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Kingdom of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
Flag of Rhodesia
Coat of arms of Rhodesia
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Sit Nomine Digna" (Royal)
"May She Be Worthy of the Name"
"Magni Esse Mereamur" (National)
"Let us Deserve Greatness"
Map of Rhodesia
Capital Plummack
Largest city Abbey
Official languages English
Demonym Rhodesian
Government Unitary parliamentary republic with constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Edward III
Louise Hague
Charles Haverley
Foundation
1 May 1705
11 December 1814
Area
• Total
268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi) (77th)
Population
• 2014 estimate
33,456,700 (39th)
• 2010 census
33,409,234 (40th)
• Density
124.829/km2 (323.3/sq mi) (91st)
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
• Total
£1.339 trillion (9th)
• Per capita
£40,022 (3rd)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
• Total
£1.103 trillion (10th)
• Per capita
£32,968 (8th)
Gini (2014) 0.24
low · 2nd
HDI 0.918
very high · 7th
Currency Pound sterling (RHP)
Time zone Rhodesian Standard Time
Drives on the left
Calling code +263
Internet TLD .rh

The Kingdom of Rhodesia is a sovereign state comprising of a large part of the subcontinent of Tasmantis. Rhodesia borders the Pacific Ocean to the east, Melanesia to the north, the Tasman Sea to the west, and the Southern Ocean to the south. Although the vast majority of its area is made up of mainland Rhodesia, the nation posses various islands in the Southern and Pacific Oceans.

Rhodesia is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliament based upon the British Westminster system. The contemporary government was created by the Constitution of Rhodesia, which was adopted in 1705. The constitution has declared that the powers of administration and civil service which the government exercises are derived from the monarch, whom is the Head of the House of Rhodes. The current monarch is King Edward III, who arose to the throne in 2004. Through the monarch, the government exists, and the sole legitimate representation of the people in government is the parliament, which is made of representatives of local election constituencies located throughout the nation by the House of Commons. The prime minister, who is the head of government, is the leader of the majority party in the lower house of the bicameral parliament. The government of the prime minister is appointed by that person, though the selection of these positions must be approved by both the parliament and the monarch. Much the same, in order for a bill to pass within the parliament which is then enacted by the prime minister and their government, the bill must first reach majority approval in both houses of parliament and be given royal assent. This system of government was introduced by the constitution passed in 1705, though it has been amended in certain areas to meet with the changing needs of the nation's population over time.

The contemporary Rhodesian nation was explored in 1620 by the English Francis Rhodes, who was the bastard of Elizabeth I and Sir Francis Drake. The English Civil War in 1649 resulted in the Congress of Abbey, in which Francis was proclaimed King of Rhodesia by consent of the governed. Thus, the House of Rhodes was founded as a branch of the House of Tudor, and the Kingdom claimed all of Oceania as its domain. Rhodesia began a short civil war in 1703 known as the First Rhodesian Civil War, which resulted in the establishment of a sovereign parliament and the Constitution. The nation's existence was questioned in 1799 with the Britannian-Rhodesian War, which lasted until 1814 and resulted in the Treaty of Abbey, which greatly reduced the regional power of the nation. The treaty also allowed for more immigration from mainland Britannia, ultimately resulting in a second wave of immigration which saw the rise of the Rhodesian economic transition into an urban and industrialised state. Despite this domestic growth, Rhodesia was marginalised in European imperialist politics, and in 1885 the borders were finalised much to the detestment of many Rhodesian nationalists. This lead to the Second Rhodesian Civil War in 1889, after which the country would become a more centralised state in 1901. Following the Civil War, Rhodesia began to adopt an isolationist policy of interaction with other nations, focusing instead on domestic development and leading to its perceived neutrality during the Cold War. Rhodesia would since become an active power in Australasia, especially in the Pacific, and work to further the interests of democracy and development in the region.

