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|Kingdom of Prussia|
Motto: Gott Mit Uns
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Polish, Russian, Lithuania|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|10 April 1525|
• Kingdom founded
|18 January 1701|
|8 May 1921|
• Current form
|16 June 1924|
|348,779 km2 (134,664 sq mi)|
|Time zone||Universal Standard Time (UTC+1)|
• Summer (DST)
|Drives on the||right|
Prussia, officially the Kingdom of Prussia (German: Königreich Preußen) is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy in Central Europe. It's capital and largest city is Berlin. Prussia is one of four German speaking members of the European Union (Germany, Austria, and Luxembourg) and has one of the most stable economies and political systems in Europe.
During the Protestant Reformation, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Albert, secularized the order's Prussian territory, with him becoming it's first Duke. His duchy, with the capital in Königsberg, was a fief of the Crown of Poland. It was inherited by the prince-electors of Brandenburg in 1618, forming Brandenburg-Prussia. During this time, Prussia began to grow in military power under Frederick William. By 1701, it was elevated to become the Kingdom of Prussia.
Prussia proved itself to be a European great power following the events of the Seven Years' War under the leadership of Frederick the Great, however was defeated during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1848, with the outbreak of the Revolutions of 1848, King Frederick William IV was the initial monarchistic candidate for the new unified state of Germany, however it was decided that Ludwig I of Bavaria should become the king. Prussia excluded itself from the unification of Germany due to it's fear of German liberalism and the loss of Prussia's power.
Fearing the rising power of France, Austria, and Germany, the Prussians joined the United Kingdom and the Russian Empire in forming the Triple Alliance in 1901. France, Austria, and Germany countered that by forming the Triple Entente in 1907. In 1914, when World War I broke out, the Prussians soon fought the Germans and Austrians on multiple fronts, however with supplements of Russian forces and the strength of the Prussian armies, the Germans and Austrians were defeated by the Allies by late 1918.
With the war over, the Prussians began to look at more democratic and liberal politics in their government. King Wilhelm II was unwilling to reform the absolute monarchy and relinquish some of his power, however this would spell uprisings in his kingdom. With inspiration from the Russian Civil War, many began to take up arms to rebel, and by 1921, the Prussian Civil War began. Wilhelm fled to one of his colonies after the outbreak of the war and his son commanded the fighting along side him. With British support and King Wilhelm compromising with the liberals, the war was over by 1924.
As a consequence of the war and liberal reforms, Prussia's military power was worn down and not what it was. In 1939, the Nazis invaded Prussia after it refused to join them in the Anschluss the year before. King Wilhelm, who was now significantly older, was granted asylum in the United Kingdom and fled to London. The Nazis incorporated Prussia into their emprie until 1945 when the nation was defeated. While Prussia was occupied primarily by Soviet forces, it was debated whether Prussia would become a communist puppet or to return to the monarchy. It was ultimately decided by the Allied Powers and the United Nations that Prussia and it's southern neighbor Czechoslovakia would serve as buffer-zones between the Warsaw Pact and the European Union. While unofficially neutral, Prussia sympathized more with the EU than the Warsaw Pact.
Today, Prussia still retains it's monarchy and is one of the most economically and politically stable nations in Europe.
Duchy of Prussia
Prussia-Brandenburg and the Kingdom of Prussia
During the 19th century, the Prussians fought against the French Empire and endured a series of defeats and victories until 1815, when Napoleon surrendered. Prussia gained land in the Rhineland region and made it's reemergence as a great power.
World Wars and Civil War
Prussia is a constitutional monarchy, meaning the nation has a monarch as it's head of state, however most political power is vested in the Chancellor and the Royal Assembly. The king's sole purpose is to sign bills into effect, maintain political stability, and approve declarations of war that have been passed by the Royal Assembly.
The Prussian royal family has been in power for nearly half a millennium, beginning with Duke Albert in 1525.