the 16th century, various colonial powers laid claim over Plumas either directly or indirectly from broader claims over the Sierran territory. Among these powers were Spain (as part of New Spain), England (as New Albion), the Netherlands, and Russia. Although Plumas ultimately fell under the de jure control of Spain, much of Plumas was never formally explored or occupied by the Spanish. Spanish Alta California's accessibility was difficult, and Spanish colonization efforts were primarily concentrated in southern Sierra (mostly in the hands of Jesuit, and later Franciscans and Cordoban priests), leaving northern Sierra, including Plumas, practically free from Spanish presence. As a result of this vacuum, Russia and the Netherlands were able to develop colonies in the region.

New Holland

In 1644, Dutch navigator and colonial administrator Hendrik Brouwer landed at the mouth of Noyo River with the purpose of establishing a base to defend Dutch trade in the East Indies (VOC) and Japan. Initially naming the base "Fort Rotterdam", Brouwer envisioned a colony which would rival that of Spain's. Both the Netherlands and Spain were at war at the time. Prior to landing in Fort Rotterdam, Brouwer was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Seeking to strengthen Dutch colonial holdings throughout the Pacific, he set sail from Dutch Brazil and led an expedition which originally included the exploration of the abandoned Spanish town of Valdivia in Chile, and the sacking of other Spanish settlements in the region. Brouwer and his men attempted to find gold and establish a colony there, and befriended Manquipillan, the local cacique there. Difficulties quickly arose, and relations with the natives grew awry after Brouwer tried to build a fort there. Finding no gold, Brouwer sent a convoy back to Dutch Brazil. While they sent back an official report of Valdivia and request for reinforcements, Brouwer decided to extend his expedition to include all of the Pacific coastlines of the Americas, and return to his post in the Dutch East Indies.

Dutch colonists on Noyo Bay

Romanticized drawing of the early Dutch settlers.

When Brouwer moved near the Mexican coastline, he steered his fleet away from common Spanish trade routes. He recorded several encounters with Spanish galleons but all were without incident, and he reportedly hoisted stolen Spaniard naval ensigns on all of the ships by day to avoid arousing suspicion. He made a brief excursion near present-day Salsipuedes on September 1, 1645, narrowly avoiding detection by the Jesuit priests stationed nearby in Ensenada. Here, Brouwer gathered and restocked their supplies, and departed after two days. Brouwer continued sailing northward for three more weeks, before he landed at Noyo Bay. Confident that the area was free from any Spanish presence, he ordered his men to commence building a fort. In his diary, he wrote, "The land is of rich and astounding quality. Its weather is mild, and its landscape is ideal for settlement," and declared the land in the name of the Dutch King. Brouwer and his men encountered several indigenous tribes including the Yuki, the Pomo, and the Wintun. Overall, the contact was friendly, and gifts were exchanged, starting a longstanding relationship between the Dutch settlers and the indigenous people. Brouwer's men are widely believed to be the first Europeans to come into contact with the northern Native Sierran tribes, and were likely responsible for the decline in native populations shortly thereafter due to virgin soil epidemics. They were also responsible for introducing Old World poultry to the region including chickens and ducks, which they used for meat and eggs in the new settlement.

After spending a few weeks in the area, Brouwer departed from Plumas on a trip to Japan. He left behind 20 of his men whom he entrusted to maintain the colony. The colony was named Brouwershaven in honor of Brouwer, and had seventeen complete buildings, including a church, a granary, and a tannery by 1647. For the first few years, the men struggled to set up the colony. Although they had access to an abundance of raw material, they frequently experienced food shortages. Unaccustomed to the environment, the men relied heavily on sustenance from the local tribes. The men intermarried with indigenous women, and started biracial families which allowed the colony to grow.

VOC ship

A modern-day replica of 't Hart van Venlo, a VOC ship built in New Holland in display in Amsterdam.

The first Dutchmen who were not part of Brouwer's expedition to arrive in New Holland were the roughly 450 ethnic Dutch, Sephardi Jews, Flemish, Walloons, and Afro-Indian slaves who were expelled from the defunct Dutch Brazil. This wave of colonists was crucial in the colony's enlargement and the permanent fixation of the Dutch in the Pacific coast. After their arrival, New Holland continued to receive new colonists until the early 18h century as the Spanish increased their activity in Alta California. By 1700, the population grew to the size of 3,300, and a second town, Roosje, was established. The New Hollanders organized themselves with a government overseen by the Director-General, who was appointed by the Dutch East India Company. Over time, the citizens' Council of Aldermen rose into prominence, superseding the powers of the Director-General.