The economy of Rhodesia is diversified, modernised, and considered to be post-industrial and a welfare state. When the Europeans first settled in the region, agriculture and plantation farming were considered to be strong segments of the economy, however through the influence of the historically interventionist government, industrialization came quickly to Rhodesia. In this, the development of strong resource production and manufacturing became significant of the economy, with Rhodesia developing an export economy that soon gave it great amounts of economic sovereignty in its financial dealings. As of 2014, Rhodesia is Oceania's largest, wealthiest, and most economically equal nations, with a PPP GDP of £1.339 trillion and a Gini coefficient of 0.24. As an economically diverse nation, Rhodesia maintains an economy based upon the sustainable surplus production of certain raw materials and the manufacturing of consumer and industrial products within the nation to insure a positive trade surplus. As a result of intense government intervention in the economy, Rhodesia is considered to be mixed market socialist, with strong economic ties to government institutions supporting a system based upon the benefit of the common citizens. Trade agreements with European and formerly Britannian colonial possessions have also allowed for the export of goods in substantial volume permit the cheap import of products not produced within Rhodesia itself, creating a moderate cost of living and a diverse consumer and industrial market.

Rhodesia holds amicable relations with mainly Western nations throughout the world. The nation maintains formal diplomatic relations with many other states throughout the world, and nations with which Rhodesia does not hold relations maintain contact through the League of Nations and other international organisation. Through a longstanding policy of friendly isolationism, Rhodesia's most prominent relations are maintained with primarily European and other formerly British nations. The policy has also allowed for Rhodesia to maintain its export economy and a strong national sense of foreign independence. The nation refrains from direct military or political agreements with most countries, and its strongest alliances exist with Sierra, the United States and Canada. Rhodesia is a member of the League of Nations, the Group of Twenty Major Economies, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the Pacific Forum.

Etymology

The name Rhodesia was first implemented officially by the Constitution, which adopted the term from the word used to represent the realm of the House of Rhodes. As the nation was formally declared the independent Kingdom of Rhodesia by Francis Rhodes, who became King Francis I, the name was then widely used to represent all territories claimed by the small kingdom. Over time, however, the boundaries of the land known as Rhodesia were altered, and along with it, the use of the name itself.

Now, there are two seperate ways the name Rhodesia is used. The first representing the Kingdom of Rhodesia as declared in the constitution and as recognised by the Treaty of Abbey, and the second, commonly known as Greater Rhodesia, referring to all lands previously claimed by Rhodesia and used primary by ultra-nationalists within Rhodesia proper and anti-imperialists in the nations outside Rhodesia proper which are considered to be apart of the concept Greater Rhodesia.

Geography

Rhodesia is located near the centre of the water hemisphere and is made up of two main islands and various smaller islands. The two main islands (Sunderland and Enderland) are separated by the Plummack Strait, which is 22 kilometres wide at its narrowest point. Various other islands are possessed by Rhodesia throughout the Pacific Ocean, including Steward Island, the Chatham Islands, and Great Barrier Island. The country's islands lie between latitudes 29° and 53°S, and longitudes 165° and 176°E.

Rhodesia is long and narrow (over 1,600 kilometres along its north-north-east axis with a maximum width of 400 kilometres), with about 15,000 km of coastline and a total land area of 268,000 square kilometres. Because of its far-flung outlying islands and long coastline, the country has extensive marine resources. Its Exclusive Economic Zone is one of the largest in the world, covering more than 15 times its land area.

Enderland is the largest landmass of Rhodesia, and is divided along its length by the Frostbacks. There are 18 peaks over 3,000 metres, the highest of which is Mount Blantyre at 3,754 metres. Fiordland's steep mountains and deep fiords record the extensive ice age glaciation of this south-western corner of Enderland. Sunderland is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The highly active Sunmere Volcanic Zone has formed a large volcanic plateau, punctuated by Sunderland's highest mountain, Mount Whitecrown (2,797 metres). The plateau also hosts the country's largest lake, Lake Sunmere, nestled in the caldera of one of the world's most active supervolcanoes.

Rhodesia is not part of the continent of Australia, but of the separate, submerged continent of Tasmantis. Rhodesia and Australia are both part of the wider regions known as Australasia and Oceania. The term Oceania is often used to denote the region encompassing the Australian continent, Rhodesia and various islands in the Pacific Ocean that are not included in the seven-continent model, and it is sometimes referred to by Rhodesian ultra-nationalists as the claimed lands of Greater Rhodesia.

