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Republic of the Ponant
Ðémrégeco de Ponanto
Flag of the Ponant
Flag
Motto: Úno fórtare[1]
Anthem: O tuu wa li
Capital
and
Fenizo
33°50′N 179°43′W
Official languages Kriollatino
Recognised national languages Kriollatino
Recognised regional languages 33 local languages
Ethnic groups (2010) Dunguna : 45%
Native Lemurians : 44% (Aka, Tungi, Chucan, Tunana, Maui, Palemauhi)
Other : 11% (Europeans, Asians)
Demonym Ponantian
Government Republic
• President
José Mario Gonzáles
• Vice-president
Alfredo Da Vega
Unification From 6 founding states[2]
• Unified
May 8th 1883
• Recognised
January 21st 1890
Area
• 
1,409,102 km2 (544,057 sq mi) (19th)
• Water (%)
4.8%
Population
• 2018 estimate
310,785,898 (4th)
• 2010 census
287,763,057
• Density
220.55/km2 (571.2/sq mi) (63rd)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$11.832 trillion (3rd)
• Per capita
$38,071 (33rd)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$7.272 trillion (3th)
• Per capita
$23,401 (34th)
Gini (2018) 35.1
medium
HDI (2017) 0.846
very high · 38th
Currency Eskudo (PNE)
Time zone New Ponant Standard Time (NPST) (UTC+12:00)
• Summer (DST)
not observed (UTC{{{utc_offset_DST}}})
DST not observed
Date format DD-MM-YYYY
Drives on the left
Calling code +77
Internet TLD .rp

The Ponant or Republic of Ponant is a country located on the Lemurian Archipelago in the Northwestern area of Pacific Ocean. With approximately 1.4 million square kilometers and with a little more than 300 million inhabitants, it is the most populated and the greatest country in the Pacific Region. His capital is Fenizo, with a metropolitan area of 28 million inhabitants. The capital is the economical and political core of the country due to its location at the center of the Lakhang valley.

The country is a Federal Republic (Republiko Federeta) which counts 420 districts (urbaros) in 41 provinces (landonos) themselves in 6 regions (landos). Nearest regions is the Hawaii archipelago which is 1,200 kilometers to the east south east.

The country is the most populous of all the Pacific region and Oceania: its population actually represents more than 90% of the total population of Oceania. About seventy percent of inhabitants in the Ponant are from malayo-polynesian ancestry, and fifty percent is from hispanic migrants which came to the Ponant from the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century.

The island was first inhabited by people coming from the Marshalls and Mariana islands in the fourth century BCE. It then developped an indigenous civilization that flourished from the 6th to the 12th century. In the 15th century, Polynesian settlers from Hawaii arrived and settled the southern and east coast, assimilating or wiping out the pre-existing population. The archipelago was then settled by the Spanish from Mexico and Philippines in the 16th century. After 1650 though, pressure from the native population forced many Spanish out of the archipelago; the remaining Spaniard population founded small states which later lead to the constitution of the Republic.

The highest point located in the republic is the Monte Nevita (2,443 meters) and the lowest is the Pacific Ocean (0 meter). About five percent of the total area is water : the Enlanda lake is the greatest lake of the country and alone constitutes 70% of the freshwater resources of the island.

The climate of the archipelago goes from subtropical in the southern parts to degraded oceanic climate in the north. Inland, the Enlanda lake plays a regulator role by keeping the inland North cool during summer months. In winter though, strong winds coming from eastern Siberia combined with the residual heat from the north Pacific current can bring heavy rain and/or snow on the northern regions. The Lakhang valley south of the Lemurian Alps has very hot and dry summers with temperatures going regularly over 35°C, but cool and rain-heavy winters. The eastern part of the archipelago enjoys relatively cool and moist weathers due to the influence of the North Equatorial current.

The position of the archipelago in the middle of the Pacific high gyre, the surrounding seas have a high concentration of marine debris. Debris originating from as far back as China or the US can then end up on Ponantian beaches.