The colonial scene was vibrant and economically productive. It served as the sole North American hub for the Dutch in the Pacific, and enjoyed a rich shipbuilding industry. The New Hollanders frequently traded with the neighboring Russians to the south of the colony, as well as the Chinese, Japanese, and Han merchants from afar. Contact with the Spaniards was forbidden, and Dutch merchants were advised to steer clear of the Southeastern and Central Pacific Ocean to avoid detection from Spanish trade ships. The Spanish remained oblivious to the presence of New Holland until José de Gálvez became New Spain's new visitador (inspector-general), and launched his ambitious plan to revitalize Spain's colonial reaches in the Pacific Northwest. Gálvez wanted to expand development northward of Mexico into the then-underpopulated Alta California, which was at the northern fringes of the vast but overextended New Spanish Empire. To galvanize people within Spain's ruling circles, Gálvez spread rumors that foreign powers would take the supposedly unspoiled land from Spain. Such lands would pose a threat to Spain's existing colonies and dominance in the Americas. After a Spanish ambassador in Russia revealed that Catherine the Great planned to build a colonial empire reaching as far south as present-day Monterey, Central Valley, Gálvez was granted permission by King Carlos III to pursue his plans.

Flag of New Holland (Sierra)

Flag of New Holland

The discovery of foreign powers in northern Sierra deeply alarmed Spanish authorities, and prompted the Spanish crown to commission expeditionary voyages along the Pacific Northwest throughout the late 18th century. Spain confirmed the existence of New Holland in a 1769 expedition, but the Spanish chose not to militarily engage it. Within less than two decades however, as Spain began aggressively colonizing southern Alta California with its missions, Spain eventually assumed control over the Dutch holdings. In 1795, the Batavian Republic took over the Netherlands, and became a client state of France. In the Treaty of The Hague, one of the Dutch lands the Netherlands ceded was New Holland. The French, who were on good terms with the Spanish, placed New Holland under the French-Spanish Condominium, which operated in the Channel Islands, thus signaling the first time Spain had direct control over the "hidden" colony. New Holland's time within the Condominium was short-lived. In 1802, the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed, and France absolved all territorial rights to the Condominium, thereby effectively giving the Spanish full control over New Holland and the Channels.

Now under Spanish rule, the Spanish government allowed the New Hollanders to continue living freely as citizens under certain conditions. New Hollanders were not permitted to establish any settlements south of their existing territorial extent, and were required to render complete allegiance to the Spanish Crown. The Board of Alderman was also subject to the oversight of the Condominium Governor, and ultimately, the viceroy of New Spain. Although the Spanish allowed the New Hollanders to continue practicing their own legal system and courts, they were required to comply with Spanish land law. In practice, Spain gave major, formal land concessions to the New Hollanders in the region, allowing some families and individuals to own large stakes as far east as the Sierra Nevada.

In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain, and assumed control over all of Alta California, as well as New Holland. As a republic, Mexico organized itself into constituent states but Alta California and New Holland was not considered one of such states. For New Holland, its obvious cultural, ethnic, and linguistic differences, as well as its long distance from the capital, prevented it from being considered a state. Instead, it was organized as a territory. Unlike the Spanish government, the Mexican government sought to ultimately expel the colonists, or assimilate them into Alta California. Mexico was fearful that New Holland would one day declare its own independence, signaling the vulnerability of the already weak and battered state to other powers including Spain and the United States. Starting in 1825, the Mexican Congress passed a series of laws to limit many aspects of Dutch life in New Holland, including the requirement for schools to teach students solely in Spanish.

Californian period

As more Anglo-Americans and British settlers arrived in Alta California, including New Holland, the Mexican government tightened its grip on the far-flung territory, much to the ire to the local Dutch and new settlers alike. Eventually, both the New Hollanders and Anglo-Americans joined forces in gaining independence from the Mexican state. Following reports that Texas had gained its independence from Mexico, New Hollanders and Anglo-Americans formed an army to expel the Mexicans and Californios from the region. In June 1846, a group of settlers seized a military garrison in Sonoma, today known as the Bear Flag Revolt, and declared all of California as an independent republic. The declaration coincided with the Mexican-American War, which started about a month earlier, between the United States and Mexico over the Rio Grande. The two events coalesced into one as the United States pledged support for the Californians, and extended the conflict to the Great Basin, Sonoran Desert, and the Southland.