History

See also: History of Rhodesia

Exploration and settlement

The coastline of Rhodesia was first explored in detail by Europeans in 1620 by the English captain Francis Rhodes, allegedly the bastard of the Tudor Elizabeth I and the prominent privateer Sir Francis Drake. Rhodes mapped the coastline of the land, naming a specific portion of it Rhodesia after himself. In 1623, with approval from the English government, Rhodes established the Rhodesia Company to sponsor the settlement of the land, with the first immigrants arriving in 1624 under his own command. Rhodes and around a thousand English settlers established the city of Rutherford, naming the city in honour of Rhodes' navigator James Rutherford. The new colony was highly successful as a trading post between the English and Eastern merchants, growing tremendously in size in the first few months of its existence. In 1625, the city of Abbey was established to the south of Rutherford, with the two cities becoming large very quickly. Rhodes maintained an active lifestyle of governance in the two growing towns, gaining the respect of many of his followers through his attitude and supposed lineage. Settlement would continue to concentrate along the coast, as travel inland was commonly disrupted by disease or hostile natives. By 1640, various successful settlements existed along the coast of the country and were constantly growing with influxes of immigrants from the various nations of the British Isles.

In 1649, with the outbreak of the English Civil War, Rhodesians began to feel unnecessarily controlled by an overseas parliament acting in the interests of peoples distant to their own problems. It was with the Civil War that allowed for locals to realise their goals of autonomy in the establishment of the Congress of Abbey, through which the Rhodesians hoped to establish a stable system of self governance. On 19 November 1649, in a bold political move not many expected, Francis Rhodes, governor of the colony, declared himself the King of Rhodesia in absence of a true political entity overseas to guide the Rhodesian people. Although at first many were timid to support Rhodes, over time this move was accepted, and on 10 December 1649, the Congress declared that Francis Rhodes was hence King Francis I of Rhodesia, by right of his supposed lineage as son of Elizabeth I of England. The government of England, divided by its own quarrels, did not heed any attention to the declaration, and thus, Rhodesia became a de facto independent country.

Early growth and First Civil War

Rhodesia saw its first major growth in the areas along the coast and in the settlement of the neighbouring island of New Ayr. Scottish immigrants, mostly Catholic, flooded into the country, and by 1660 made up a large portion of the local population. Irish immigrants also came to the country escaping oppression by the English on their island, resulting in further growth of the Catholic population. King Francis I established the Anglican Church of Rhodesia in 1661 in an attempt to unify the population through religion, although this was met with little success and the King's advanced age largely saw his decline in political life. In 1667, King Francis I died, and power was transferred to his son, who became King Francis II. Francis II furthered the cause of the local church, anointing himself as the Defender of Faith and establishing a stable hierarchy for the organisation. By 1675, most Protestants in Rhodesia belonged to the Church of Rhodesia and most Catholics remained spiritually loyal to the Catholic Church. While Francis II wished for all to become members of the local church, he did not press the issue, as he did not wish to spark any sectarian conflicts among his people. Thus, for a great deal of time, Rhodesia continued to grow without any interruptions in development.

In 1689, Francis II made a political move to solidify his role by raising taxes in hopes of establishing a larger army and navy. The King wished to establish a formidable military presence throughout the southern part of Africa, and as such, he began to send expeditions to explore the interior of the continent and to establish fortifications further inland. The Salisbury expedition was the first of these trips, resulting in the establishment of a fort known as Salisbury, which would eventually grow into the capital of the kingdom. The expedition left from Abbey in 1691 and was deemed a success by 1694, with a stable presence established at the fort and the beginning of settlement of the region. A second expedition, known as the Milner expedition, was launched in 1695 and saw the establishment of Milfort by 1697. These first two expeditions were massively successful in that they saw the establishment of stable communities in the interior of the country, and the further sustainable nature of these forts is attributed to the establishment of paths of trade and their somewhat hospitable locations. Francis II died in 1699, and his son became King Edward I.