History

Main article: History of the Ponant

Timeline

Proto-Lemurian Era

Roots of the native population can be traced back to Austronesian seafarers who have arrived to the archipelago around year 400 BC. Those population spoke an Austronesian language that will had diverged to become the Proto-Lemurian language (PL) a few centuries after their arrival. The Proto-Lemurian Era begins at around year 400 BC (varies from 500 BC to 100 BC) and ends with the invention and spread of the Lemurian native writing system (Rupat alphabet) throughout the archipelago.

From around 400 BC to around 100 AD, those early settlers establish their homes in the coasts of the South Interior Sea (Southern homeland) and the Eastern Interior Sea (Eastern homeland). From those original settlements, they progressively move inland and disperse throughout the immense archipelago and progressively abandon their seafaring heritage, causing further isolation of remote communities.

At around 100 AD, a proto-writing system consisting of approximately 200 identified signs spread through the Southern Inland and reach the Lakhang valley. The spread of writing system also allowed the spread of classical literature and knowledge throughout communities, but also eased diplomacy between small chiefdoms allowing them to associate and form small independent states.

Lakhang Civilization

The Lakhang civilization is the name of a culture that was established along the Lakhang river. It is a collection of small states that progressively spread its influence throughout the whole archipelago. The use of writing system allowed the creation and the fixation of a complex hierarchical society. During the Lakhang civilization, the increase of agricultural surface as well as the medical advances allowed the population to double every 50 years in the Lakhang valley as well as in the Eastern Homeland. Up to eight million people might have lived in the Lakhang valley anytime within the 12th century. Major city centres were situated on the Lakhang river and its affluents. The Lakhang river served as an efficient means of communication between cities

At its peak, the Lakhang civilization was not unified but consisted of five major states (Tenguruhu, Ipangali, Tingaranga, Sangang and Anapakitalung) and twenty city states. The city states were often vassal states of one of the five major Lakhang states. The five major states were organised in two alliances: the Western Alliance and the Eastern Alliance. That bipolar situation had persisted for more than 300 years between the 980s and the 1280s. In the 1280s, due to a succession war in the Eastern Alliance's leading state of Sangang, the Eastern Alliance collapsed, leading to chaos in the region for the next 220 years.

Dark Era

The Dark era is a 220-year-long period of regional political instability throughout the whole archipelago. As the main powers of the Lakhang valley collapsed as a result of internal tensions, the whole region went into economic collapse. Furthermore, a series of climatic events including extremely cold winters and soil degratation due to intensive agriculture further aggravated the tensions between peasants and the leading class.

The period of Dark Era is a period that saw the abandonment of major cities. People left cities where violence was rampant in favour of smaller communities. Central states were dissolved and the whole archipelago was organised in chiefdoms again. High mortality due to increased violence, disease and famine caused the population to halve between the 13th and the 15th centuries.

Polynesian settlement

In the 15th century, and for the second time in the archipelago's history, Neo-Polynesian people from the neighbouring Hawaiian archipelago began settling the eastern and southern islands of the Lemurian archipelago. They were later joined by settlers from the Marquesan archipelago. The contact between the Neo-Polynesians and their indigenous remote cousins were mostly peaceful. Even though most Neo-Polynesians intermixed with the local population, they've established small communities and established chiefdoms throughout the coastal areas of the Archipelago. Neo-Polynesians' knowledge in terms of high-sea navigation compared to the locals -- who had lost most of their ancestors' sea heritage over time -- gave them the ability to control maritime trade.

Spanish Colonization (1615-1680)

The Lemurian archipelago had been subject to multiple accounts from numerous Spanish expeditions to explore the Pacific Northwest during the 1560s; among which Legazpi and Urdaneta (1565), Arellano (1566) and Mendaña (1569). However, the first European to ever discover and set foot on the islands of the Lemurian Archipelago is Pedro Fernandez de Quiros in 1605. Quiros circumnavigated the islands between 6 August 1605 and 2 May 1606 and claimed the whole archipelago for the Spanish Crown and Rome.

