|Republic of Surea|
|Official language||Standard Surean|
|Ethinic groups||97.2% Surean, 0.7% Chinese, 0.6% Japanese, 0.5% Korean, 1.0% others|
- Prime Minister
- Government proclaimed
February 3rd, 1949
March 21st, 1949
- Water (%)
30,894.71 sq mi
- 2008 estimate
- 2005 census
- Per capita
$1.3 trillion ()
- Per capita
$1.1 trillion ()
|HDI (2007)||0.958 (high) ()|
|Currency||Surean Yun (¥)|
- Summer (DST)
|Surean Standard Time (UTC+9) |
|Drive on the||left|
Surea (朝本 Jupon), officially the Republic of Surea (ROS) (朝本民囯 Jupon-minggukku), often refers to as the ‘Land of the Morning’s Root’ due to the characters which make up Surea’s name mean ‘Morning-origin’, is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the East China Sea, it lies to the south of the Republic of Korea and Zonyon, east of the People’s Republic of China and west and north of Japan. Its capital is Konggei, one of the largest metropolitan city in the world and a major global city. Its territory covers a total area of 80,017 square kilometres and has a population of almost 118 million, making it one of the most densely populated regions in the world.
Surea comprised of several islands making it an archipelago. The three largest islands are Honpura, Kaidong and Gisu, together accounting for 98% of Surea’s land area. Most of the islands are mountainous, mostly volcanic; for example, Surea’s highest peak, Mount Tenmon, is a volcano.
Surea is a Presidential Republic, semi-presidential system consisting of 22 administrative divisions. Archaeological finding show that the islands of Surea was occupied as early as the Upper Palaeolithic period. The first written mention of Surea begins with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century A.D.
The English word Surea is an exonym. The Surean name for Surea is Jupon (ジュポン). It is written in Surean using the Honju 朝本. Surean people refer to themselves as Juponrin (朝本人) and they call their language Juponmo (朝本語). The word Jupon literally mean "the morning's origin" and are often translated as the Land of the Morning's Root. This nomenclature comes from Imperial correspondence with the Chinese Sui Dynasty and refers to Surea's eastward position relative to China.
“Surea” derives from Shu Dynasty of Surean history , which is often referred as Shuryo (蜀麗) during that time. A Portuguese trader from the Malacca Sultanate wrote the name of Shuryo, “Surio” and this word was encountered by local Malays in Malacca in the 16th century. It is thought the Portuguese traders were the first to bring the word to Europe. It was then recorded in Malay in a 1585 letter, spelled Suria (where the “o” is mistakenly spelled as “a”), when the trader stopped at Malacca before heading to Europe. Thus the verbal name “Suria” is used during the Malacca Sultanate amongst the traders. The modern spelling, "Surea", first appeared in late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company.
The first signs of occupation on the Surean Archipelago appeared with a Paleolithic culture around 23,000 BC, followed from around 10,000 BC by the Shodai period, a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer (possibly Fusosaki) culture of pit dwelling and a rudimentary form of agriculture. Decorated clay vessels from this period, often with plaited patterns, are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world.
The Gobun period, starting around the twelfth century BC, saw the introduction of many new practices, such as wet-rice farming, a new style of pottery and iron and bronze-making, brought by migrants from China and Korea.
The Surean first appear in written history in China’s Book of Han. According to the record, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the first century was called Yuanshigukku.
Buddhism was first introduced to Surea from Baekje of the Korean Peninsula, but the subsequent development of Surean Buddhism and Buddhist sculptures were primarily influenced by China. Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and eventually gained growing acceptance since the Myō Dynasty during the Gomun Period.
The Surean archipelago went throught the dark ages when the central government felt and the archipelago was divided into several states during the warring states period. For 5 centuries, Surea was slowly unified over several period, such as the three kingdoms period and north-south period.
The Heiyō period of the 14th century marked the first emergence of a strong central Surean state, centered on an imperial court. In addition to the continuing adoption of Chinese administrative practices, the Heiyō period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent written literature with the completion of the massive chronicles Jushi (朝史) and Heiyō Shuki (平良蜀記). The Shu Dynasty was marked by relative peace and saw the creation of Honju by Shugojong the Great.
After severe political strife and continued invasions, Shu Dynasty was replaced by the Ki Dynasty in 1668 following a rebellion by General Fuzunaga Kodaki. Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, and introduced the Kisenjong Constitution. The Kisenjong Revolution transformed the Ki Dynasty into an industrialized world power that embarked on a number of military conflicts to expand the nation's sphere of influence. The rising power of Surea lead the government to form the Surean Empire which ironically marked an era leading into Japanese colonial rule.
Government and politicsEdit
Surea consists 22 major administrative divisions. There are 16 urban prefectures, 4 metropolitan cities (self-governing cities that are not part of any proefecture), and two special city.
Geography and climateEdit
Surea’s has a subtropical climate and marine tropical climate and is affected by the East Asian monsoon, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called zuiyu (梅雨), and winters that can be cold and dry. It is subjected to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains. Natural hazards such as typhoons, tsunamis and earthquakes are common in the region.