New Hollanders played an instrumental role in securing California's independence as many residents joined the war effort. After California gained its independence, nearly a third of delegates to the 1848 Californian Constitutional Convention hailed from New Holland. New Holland was officially organized as the State of Plumas, and was for a while, Plumas was the Republic's most populous state.

In 1849, gold was discovered in the neighboring state of Sacramento in Colusa. As news spread, it triggered a gold rush as tens of thousands of people from across the world came to California. Plumas was one of such states that attracted gold prospectors. The arrival of international prospectors boosted the economy of Plumas, and the introduction of the newly found gold strengthened it even further.

Provincehood

On November 28, 1858, the California Republic was officially reorganized as the Kingdom of Sierra following its adoption of the Constitution of 1858. The Constitution was the result of a year-and-a-half long process over the future of the country as it struggled with debt, corruption, and inefficiency. The newly established Parliament convened and admitted Plumas on the same day as Sierra's creation. Plumas was the 5th province to be admitted to the Kingdom. The formulation of Sierran Plumas' constitution coincided with the Californian Constitution of 1857, and during this time, 140 delegates from across the state were sent to New Rotterdam to negotiate details on the future province's constitution. Like all other provinces, Plumas would recognize a Lord Proprietor as its head of state, while investing actual government powers to a civilian governor. During the constitutional drafting process, there was a dispute between the Dutch and the Anglo-Americans over where the capital would be located. While the Dutch naturally favored their traditional and largest settlement, New Rotterdam, the Anglo-Americans favored the town of Santa Rosa. A compromise was reached, and the town of Ukiah was chosen where both parties were roughly equal in size, and was sufficiently "balanced" enough between the coastal Dutch and the insular Anglo-Americans.

Plumas was initially the Kingdom's most populous province, although by 1865, San Francisco had surpassed it. Nonetheless, constituents from Plumas remained one of the Kingdom's most influential forces, and served as one of the early bases for the Royalists. Plumas was one of the first provinces to receive major funding and improvement to its public utilities and services, and was one of the Kingdom's most agriculturally productive regions. As transcontinental railroads were being constructed, Plumas continued to experience new immigrants from the rest of Anglo-America, who mostly settled in Central and Eastern Plumas. In order to defend its linguistic and cultural heritage, the Plumas government officially declared Dutch as its working language.

In the years preceding the Civil War, the Anglo-American settlers in Central Plumas became galvanized by the Royalists' coastal and business-oriented policies. Financially damaged by the ministries of Bachelor, Sr. and Trist, the Anglophone Plumasonians rallied behind republicanism, whilst the Dutch backed monarchism. These differences were the source of much hostility between the two groups, which included ethnic-related conflicts and disputes over land use and property rights, especially in gold mining areas. By the 1870s, Plumas had grown so volatile that both sides had established over 40 separate "clubs" composed of armed members. There have been numerous documented gunfights and fistfights between the Dutch and English speakers prior to the Civil War, leading some historians to dub the phenomenon as the "Little Civil War".

Sierran Civil War

Modern Plumas

Since the Sierran Cultural Revolution and the Great Depression, Plumas Royalist Party has generally dominated local politics, although the Democratic-Republican has remained a strong, potent force in Central and Eastern Plumas. As with most of the Styxie, the traditional manufacturing sector has waned in Plumas as there was mass exodus of several manufacturing companies which left for overseas labor markets. The province's economy has shifted towards the services sector, and led to more citizens moving away from rural areas to the cities. During World War II, Plumas produced the bulwark of the nation's military ships and aircraft, and was a top producer in steel. Following the war, the provincial economy transformed as government contracts and private investment fueled the rise high-technology companies in the region.

During the 1960s, Plumas received federal funding to create the Oroville Dam along Feather River. The dam created Lake Oroville, Sierra's second-largest reservoir, and became the primary facility of the Sierra National Water Project. Since then, much of the Kingdom has heavily relied on the water systems that originate from within Plumas and other provinces in northwestern Sierra. Agriculture has continued to flourish in Plumas despite the increasing dependence on the services-oriented economy.