Edward I was much more ambitious for himself and for his country than his father, and pursued a policy which saw the further expansion of the army and navy through increased taxation. The King began massive public projects to link together the settlements of the country with various roads, building the first royal road from Abbey to New Dundee. Many became uneasy at the amount of military might that the royalty began to mount, and many also held disdain for increased taxes. In order to expand public support for his policies of rapid expansion, Edward I launched the Redman expedition in 1702, which aimed to establish a settlement on the far western coast claimed by Rhodesia. The expedition was a disaster fraught with hostile natives, disease, and desertion, with most abandoning the project and returning to the nearby settlement of Milfort. The gamble was met with public outrage, and coupled with an intense drought, many sought to limit the powers of the King in order to further prevent such failed projects and abuses of power. This resulted in the outbreak of the First Rhodesian Civil War in 1703, in which the Absolutist faction was loyal to the King and the Constitutionalist faction wished to establish a sovereign parliament. Ultimately the Constitutionalists won, and the Constitution of Rhodesia was enacted in 1705, establishing the national parliament and severely limiting the powers of the monarch.

Domestic growth and foreign intervention

Under the new parliament, the Rhodesian government became focused on the expansion of the domestic populace and the growth of the national economy. The parliament greatly reduced the military, and in its place they began to send waves of settlers to the lesser inhabited portions of the country on the promise of free lands. This would see the rise of large plantation-like economic assets across the frontier, and these plantations would grow many products that would be consumed by the increasingly urban population of the coast. In 1717, in an effort to move more people west, the government moved from Abbey to Salisbury, building a new parliament and a new royal palace and sponsoring urban growth in the region. In 1728, a boom in the copper industry further west saw many people flock to inhabit the region, causing a large boost in the populations of western settlements. The borders of each subsequent portion of the kingdom were redrawn in 1733 through an act of parliament, establishing the seven contemporary provinces of Rhodesia and labeling all unorganised territory as lands for future expansion. Rhodesia would continue to grow on an agricultural basis as improvements in technologies and techniques made local farming and ranching easier. In 1735 Edward I died and his grandson became King Francis III.

As Rhodesia would expand inward, a great deal of native populations blocked the way for the settlement of the countryside by the European Rhodesians. Unlike in the Americas, where disease largely killed off most of the native population, the African natives were immune to most animal-based diseases which the Europeans were. Thus, physical warfare was required to exterminate and relocate a great deal of African natives for the settlement by the Europeans. This conflict, considered by many today as a genocide, is known as the Rhodesian Bush War, and it is reported to have begun with the first war with native tribes in the island of New Ayr in 1738 as settlers pushed inwards. The Bush War is a prominent underlying portion of Rhodesian history which ended with the last minor conflicts in 1921 in the province of South Albert. It is estimated that up to 70% of the native population was killed, 25% was assimilated, and 5% was deported. The descendants of the natives of Rhodesia that assimilated are known today as Black Rhodesians.

As Rhodesia was beginning to grow large in comparison to some continent European nations, the nation was brought to the eye of the emerging European colonial powers. Britannia-France in particular opened its first line of contact between the Rhodesians and their own nation in 1764, inquiring in the affairs of the Rhodesian government and its ability to function. Claiming that all subjects of Rhodesia were inherently descended from the peoples of the British Isles, the Britannian government claimed that the subjects of Rhodesia were thus also subjects of Britannia, which the Rhodesian government renounced entirely. In 1768, the Britannians realised that attempting to conquer the Rhodesian nation would require a full scale war against the country, a war which Britannia began to prepare for. However, the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1776 severely limited the Britannian ability to try and attack Rhodesia. King Francis III died in 1779 and his grandson became King Henry I. In 1793, the French Revolution saw a massive change in priority for the Britannian government, which once again attempted to mount an invasion of Rhodesia. Following victory in Cape Colony in 1795, the Britannians launched the Britannian-Rhodesian War in 1799 in order to conquer Rhodesia. Attacking in three seperate waves in 1799, 1803, and 1808 respectively, each wave was repelled by the Rhodesians, although the last was the most devastating of such invasions for both sides. With the initial exile of Napoleon in 1814 ending his potential threat to Britannia, the two countries agreed to the Treaty of Abbey in 1814. Thus, peace was established between the two, and Rhodesia became more heavily focused on interior affairs once again.