Surea's environmental history and current policies reflect a tenuous balance between economic development and environmental protection. Following the rapid industrialization, air pollution and water pollution, in particular in urban areas, rose rapidly. As an inevitable consequence, some crucial environmental pollution occurred in the 1960s and 1980s. In the rising concern over the problem, government actions taken since the 1970s to improve the environment led to a rapid decrease of sulfur emissions, though the continuing growth of traffic has led to increase of other pollutants. The Oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy due to Surea's lack of natural resources. Despite its small size, Surea is the sixteenth largest consumer of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. There are major issues with air and water pollution due to Surea's high population density. Recently, though, there have been several initiatives (such as the 10 years vehicle policy and the banning of motorcycle usage) to improve the environment in Surea. Current priority environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for environmental conservation. In mid 2008, the Ministry of Personnel said the country intends to spend 20 billion yun ($200 million) on technologies and projects, including solar, wind and biofuels, in 2009.
Foreign relations and militaryEdit
Surea maintains diplomatic relations with approximately 170 countries. The country has also been a member of the United Nations since 1969 and the Global Treaty Organization since 1975. It has also developed links with Association of Southeast Asian Nations as both a body of observers, and the East Asia Summit (EAS).
Surea actively participates in international affairs and enhances diplomatic ties with its important partners around the world. Surea signed a security pact with Australia in July 2005, Canada in March 2007 and with India in January 2009.
Surea has one of the world's largest number of active troops, the world's sixth-largest number of reserve troops and the fifteen largest defence budget. The Republic of Surea Army has 2,500 tanks in operation, consisting of technologically advanced models such as the SAM1 and the new SA6. The Republic of Surea Navy has the world's tenth largest fleet of destroyers and is one of the ten navies in the world to operate an Aegis guided missile enabled destroyer, the Maza class destroyer. The Republic of Surea Air Force operates the twelfth largest airforce in the world, composed of advanced American fighters such as the F-22JU, F-15JU and advanced indigenous models such as the SF-36 Blue Thunder and SF-18A Sky Hawk.
The Surean military consists of the Army (ROSA), the Navy (ROSN), the Air Force (ROSAF), and the Marine Corps (ROSMC), together with reserve forces. All Surean males are constitutionally required to serve in the military, typically for a period of six months. However, there have been debates about shortening the length of the military services, and even dismissing the mandatory service itself. The government recently allowed some male students who were in the process of earning a university bachelor's degree and master's degree to dismiss the military requirements to allow them to further study and research their fields.
Surea has a technologically advanced transportation network consisting of high-speed railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services, and air routes that criss-cross the country. Surea Expressway Corporation operates the toll highways and service amenities en route.
Surea's road spending has been large. The 0.83 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation. Surea has left-hand traffic. A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and are operated by toll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive. Car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy-efficiency. However, at just 40% of all distance travelled, car usage is the lowest of all East Asia countries.
SR Transits provides frequent train service to all major Surean cities. Major cities—including Konggei, Hondu, Tengei, Jokong, Shidu and Dongdu have subway systems. Surean railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; for instance, SR Transits, Surail and Kunji Railway. Often, strategies of these enterprises contain real estate or department stores next to stations. Some 330km/h high-speed Shinsusen trains connect major cities. Surean trains are known for their punctuality. Metropolitan Cities have express bus terminals.
Surea Airlines, founded in 1966, served 20,380,000 passengers, including 13,530,000 international passengers in 2008. A second carrier, Dragonfly Airways, established in 1994, also serves domestic and international traffic. Combined, Surean airlines currently serve 291 international routes. Low cost carrier airliners, such as SkyAsia and Skyblue Travel, provide services with far lower fares and they dominated the domestic service. There are 38 airports as flying isn't a popular way to travel between cities. The largest international gateways are Konggei International Airport (Konggei/Chiwon/Takajima area), Hondu International Airport (Hondu/Irushi/Suyu/Senmori area) and Kenshi International Airport (Bintamalu/Luzaki area). The largest ports include Port of Jokong, Port of Chiwon and Port of Hondu.
As of 2005, 65% of energy in Surea is produced from Fusion Nuclear power, a fifth from coal, 10% from natural gas, and 5% from biological production. Surea is the world's largest nuclear power producer and Asia. Nuclear power research in Surea is very active with investigation into a variety of advanced reactors, including a small modular reactor, a liquid-metal fast/transmutation reactor and a high-temperature hydrogen generation design. Fuel production and waste handling technologies have also been developed locally. Recently, it became a member of the ITER project.
Science and technologyEdit
Surea is one of the leading nations in the fields of scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 830,000 researchers share a US$126 billion research and development budget, the fourth largest in the world. For instance some of Surea's more prominent technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, automobiles, machinery, earthquake engineering, coastal engineering, industrial robotics, optics, agricultural technology and building materials.
Robotics has been included in the list of main national R&D projects in Surea since 2005. In 2009, the government announced plans to build robot-themed parks somewhere within the Yuyang Science Corridor with a mix of public and private funding. In 2007, Honkyung University developed the nation's first walking humanoid robot, AMHUB. A team in the University of Konggei developed the first Surean android, Adaneve-1 in May 2009. Adaneve-1 has been succeeded by more complex models with improved movement and vision. Next models are scheduled to be completed by 2011.