With a population of about 5 million according to the 2010 census, Plumas is the second most populous province in the Styxie (after San Joaquin) and the sixth most populous province in the Kingdom. It is also the fastest growing province in the Kingdom outside the Southland.

Demographics

The Sierra Royal Bureau of Census estimates that the population of Plumas was 5,892,111 on October 16, 2016. The 2010 census officially recorded a population of 5,800,666, indicating a population increase by 91,445 or roughly 1.58%. This includes a natural increase of 58,421 since the year 2010 (that is 102,749 births minus 44,328 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 21,473 into the province. Immigration from outside the Kingdom of Sierra resulted in a net increase of 32,229, and migration within the country resulted in a net decrease of 16,528. According to the 2010 census, of the people residing in Plumas, 72.5% were born in Plumas, 19.2% were born in another Sierran PSA or territory, 2.2% were born abroad to Sierran parent(s), and 5.75% were foreign-born.

There are 79 cities or municipality-level settlements in Plumas. The largest and most populous city in Plumas is the province's capital, New Rotterdam. The smallest city in Plumas is Alleghany. Nearly two-thirds of Plumas' residents live in either the New Rotterdam metropolitan area, or the Plumasonian section of the Greater Sacramento metropolitan region.

Racial and ancestral makeup

According to the Sierra Royal Bureau of Census, the 2010 racial makeup of the Province of Plumas was as follows according to self-identification.

  • White Sierran – 74.4%
  • Asian Sierran/Pacific Islander – 12.9%
  • Black or African Sierran – 2.5%
  • Multiracial Sierran - 7.2%
  • Native Sierran/American Indian – 1.4%
  • Some other race – 1.6%
Plumas Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990 2000 2010
White 82.6% 80.8% 74.4%
Asian 8.9% 9.3% 12.9%
Black 1.8% 1.7% 2.5%
Two or more races 4.5% 4.5% 7.2%
Native 2.0% 1.9% 1.4%
Other race 2.2% 1.8% 1.6%
Sierran Dutch girls

Young Dutch Sierran women dressing up in Santa Rosa for an annual cultural heritage and cheesemaking festival.

The majority (about 55%) of non-Hispanic Whites in Sierra are of Dutch descent, and the Dutch community in Plumas is one of the largest outside the Netherlands. Nearly two-thirds of Dutch Plumasonians are the descendants of the Dutch settlers who settled in the province when it was then known as "New Holland" between the 17th and 19th century. The Dutch are mostly concentrated around the historical colonial region along the western coast which includes the Greater New Rotterdam Area. The next largest non-Hispanic White ancestry is German, followed by English. The latter two are primarily descendants of Anglo-American settlers who moved to Plumas during the 19th century either before the Mexican-American War or after the California Gold Rush. These groups have mostly settled in Central Plumas and small communities distributed throughout Eastern Plumas along the Sierra Nevada. Other non-Hispanic White ancestries represented in Plumas include the French, Walloons, Belgians, Norwegians, Italians, and Russians. Rural portions of Plumas are also home to several communities of Russian Mennonites, a group of German-Dutch Anabaptists from West Prussia and Ukraine, who settled in Plumas during the 20th century.
Chinatown in New Rotterdam

Several different Asian businesses in New Rotterdam's Chinatown.

The largest Hispanic group (of any race) in Plumas are Mexicans, some of whom self-identify as Chicanos, or multigenerational Mexican-Sierrans who have lived in Sierra. In recent years, Plumas' Hispanic population has grown rapidly with the main sources stemming from Los Pacíficos, a Sierran territorial region which includes the Baja California peninsula and Lower Sonora, as well as Salvadorians, Guatemalans, and Dominicans. Most established Hispanic families live in Western Plumas, while newer immigrants have favored Sacramento Valley in the central region as the area offers affordable housing and plentiful job opportunities in the agricultural sector.