During their circumnavigation of the Lemurian Archipelago, Quiros had been assisted by Rangitua (1576-1621), a Sohuey navigator which accompanied Quiros as far as Acapulco, which they reached in 1612 with spices both from the Philippines and from what is now the Ponant. Between 1615 and 1630, the Viceroyalty of New Spain and Papal State of Rome established colonies and missions in the Eastern Homeland and had encouraged massive migration to the newly discovered land.

In the 1642, Jesuits established a mission in the Southern Homeland to evangelise native populations. Between 1645 and 1680, thousands of colons from Italy, New Spain and the Philippines established themselves in the Paranavo, Santiago and the Ilenia regions.

Old-world diseases brought by European colonists had had a devastating effect on native demography. During the 17th century, the Eastern and Southern Homelands have seen their native population decrease by more than 70%. Spice trade collapsed and the colonies' main source of revenue were cut off. From 1685 onwards, the Viceroyalty of Spain stopped funding the Lemurian Archipelago's colonies. All Spanish, Italian and Papal colonies became self-funded and self-determined by the year 1700.

Post-colonial Eras

First Era

Second Era

Third Era

Fourth Era (Modern Ponant)

Geography

Lemuria

Map of the archipelago of Lemuria

From east to the west, the Lemurian archipelago is approximately 1,900km and from the north to the south, it is 1320km. Its total area is 1.4 million square kilometers and the mainland is the third greatest island of the world.

The Republic of the Ponant is an archipelago which is approximately 2,500km west of Hawaiian city of Honolulu and 500km north of Insulo Natahari (actual Midway Islands). This island south of the Lemuria island was originally part of the Ponantian territory but it has been occupied by the US Navy in World War II until today.


The Ponant has power on all islands of the Lemuria Archipelago. The archipelago was unified under the same country in 1889 when unification of the country was proclaimed.

Lemurian Archipelago

The Ponant occupied the whole Lemurian archipelago. Which is composed by the main Island (also Mainland Ponant) which composes more than 90% of the total area and 40 islands over 100 km².

Lemuria is based on a submarine continental shelf. Parts of the continental shelf emerged from sea when the continental shelf passed over Hawaiian hot spot 45 million years ago.

Having been isolated from the rest of the world by Pacific ocean, Lemuria has a unique faune and flora of the world, but most of them are in danger bue to population pressure, massive deforestation and environment pollution. In order to prevent extinction of endemic species, 34% of the total land area has been classified natural reservations.

Administrative subdivisions

This section requires expansion

Regions

Province

Population' '(2017)

Pop. % GDP (bn. $) GDP% GDP/Capita Area
DÍELVÉNO 119,829,265 38.56 3,573.26 30.2 $29,820
MÉĐLÁNDO 51,782,706 16.66 2,638.54 22.3 $50,954
FLUVIÁSTO 49,182,623 15.83 2,366.40 20.0 $48,115
KEKANAUAHI 35,140,796 11.31 1,088.54 9.2 $30,977
ARAKAIPO 28,649,003 9.22 1,088.54 9.2 $37,996
OHULUNO 26,201,505 8.43 1,076.71 9.1 $41,094
TOTAL 310,785,898 11832 100 $38,071

The Republic of the Ponant (R.P) is divided into 41 provinces divided into six regions: Norto, Nortésto, Centėro, Ésto, Súđo and Westo. The current territorial organization of the Republic of the Ponant dated 1 January 1889, when the Republic of the Ponant was proclaimed. Since that date, special territories were created, including the Ćefa Landono, which is an enclave of the Lakaño region. The Ćefa Landono (means "Main Region") was created under Pláto Augustido (1870-1945) in 1920 to recentralize Lakaño region which focused more than 70% of its industry in the capital and surrounding cities.