Economic transition and border formalisation

The Treaty of Abbey allowed for more immigrants to enter the nation legally from Britannia and fostered major commercial relations with Europe. Rhodesia increasingly began to produce and sell cash crops such as coffee and tea, and the Western style of governance was an added benefit of foreign trade. While more rural economies flourished with the added wealth from these lucrative exports, urban communities saw a massive drainage of wealth because of its concentration in rural areas. Large settlements began to decline around 1835 as cash crops would be sold in exchange for goods produced in Europe. Henry I died in 1841 and his son became King Francis IV. In 1848, in an attempt to end this growing reliance on foreign goods, the parliament introduced measures aimed at fostering local industry. Thus, the Industrial Revolution reached Rhodesia in 1850 with the development of the first factory in Abbey. Industrial practices would soon expand across the nation, bringing urban economic growth along with it. Francis IV died in 1867 and his grandson became King Henry II. Around the year 1877, immigration began to pick back up again coupled with the effects of the Second Industrial Revolution. The population grew exponentially, and the viability of the Greater Rhodesian nation state became more apparent to the increasingly imperialistic European powers. In 1884 the Berlin Conference was held between the various European colonial powers, and Rhodesia was represented in the Conference as it was a prominent sovereign African country. While Rhodesia wished to formally have a larger version of itself recognised by the European powers, these goals were quashed by the dominating interests of the Britannians and the Germans. Rhodesia reluctantly agreed to the terms of the Conference in 1885, formalising the borders of the country and leading to public outrage with many prominent nationalists.

Second Civil War and domestic challenges

After four years of estranged political notions, the nationalists within the parliament launched a coup d'état in order to overthrow the ruling liberal government. Hoping to expand the borders, curb further immigration, and increase the regional prominence of Rhodesia, the nationalists rallied the older families of the country against the newer immigrants and drew a large amount of support from the military. King Henry II supported the liberals, however, establishing a substantial amount of support for the faction through progressive aimed movements through cities and among the less fortunate citizens of the country. Unlike most other wars, however, the conflict was largely based in the secrecy of the Society for Greater Rhodesia, which waged a war of subterfuge and espionage against the government, devastating the economy in the process. Although chaos reigned over Rhodesia for nearly ten years, the King personally led forces to retake the city of Salisbury, triggering the end of the civil war with the Peace of Salisbury in 1901. Henry II became widely popular for personally leading the liberal faction, and the parliament was restored in 1901 with further centralised powers in order to prevent any more conspiracies against the government. The military was also reformed and further integrated into the government, with the monarch personally overseeing the reorganisation of the nation's army and navy. Immigration began to pick back up with the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, with many in Britannia wishing to escape the country by fear of conscription or devastation. Rhodesia would continue to grow as a stable country throughout the years following the war, but exports were dramatically reduced because of the Great Depression, leading to an economic crisis in rural areas that would eventually spread to urban areas as well.

The economic crisis caused by the Great Depression was resultant of the country's reliance on the export of cash crops and products of these crops to generate most of its income. Furthermore, the death of King Henry II in 1931 upset many, and the new King Francis V was young and inexperienced. Parliament became deadlocked in conflicting measures to alleviate the crisis, although eventually the Social Democratic Party established a supermajority in 1935 that allowed it mediate the still devastated economic status of the country without blocking by opponents. Thus, the Social Democratic Party began to institute a more interventionist economic policy than had ever been previously in power, and the economy began to rapidly recover without the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. Refugees from a battered Britannia began to flood into Rhodesia in 1940, and the government took large steps to accommodate the growth of the labour force. Through intensive spending measures, the government eventually was able to relieve most of the effects of the Great Depression by diversifying industries and increasing governmental spending on welfare programmes. Combined with an increase in global demands for consumer goods, Rhodesia began to function as a normal state by 1948, when it joined the League of Nations following the end of the war abroad.