The Asian population has been the fastest growing group in Plumas. About two-thirds of Asians living in Plumas are descendants of immigrants who arrived during the 19th century immigration waves. Most of these immigrants were peasants from Southern China or Japan who came in search of economic opportunity and success. Subsequent large immigration waves periodically occurred during the start of the Sierran Cultural Revolution and the Cold War during the 20th century. Between 1960 and 1980, immigrants from other countries including the Vietnams (North and South), Korea, and Southeast Asia arrived. Today, most Asian immigrants come from South Asian backgrounds, although East Asian emigration, particularly from China and Korea, remains strong. Most Asian Sierrans are concentrated within the suburbs of the Greater New Rotterdam Area. New Rotterdam and Santa Rosa both feature large Chinatown neighborhoods, and other Asian enclaves including Little Tokyo, Little India, and Little Saigon.

Of the Sierran black population, the overwhelming majority are African Sierran, or more specifically, African Americans, being descendants of African slaves brought to the United States during the American colonial era. There is a minority of blacks who are the descendants of African slaves who were brought directly to Plumas during the New Holland period. Today, there has been steady growth of blacks from the West Indies, Latin America, and Africa. Most blacks have settled around the Greater New Rotterdam Area although a significant number has moved to Sacramento Valley.

Native Sierrans account for a small minority of the population. Making up only 1.4% of the population as of the 2010 census, most have mixed ancestry with white and/or Hispanic backgrounds. There are 25 federally registered tribes in Plumas, and 34 reservations distributed throughout the province. Nearly a half of Plumas' residents who identify as Native Sierran or American Indian do not live in any federally recognized reservation or tribal areas.

As with much of Sierra, multiracial Sierrans are a visible minority in Plumas. 7.2% of residents in Plumas identified themselves as multiracial, or numbering over 417,600 people. The majority of multiracial Sierrans are residents of European and Asian heritage, with over 377,000 in their ranks, or about 6.5% of the total population. The next largest group are those who claim European and African heritage with about 17,400 individuals, or 0.3% of the population. The remaining 0.5% of multiracial Sierrans include those of European and Native Sierran heritage, Asian and African heritage, and African and Native Sierran heritage.

Culture

Religions

Languages

Economy

Infrastructure

Freeways

Major highways

Rail

Airports

Water

Government and politics

Overview

Leslie Kovac

The 34th and incumbent Governor of Plumas, Leslie Kovac (DR)

As defined by the Constitution of Plumas, the government of Plumas has three branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. The executive branch consists of several popularly elected offices and appointed officials, with the Governor as the chief executive and head of the government. The Queen is represented in Plumas by Her Majesty's Lord Superintendent, a viceregal noble, who serves as the nominal head of state. Legislative functions are handled by two bodies: the Plumas Provincial Assembly and the Plumas Central Water Authority. The former is responsible for creating and passing general legislation, while the latter is responsible for establishing regulations and oversight over the province's waterways and bodies of water, as well as providing meteorology evaluations, and flood prevention services. The judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of Plumas and its inferior courts.

Although the Constitution of Plumas names the Lord Superintendent of Plumas as the nominal and titular head of the Plumasonian government, the viceroyal prerogatives given to them is exercised through the governor, a civilian. The Governor of Plumas serves as the chief executive of the province and has the authority to exercise the powers given to them by the Constitution of Plumas. The governor and the lieutenant-governor are both elected on the same ticket, and serve four-year terms. Like other provinces in the Styxie, the governor may not serve more than two consecutive terms, and may not serve more than four terms in their lifetimes. The governor oversees the executive branch, which includes the offices of the Secretary of Education, Provincial Treasurer, Provincial Auditor, Provincial Comptroller, and the Provincial Attorney-General. In addition, the governor works with the Plumas Provincial Legislature and the Supreme Court of Plumas to govern the province. All bills must receive viceregal assent from the Lord Superintendent, who generally allows the governor to assent in their name. The governor is able to nominate leaders for executive bodies and courts (with confirmation by the Provincial Senate), and remove any leaders from nearly all provincial departments, commissions, and boards at-will. From time to time, the Governor can call for a special session in the Legislature, and set the legislative agenda, especially if their party is in majority rule. The governor can also issue pardons, reprieves, and commutations. In addition, the governor functions as the commander-in-chief of the provincial National Guard, and Royal Reserve. During times of crisis or emergencies, the governor can assume nearly full command over the province's defenses, logistics, and resources.

Administrative divisions

Civil law

Elections

Law enforcement

Judiciary

Federal representation

Education

Sports

Symbols

See also

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