Republic of Ponant - Administrative Subdivisions

The administrative subdivisions of the Republic of the Ponant

Provinces of the Ponant

Up until 2012, the first-level coutry subdivision of the Ponant had been the 41 provinces that compose the country. Those provinces had large degrees of autonomy regarding law-making. That large degree of local autonomy had induced a very complex legal system which was considered as a hurdle to the global development of the country. In 1992, the then-president Elias Gandolfo launched a 20-year plan to transition the country to a six-region federal state. In 2012, the 6-region federal state was finally implemented.

Communities

Regions are divided into departments, departments are divided into municipalities, and municipalities are divided into communities. Communities have different sizes depending on whether they are in town or in the countryside. Largest communities have more than one hundred thousand inhabitants, while smaller communities make up only one thousand people. Communities are rearranged every twenty years to optimize the management of the national territory and to cut superfluous spendings : the reorganization aims to merge small communities to form larger communities and larger communities are divided to make smaller ones.

Community leaders are elected and only elected by residents in the community in a community council held every ten years. Community leaders meet with other leaders from other regions in an inter-meeting held every two years. Large meetings gathering all communities in all regions to take place every five years Fenizo, six months before presidential elections.

Demographics

Lemuria Growth Curve

Evolution of Lemuria's Population since year 1000

According to June 2010 official census, the population of the Republic of the Ponant is 287,763,057 inhabitants, (3.5% of the global population), the country is the fourth by its population. Its population growth reate is 1.44% per year ; this makes the most fertile country in Oceania.

The high population umber of the Ponant is due to the high birth rate of the country with a very long period of heterogeneous demographic transition : poorer eastern provinces for example has a non-negligible weight in actual Ponant demography, because for more than fifty years, this region is the region of the Ponant which has the highest demographic growth in the country ; for a long time, unemployment caused by fast-growing population made migration strong and young people born in that region mainly emigrate to the western and central provinces. Since the year 2000, emigrations of inhabitants living in eastern provinces have decelerated but is still high because of a lower purchasing power and life quality.

Composition of population

The Dunguna (descendents of immigrants) composes now a bit more than a half (53%) of the overall Ponant population. This proportion is becoming lower and lower due to the low natality of immigrants from Europe/America and Asia. The proportion of the Indigenous in the Ponant took off centuries of low population growing : from 7% in 1900, they pass 20% in 1950 and now (as of 2010) 37% of the overall population.

Culture

Education

From the age of three years, children can be sent to school to incorporate primary school preparatory classes (Klasos Priparenta), which can last more or less lontemps depending on the age at which children are educated: three years (ie three years preparatory class), four (two) or five years (one year of preparatory class). during the preparatory cycle, pupils learn the basics of learning and social life. No end

At the age of six to sixteen, pupils have to perform the obligatory first cycle. Cycle in which the basic subjects such as the study of Kriollatino and regional languages, mathematics, science, arts and foreign languages​​. Each year has to be validated by a end-year examinations (Evaluo de Fino de Anno).

On obligtory secondary cycle, pupils study Litterature, regional language (mostly Spanish), first foreign language (English, Chinese, Portuguese) and later second foreign language, physics, mathematics, natural science, technology and sports. The Evaluo de Ámíto al Supėra Eskolos (EÁSE) valids the whole obligatory cycles, and has to be successful to be admitted to national universities and colleges. Unlike other exams, anyone can voluntary register to perform the examination, and there is no second chance or possible repetition.

Year-end Exams

All end-year examinations must be successful to be authorised to access the second cycle of compulsory education classes. Those who failed the exam are recalled to the board one week prior to the start of school. The test is a written test in second chance. If this second chance was still a failure, third, fourth and fifth chance exam are done orally. Meanwhile, whether the exam is successful or not, they must pass a higher class, except in the final year of the cycle where if they have not passed the end-year examination, have to repass their final year, as times as they needed until the student has passed all the exams at the end of the year to which it has not been received. The period of year-end ratings are one week before classes end, and period of catch-up assessments spread to five weeks after the course ends. The second period of catch-up lasts until five weeks before the start of school. Theoretically this leaves to students two weeks of rest period.