Cold War and isolationism

Rhodesia came under foreign pressure in 1948 with the development of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. Rhodesia remained explicitly neutral in the conflict, as it had done in the two previous world wars. Instead of focusing on these global developments, the Rhodesian government became increasingly concerned with the ability of these foreign governments to exploit the African continent. As decolonisation became a more prominent topic in Africa, the Rhodesian government wished to insure that all new African nations remained democratic and stable following the decade of stability after 1950. In 1960, as various African nations gained their independence, Rhodesia worked with these early countries to insure that they would be able to develop without foreign exploitation or interference. However, many of these new governments used race-based politics to criticise their former colonial masters, and as such, the white-majority Rhodesian nation became increasingly isolated from these various states as well. Therefore, in a resolution to defend Africa as a whole from further exploitation during the Cold War, Rhodesia began to work with the United States through covert operations to protect the sovereignty of these various African countries from Soviet influence. In a system known as Operation Leopard, similar in purpose to Operation Condor, Rhodesia began to quell communist insurgencies throughout Africa by way of covert action starting in 1961.

While initially a success, the Rhodesian government realised after several years that attempting to maintain stability in Africa would be nearly impossible through conventional methods, as the continent was not infrastructurally or educationally developed enough to foster meaningful dialogue between opposing political and social movements. Thus, in 1977, Operation Leopard was discontinued. Nonetheless, relations between Rhodesia and the United States had improved tremendously, and this gradual shift in relations with other European-based powers saw a thawing of relations with the continental powers of Europe itself starting in 1979. After several centuries of estranged relations, the conditions of association between Rhodesia and the various powers of Europe began to improve. While these new relationships did sprout, Rhodesia remained heavily isolated on a true political front in terms of action between countries. Francis V died in 1983 and his son became King Edward II. Rhodesia launched its final push to assist the various young African nations in 1984, though once again this was met with disdain, and thus, Rhodesia began to isolate itself from the various African countries. With the fall of Apartheid in South Africa in 1994, Rhodesia lost its only political partner on the continent, and thus, isolationism had permeated the political scene in the following years.

Contemporary period

While the topic of isolation would continue to persist in the 1995 and 2000 elections, the 2001 attacks in America and the 2003 Invasion of Iraq spurred public interest in the developing War on Terrorism. Edward II died in 2004 and his grandson became King Edward III. Rhodesia began to involve itself in anti-terrorism operations throughout Africa following the beginning of global interest on the subject, and the dramatic shift in the 2005 elections signalled the birth of renewed interest in foreign affairs. Rhodesia began to involve itself in the Somali Civil War in 2006 and in the Boko Haram insurgency in 2009. The nation also began to assist other African nations in curbing domestic insurgencies at the request of such nations, leading to the development of the idea of African vigilance in Rhodesian politics. The country was only moderately affected by the Great Recession in 2008 and quickly recovered from any direct effects of the economic crisis. The Arab Spring in 2011 and violence from Islamic extremists that followed the political movement has seen increased levels of defence against terrorist elements in the government following a few years of relaxing tensions.

Politics

The monarch of Rhodesia is the head of state by the terms set in the constitution, and the monarch is directly responsible for the creation and stability of the government. Through the power of respective parliamentary right, the monarch is charged with the issuance, amendment, assent, and enforcement of law, and through the constitution, these powers are then delegated to respective organs of the government which serve in the interest of the monarch and their people, the citizens. These organs are the parliament, issuance and amendment, the monarchy, assent, and the prime minister, enforcement. It is through these organs that the power of the monarch is administered, and thus, through the right of constitutional rule, the provisions of governance are bestowed upon the citizens of the nation. The constitution enshrines the values of the people to the responsibility of the crown in a clause known as the constitutional trusts, within which, the people respect the authority of the crown in trust that it provides, protects, and insures the provisions of tranquility, equality, happiness, and the commonwealth for all citizens of Rhodesia. Through the provision of these statutes towards the people, the monarchy then gains the authority to establish government. As Rhodesia is a democracy, certain clauses within the constitution institute that the monarch's power is then granted to the people in the respect of their first right towards self determination, thus the citizens elect the members of the parliament who create law for the enforcement of their elected prime minister who then institutes this law in respect of the monarch through the various organs of the executive government. This method of representational democracy insures that the ultimate power of the land is vested within the people, who then grant that power to the monarch, who then grants that power to the government, which is then elected by the people.

