General Secretary of the Sino-Soviet Communist Party
The Premier of the Sino-Soviet Union (Russian: Премьер-министр), Mandarin: 中苏总理) is the official head of state of the Sino-Soviet Union and is the highest office in the government and country. The premier is officially chosen by a direct popular vote, but in recent years, the premier has instead been selected by the National Assembly regardless of the outcome of the popular vote.
According to the Constitution of the Sino-Soviet Union, the premier shares executive power along with the General Secretary of the Communist Party, who is the head of government. Such laws were created under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev to preserve the political rights of all Soviet citizens. The premier is restricted by the General Secretary who will use the communist party's agenda as a means of limiting the powers of the office.
On May 7th, 2012, Vladimir Putin was elected by the National Assembly and by the general public to become the new premier and has continued to serve as its current leader despite opposition from protestors and international outcry over accusations of abuse within his office.
Powers and duties
The office of the premier has been defined as the "official head of state and public leader of the Sino-Soviet Union" according to the nation's constitution. The office of the premier is officially limited to diplomatic and military affairs and must collaborate with the National Assembly and the legislative bodies when seeking to impose laws and other policies. Such actions must be oversaw and approved by the National Assembly in order to become law. The communist party has the only legal authority to impeach the premier in the event that unpopular policies or laws are broken, but premiers will be impeached primarily if they violate the policies and ideology of the communist party. As a result, the premier is forced to collaborate with the General Secretary in ensure that the office is supported by the communist party.
The premier is chosen by the communist party based on numerous factors; age, loyalty, and support from both the general public and the party itself. The premier must be at least 35 and be a natural born citizen anywhere within the country. The candidate for the premier is analyzed by the Central Commission of the Communist Party analyzing their political activities, career, policies, and most importantly, their loyalty to the motherland and the communist party. A candidate must serve in the communist party as a member of one of the three legislative bodies of the Sino-Soviet Union and prove that they can win the support of the general public. If such requirements are met, than the candidate must run for premier in a general election and will first try to win the support of the general public and will compete to win the popular vote. If the candidate succeeded, then another election will be held by the National Assembly and the final outcome will be determined by the approval of the communist party.
If a candidate for the office doesn't win the popular vote, than the communist party will usually strike them down, but there have been times where a premier was elected without winning the approval of the general public. If so, then the ideological loyalty of the candidate will be the only factor that could help them win the approval of the communist party. The approval of the communist party is the overall deciding factor as a candidate will lose the election if they don't win the party's approval regardless of wether or not they won the support of the public. Overall, party loyalty is the primary factor that will decide the future of a candidate as the more loyal, the more likely that they'll be chosen to maintain the party's power in the country.
The title of the premier originates from the Soviet Union prior to its unification and merging with the People's Republic of China. At the time, the premier lead the USSR and had also served as the general secretary of the nation's communist party. Such policies continued to remain in motion after the formation of the Sino-Soviet Union where Stalin became the country's first premier and the first general secretary of the newly formed communist party. Stalin first held the title and at the time, he also was the General Secretary of the Communist Party with Mao being the Chairman of the Central Committee. The policy continued under Mao's administration with him sharing both titles as the leader of the party and the nation much like Stalin and previous leaders of the Soviet Union.
After Leonid Brezhnev took office in 1972 admit a political revolution and military coup in the Chinese republics, he restored order through force and put into motion new political reforms as a means of retaining order and preventing chaos like that of the Cultural Revolution from ever breaking out again. These reforms thad the office of the premier separate from that of the general secretary. The General Secretary of the Communist Party would be elected by the National Assembly while both the assembly and a popular vote would elect the premier. The premier would also be regulated by the General Secretary and they would balance each other out and the legislation was also given full authority to investigate and impeach either the premier and/or the general secretary in the event that they were worthy of removal from their office.
List of Premiers
Term of office
Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)
May 31st, 1946 - March 5th, 1953
The founder and first leader, Joseph Stalin was originally the leader of the Soviet Union prior to its unification with China and Mongolia. After the two countries merged, he took over and became the first Premier of the Sino-Soviet Union while also retaining the title of General Secretary of the Communist Party. Under his administration, he rapidly began the process of Sovietization of China and established Soviet Republics across China and snuffed out the last Nationalist holdouts hiding in the countryside. His actions lead to the industrialization of China, but had also caused the deaths of over 8 million Chinese when he attempted to starve out nationalist sympathizers. He died in 1953 and is known as the "founding father" of the Sino-Soviet Union.
Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
March 8th, 1953 - September 18th, 1972
Mao Zedong was a communist revolutionary who was often considered ones to he original "fathers" of the Sino-Soviet Union. He became a close ally and friend of Stalin and eventually succeeded him as Premier and General Secretary after his death in 1953. Under Mao's leadership, he continued the process of Sovietization and continued rapid industrialization. Mao's time as Premier was known for the Great Leap Forward which lead to the collectivization of Soviet society, but also caused a famine in Manchuria in 1958 and was also known for the Cultural Revolution which destabilized the Sino-Soviet Union and caused Leonid Brezhnev to overthrow him in a military coup to save the union in 1972.
Hu Yaobang (1915-1989)
September 20th, 1972 - November 11th, 1982
Hu Yaobang was elected as Premier following the 1972 military coup against Mao Zedong. Under his leadership, he began the process of reforming the Communist Party and Soviet policies as a whole. He supported Leonid's position on the role of the offices of the Premier and the General Secretary and thus ran for the office of the Premier in an emergency election and won. His reforms involved the regulation of the control that the Communist Party had on the government and the regulation of certain agencies and departments affiliated with the party. He was often accused of being a puppet of Leonid as he often followed through on his policies and was rumored to have been pressured into invading Afghanistan in 1981 to support the Socialist government there. He resigned in 1982 following Leonid's death.
Jiang Zemin (1926-)
November 13th, 1982 - August 19th, 1991
Jiang Zemin was one of the most controversial figures in the Communist Party as well as one of the most controversial Premiers of the Sino-Soviet Union. He was elected into office in November of 1982 and continued the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan. Seeking to relieve the pressure of the grain embargo of 1983 imposed by the United States, Jiang collaborated with Deng Xiaoping to modernize the country and lift up the standards of living. Jiang was most known for his authorization of military force against protesters in the Communist Bloc in 1989 which lead to the impeachment of Deng Xiaoping and the rise of Mihail Gorbachev who later overthrew him in 1991 after the failed to contain Jiang.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1926-)
September 1st, 1993 - November 13th, 2003
Gorbachev had been a well-known and popular politician throughout the Sino-Soviet Union. He rose through the ranks of the Communist Party and quickly became a leading figure in the Reformist Faction of the party and was openly critical of party leaders and government officials who he accused of being corrupt and unfit for office. He eventually forced Jiang Zemin out of power in a military coup in August of 1991 during his trip to Moscow and had all of the Communist Bloc under martial law. An emergency election was held and Gorbachev was elected Premier and over the next two years, he destabilized the country, grew its economy, and ended the Cold War by 1994 and made the rest of the nineties a time of economic and geopolitical revival. He remained Premier until his resignation in November of 2003.
Dmitry Medvedev (1965-)
November 14th, 2003 - May 7th, 2012
Dmitry Medvedev took office following Gorbachev's resignation in 2003 and won one of the quickest elections in recent Soviet history due to Gorbachev's preparations for it during his last year in office. Dmitry worked alongside General Secretary Hu Jintao during the 2008 global recession to stabilize the economy and prevent the recession from hurting the Sino-Soviet Union further during the crisis. His policies worked and he eventually helped made the economy the largest in the world by 2010 as a result of the implication of economic reforms proposed by Central Committee Chairman Vladimir Putin. The two worked very closely and he even headed the Central Committee during the 2012 election in May after he was chosen by Xi Jinping.
Vladimir Putin (1952-)
May 7th, 2012 - Present
Vladimir Putin has been active within the Communist Party since the 1970s. He first served in the military as part of the KGB and eventually rose to become its director by 1984 and oversaw the arrests of hundreds of dissident throughout the country. He took part in Gorbachev's coup in 1991 and became First Secretary of the Russian SFSR in 1994 following his successful campaign. He continued to rise through the ranks of the Communist Party and earned many favors from close allies and associates. He's been in power since May of 2012 and has been the most popular Soviet leader in recent years, but has also been accused of corruption and abuse by reformist politicians and activists since June of 2014.