At the end of obligatory first cycle, pupils perform an end-cycle exam to be admitted to the obligatory second cycle. To be received, students must score at least 60% (12/20). If failure, they have to repass their year as many times as posible, but the number of points needed to be admitted decreases each time (-10% needed to repass) til 5/20 or 20%.

Politics

The Assembly of Delegates (Delegentos) of the Ponant is the Ponantian national legislature.

The Assembly of Delegates consists of the President of the Ponant and 398 delegates. The delegates of the Assembly are directly elected under universal suffrage of all citizens of the Republic of the Ponant who reside and who are at least 18 years of age. That universal suffrage is a one-round vote. The newly elected parliament then meets to elect the President of the Ponant with 50% majority.

From 1890 to 2015, an election was held at least once in every ten years. Following the 2015 Constitutional Revision, legislative elections are now normally held every five years, and the mandate of the head of state is reduced from ten to eight years beginning from 2020.

On the regional (formerly provincial) level, delegates in regional parliaments are elected every four years, followed by the election of head of regions (formerly provinces) using the same 50% majority vote.

Seats in the Assembly

Seats in the Assembly on the 1990 legislative elections

Socialist
(138)
Centrist
(139)
National
(121)

Seats in the Assembly on the 2000 legislative elections

Socialist
(106)
Centrist
(229)
National
(63)

Seats in the Assembly on the 2010 legislative elections

Socialist
(158)
Centrist
(159)
National
(81)

Affiliated Parties

Due to the huge size of the Ponant, and the cost of having nationwide presence, all major Ponant political parties are affiliated to at least one of the three political groups. The affiliation system was founded in the 1920s to ease the creation of majorities and political alliances. Besides those major parties, hundreds of minor political parties exists in the Ponant, and most of them are affiliated to at one of the major political parties.

Socialist Political group
Democrat Political group
Nationalist Political group

Economy

Main article : Economy of the Ponant

The economy of the Ponant is the second largest in the world, after the United States. The country's per capita GDP was $29,000 in 2010. Development of the Ponant is due to productivity, employment rates and longer working hours than the average of developped countries (2,205 hours). Developped infractructure, moderately low level of taxation, the spirit of free enterprise that derives economic liberalism, make the Ponant economy one of the most competitive in the world.

The current economic situation of the Ponant is the result of more than 12 decades of constant development efforts. Since the unification and the establishment of the Republic of the Ponant, the first task of the first government was to maintain and even accelerate economic and industrial development of the new country. Since 1993, Le Ponant is the second global economic Absorbed power after overtaking Japan. Nowadays, the country is a major industrial power thanks to its skilled and abundant workforce with a labor force strong by 131 million people.

Ponantian economy is mainly a service economy but with an industry still very present: the tertiary occupies over 70% of the workforce, and cons for about 65% of its GDP while the primary sector (agriculture, fishing) represents only 8% of assets for 5.7% of the production of national wealth, and the secondary sector (mainly industry) with respectively 12.7% and 29.3% (2010 est.). Unemployment rate is relatively low with 9.3% in 2010.

The economy of the Ponant has been strongly affected during the 1994 debt crisis which failed to sink the national economy. During that year, public debt cames from 98% to 149% of the national GDP. In order to maintain the economy, one of the strongest austerity measures has been led by the government : income taxes increased to 26%, VAT to 22%, lowering social security expenditures... Such measures have rudely slowed down the economic dynamism of the country from 0.7% a year before 1994 to -4.1% during the year 1995-1998. But in 2002, the austerity paid off, and the national debt passed to 70.5% of the national GDP. "Emergency state" and austerity lowered, and the dynamism of the economy was back.

Public debt is at about 70.5% of national GDP as of 2010 while the external debt reaches 2.4%. Many efforts has been made in maintain it at a low level. All measure in reducing public debt have been led and adopted successfully in the beginning of the year 2000, but it has encountered a strong popular opposition due to increasing unemployment, as result of this policy, the VAT rate has increased to 22.1%. It is as such since 2006.