Government

The government of Rhodesia is based around the idea of asserting most power within the legislature, a system which is implemented through the Westminster style of government. The legislature of Rhodesia, the parliament, is the sole most important organ of governance granted through the respective authority of the monarch. The lower house of the parliament is deduced through local election constituencies based upon historical divisions among the land and representation based on the population of each region. As of the current parliament, there are 350 members of the parliament, elected from their respective electoral zones of 95,455 persons for every member through runoff style elections held within their constituencies. The House of Commons of the parliament serves as the government's most necessary implementation, with the creation and amendment of law and enactment and the executive power of government being derived from the legislative body. As per the constitution, the parliament is responsible for the creation of law through the recommendation of the population by the sponsorship of ideas through certain constituency representatives. If a bill reaches the acceptance of the half majority of the House of Commons, then it can be provided to the House of Lords for their approval of the bill. Once approved by the majority of the House of Lords, the bill can be given royal assent by the monarch.

The executive power in Rhodesia is derived through the House of Commons, as the party with the most number of representatives and their partner parties in the house are given the right to compose the government. The position of prime minister is nominated by the party, and that position must then be approved by the general majority of the parliament along with the approval of the current monarch. The prime minister then appoints his own ministers, who are largely based on merits rather than political affiliations, and those positions are then also approved by a general majority of the House of Commons before they can become official. The power of the executive government, also known as the ministerial government, is simply to enforce enactments which have been given lawful status by the parliament and the monarch. The various ministries which act under the just of the prime minister's cabinet are lawfully under the administration of the prime minister, who holds executive power as granted by the parliament in respect to the monarch.

The current government is that of the Labour Party, which holds a majority of seats in the House of Commons, 217, making up 62% of its total composition. The Social Democratic Party has traditionally been Rhodesia's largest party, rarely being overtaken by any other party since the year 1935. The current government represents the ideals of moderate change for the government, with its policies having held institution since their composure of the government. The current prime minister, Charles Haverley, has held his position for two parliaments, since 2005. The primary opposition party in Rhodesia is the Centre Party at 74, which represents 21.14% of the parliament. The Centre Party shares many of the same social viewpoints as the Social Democratic Party, however it is considered to be much more fiscally reserved and far more supportive of certain isolationist policies. Minor parties in Rhodesia are the Co-operative Party at 8%, the Royalist Party at 6.57%, and the Green Party at 2.29%.

Law and justice

The law of the Rhodesia is created by the parliament, given royal assent by the monarch, and enforced through the executive ministries. The law of the nation is composed by the members of parliament with input from citizens and in respect of the monarch, and enforced in the respect of the monarch and their citizens through the executive. Criminal law in the nation is divided into a sequential series offenses known as Classes, which serve to classify the level of the crime committed. Class A crimes are petty crimes such as misdemeanor theft or disturbance of the peace, and are usually punished with a fine or a short amount of jail time. Class B crimes are somewhat more serious, such as felony theft or willful destruction of property, and are punished commonly with a heavy fine, jail time, or community service. Class C crimes are much more serious, such as assault or manslaughter, and are usually punished with a fine and a substantially larger jail sentence or a hefty amount of community service. Class D crimes are the second most serious, such as murder or rape. Class E crimes are considered to be the most heinous, an offense such as high treason or serial murder, and are punished through life sentences.

Law enforcement in the nation is manged by the unitary, national Police Force which is based out of Salisbury. The Police Force is a responsibility of the Ministry of Law and itself is responsible for the enforcement of laws passed by the parliament and put into power by the royal assent of the monarch. Rhodesia is a common law nation, and punishments enforced by the a local court are only decided on based on the severity of the crime committed. Jail sentences are served at numerous locations based upon the severity of the crime, and community service typically involves the expansion of infrastructural networks, maintenance of infrastructural areas, sanitation of the environment, or unpaid labour at a local industry. The commonwealth has one of the world's lowest per capita crime rates.