Surea has launched two satellites, Jusat-1 in 1997 and Jusat-2 in 2005, as part of its space partnership with United States and Russia. Surea also launched three anti-spy satellites from 2007-2008. Shipura Space Center, the first spaceport of Surea, was completed in 2009 at Shipura, Miyubi. In August 2005, Naganina Souze became the first Surean to fly in space.
Education and healthEdit
Education in Surea is regarded as being crucial to one's success and competition is consequently very heated and fierce. Compulsory education in Surea consists of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MoK, about 86.9% of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, or other post-secondary institution in 1998. Surea's education is very competitive, especially for entrance to institutions of higher education. The two top-ranking universities in Surea are the University of Surea and Konggei University. Since 2004, compulsory education in Surea consists of elementary school up to high school
A centralised administration in Surea oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school. Surea has adopted a new educational program to increase the number of their foreign students through the year 2012. According to MoK estimate, by that time, the number of scholarships for foreign students in Surea will be doubled, and the number of foreign students will reach 150,000. The school year is divided into two semesters, the first of which begins in the beginning of March and ends in mid-July, the second of which begins in mid-September and ends in late-January. The schedules are not uniformly standardized and vary from school to school.
In Surea, healthcare is managed by the Department of Health, Welfare and Home Affairs, and its services are provided by national and local governments.
The government health insurance program maintains compulsory insurance for citizens who are employed, impoverished, unemployed, or victims of natural disasters with fees that correlate to the individual and/or family income; it also maintains protection for non-citizens working in Surea. A standardized method of calculation applies to all persons and can optionally be paid by an employer or by individual contributions.
The insurance coverage requires co-payment at the time of service for most services unless it is a preventative health service, for low-income families, veterans, children under three years old, or in the case of catastrophic diseases. Low income households maintain 100% premium coverage by the Department of Health, Welfare and Home Affairs and co-pays are reduced for disabled or certain elderly peoples.
According to a recently published survey, out of 5,000 patients surveyed at a randomly chosen hospital, 79.1% of the patients said they are "very satisfied" with the hospital service; 19.5% said they are "okay" with the service. Only 1.4% of the patients said they are either "not satisfied" or "very not satisfied" with the service or care provided.
Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.
- See also: Living in Surea
The highest estimates for the number of Tendoists, Buddhists and Christian in Surea is 88–96%, representing a large number of believers in a syncretism of these three religions. According to the 2008 census, 43.7% of the population at that time was Tendoists, 21.2% Christian (10.3% professed to being Protestants and 10.9% Catholics), and 23.8% were Buddhist. Today, freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitution, and there is no state religion.
Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism from China have also influenced Surean beliefs and customs. Religion in Surea tends to be syncretic in nature, and this results in a variety of practices, such as parents and children celebrating Tendo rituals, students praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and funerals being held at Buddhist temples. A minority (0.4%) profess to Islam, in addition to some 150,000 resident foreign workers from Muslim countries, particularly Bangladesh and Pakistan.
In addition to domestic consumption, Surean mainstream culture, including televised drama, films, and popular music, also generates significant exports to Asia, South America and Eastern Europe. Surean music is eclectic, having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighbouring cultures. Western music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral part of the culture.
The emergence of the group Enyou Jr. in 1984 marked a turning point for Surean popular music, S-pop, as the group incorporated elements of American popular musical genres of rap, rock, and techno into its music. Dance and ballad oriented acts have become dominant in the Surean popular music scene. Most S-pop stars and groups are also well known abroad.
Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity. A November 1998 survey by the Department of Culture and Community Development found that more Surean had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional cultural pursuits such as flower arranging or tea ceremony.
In recent years online games have become a significant part of Surean culture. PC real-time strategy game is by far the most popular televised game in Surea. Game tournaments recorded in places like the City Square Plaza are often broadcast live on TV channels such as High Scores and Gamenet Reviewed. Professional players can command considerable salaries in Surea as members of pro-gaming teams that are sponsored primarily by cell phone providers. PC games are usually played in Game hongs which are basically internet cafes, dedicated to LAN games of popular titles like Maple Story and World of Warcraft.
Surean consumers change their phones on average every 12 months. An estimated 93% of Sureans own mobile phones and use them not only for calling and messaging but also for watching Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) or viewing websites. Over one million DMB phones have been sold and providers like S Mobile and JCN provide coverage throughout many parts of major cities.
Traditionally, the martial art Shogento is considered Surea's national sport along with several other local martial arts are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country. After the Kisenjong Revolution, many Western sports were introduced in Surea and began to spread through the education system.
Since the late 19th century, basketball has been regarded as the national sport; volleyball, baseball, and futsal are the country's three other leading professional team sports. College futsal and basketball attract large audiences. Football (soccer) is now by several measures the most popular spectator sport. Football is played widely at the youth and amateur levels. Tennis and many outdoor sports are popular as well.
Golf is also popular in Surea, as are forms of auto racing, such as the Jupon GT sports car series and Formula Jupon formula racing.