During the 2008 world economical crisis, the Ponant has relatively limited damages : "only" one million more people were unemployed during the year 2007-2009 : the growth rate was globally maintained (at 1.4%) which makes the international markets to give the country more trust ; which allowed the country to loan more easily money from the market with a reasonable interest rate. The economical growth of the country is for most of it due to the economical lift-off of developping provinces.

Industries

The Ponant is a major industrial country. The country was for a long time the Northern Pacific industrial product provider. Its economic dynamism and its efficiency in research has make the Ponant one a major industrial power in the word. The Ponant industrialized in the late 19th century, when the New country has been formed. It was initially a heavy industry ; later in the beginning of the 20th century, industry was oriented to consumption and exportation of goods, it exported mainly to Asia and to the Northern Pacific Ocean Countries, where the Ponantian state has built railway networks and roads.

Automotive construction

In 1924, Kopo, the first automobile construction in the Ponant, opened. Its production was still modest during the decade, but it has not crashed in the 1930 economic crisis. It produces now more than 450,000 cars daily.

Electronic industry

During the 1980s and the 1990s, the Ponant became a leader of electronic componement constructions, especially semi-conductors.

Transport

Road Network

Railways

The Ponant has 64,725km of railways, of which about 38,100km of electrified railways. The tracks are divided into classes according to their gauge. These classes define among others the speed limit, but also the maximum load per vehicle.

Class Maximum
weight/ale
Maximum speed Electrification
Class I 50,400kg 200km/h 35kV AC / 5kV DC[3]
Class II 82,700kg 280km/h 50 kV AC
Class III 55,240kg 130km/h 25 kV AC
Class IV 40,700kg to 67,600kg 125km/h 25 kV AC / 3kV DC[3]

Total length of Railways in the Republic of the Ponant is 64,725km with :

  • 17,700km in Class I Trackgauge (1,668mm) — This track gauge is for high-speed railways. Around 55% of Class I railways are electrified and are mainly used for passenger and freight transportation.
  • 3,900km in Class II Trackgauge (1,668mm) — Used for very high-speed highways. 84% of Class II track gauges are electrified.
  • 20,044km in Class III Trackgauge (1,260mm) — All railways constructed before 1924 have this measure. Railways having this Track Gauge are low-speed railway mainly located in old industrial cities, such as Nauario (Fenizo) or Łarmandio (Santiago). Only 24% of the network is electrified
  • 23,081km in Class IV Trackgauge (1,372mm — 1,524mm) — Class IV railways are all railways which does not belong to three previous classes. Trackgauges in that class are mainly 1,372mm (92%, due Cirkėlaga rałvio); others trackgauges, like 1,524mm are also in use.

Air Transportation

Government

The Republic of the Ponant is a presidential republic. Actual constitution of the Second Republic was approved by the Assembly of delegates on 9 October 1946 after the caretaker government. Legislative Branch is led by the assembly of delegates and its prime minister, while executive branch is led by the President elected for a ten-year term.

Law

According to the constitution of the Second Republic of the Ponant, any province has the power to vote its own laws. There are provincial laws, which are province-wide, and national laws, which are nationwide. Nationwide law is prior to be applied.

Military

The Ponant is one of the greatest military power of the World. Ponant's armed forces (Forto Nacia), comprising the Ponantian Army (Forto Tera), Ponantian Air Force (Forto Aera Ponanto), Ponant Navy (Marforto Ponanta) and Ponantian Paramilitary Force (Forto Elmilitforto). The Ponant has an force of 500,000 active soldiers (350,000 in Army, 100,000 in Navy and 50,000 in Airforce). There are also a reserve of 40,000 soldiers, making the Ponant the Twentieth army of the World.

Foreign Relations

See also

External links

References

  1. Unity is strength
  2. The Eastern Confederate States, the Northern Union, the Lacan Free States, the Republic of Paranavo, the Aracaibo Confederation and the Estuary Republic
  3. 3.0 3.1 If DC current is available