Defence and foreign affairs

See also: Foreign affairs of Rhodesia

The armed forces of Rhodesia, officially His Majesty's Rhodesian Armed Forces, consists of three professional military branches, the Royal Rhodesian Army, the Royal Rhodesian Navy, and the Royal Rhodesian Air Force, and Rhodesia has a combined active force of 185,670 and an integrated reserve force of 230,450 which totals at 416,120. The forces are managed by the Parliamentary Military Service, which, in turn, is administered by the Parliament and the Parliamentary Secretary for the Military Service. Through the Defence Council, the Military Service, the Parliamentary Committee for Defence, the commanders of the Armed Forces, and the Joint Commanders-in-Chief, that being the Prime Minister and the Monarch, are all concentrated into a single area of government, and this organ serves to insure the maximum functionality of all services operating for the active defence protocols of the nation. Along with the Defence Council, Rhodesia maintains a paramilitary force of around 65,000 people who maintain open contact the government through His Majesty's Rhodesian Territorial Defense Force. Although it is not a member of NATO, the nation does hold a pact of equal defence with both Gaul and the United States.

Rhodesia is an intentionally amicable nation with no history of aggression towards its neighbours. Although it has participated in several official armed conflicts, the country has always acted on behalf of its allies in these situations. The nation's strongest relations are held with the United States and Canada, and friendly relations are also held with the European Union, Japan, and most members of the African Union. Rhodesia itself is a member of the League of Nations and subsequent organizations, the African Union, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the G20.

Administrative subdivisions

Rhodesia is divided into 7 provinces, which serve only administrative purposes as the nation is a unitary state. Provinces exist for regional historical, cultural, and administrative purposes, and they are simply first-level regional identifiers for services provided by the government. The nation is further divided into 30 counties. These counties are much more localized in terms of administration, and they each administer a certain area of policy through local, council-based county governments. It is from counties that election constituencies are allocated, with each county receiving one member of parliament for every 100,000 people within that county. How the counties are divided within those limitations is left to the local governments themselves.

Provinces and their counties
Provinces Counties Administrative HQ Population
North Albert Crestershire, Cornershire, New Yorkshire, Saddleshire, Doncashire, Valeshire, Coppershire, Westershire, Sageshire, Cableshire Nesterling 8,049,431
South Albert Tatelandshire, Midlandshire, Tweedshire Salisbury 3,259,890
Mereland Estershire, Warmshire, Harthamshire Keyton 999,529
New Lowland Farshire, Endershire, Ayldshire, Sheepleshire New Dundee 5,112,921
Sunderland Duffershire, Darlingshire, Alebuffshire, Owldeshire, New Orkneyshire, Fifeshire Abbey 8,996,726
New Ayrland Burringshire, Thistleshire, Dandleshire, Keelshire Wilsonburgh 6,741,730
Outerisles Channelshire, Norrshire, New Shetshire, Isleshire Greatcross 249,007

Economy

The economy of Rhodesia is a mixed market economy with strong historical influences of socialism, government interventionism, self sufficiency, isolationism, and restrained trade relationships. Strong government regulation has resulted in a constrained ability for private parties to maintain complete control over large companies or other incorporated bodies, and therefore Rhodesia is considered to be one of the world's least internationally friendly markets. Supplementary of its restrained relations with major economies is the high levels of isolationism and policies supporting self sufficiency which have led to a highly diverse economy based upon equality between agrarianism and industrialism. Small, local businesses among localities or immediate regions are encouraged by the government and then organized into a series of nationwide distributors which helps businesses grow without becoming too powerful and entirely profit driven. The Rhodesian economy is one of the largest in Africa, and along with a moderately low cost of living, the nation enjoys very high economic equality, very high human development, and some of the world's most sustainable and self sufficient industries. While the nation holds high in its policies of economic self determination, a high margin of both raw and manufactured goods has created a highly profitable trade surplus that creates a stronger and wealthier economy. A driving factor in the nation's self sufficiency is the abundance of natural resources and fertile soils which creates the base for a diverse, developed, and post-industrial economy. In terms of economic division, primary practices make up 14% of the GDP, secondary practices make up 38%, and tertiary practices compose the remaining 48% of the GDP.

The primary sector of the Rhodesian economy is highly diverse, with major industries including, but not limited to, commercial agriculture, commercial herding, commercial fishing, mining, logging, and forestry. The main crops produced in Rhodesia are wheat, barley, coffee, tea, potatoes, tomatoes, lettuce, grapes, apples, bananas, pineapples, citrus, sugar, and cocao. The main animals which are herded are cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep. Minerals which are abundant in Rhodesia include iron, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, and manganese. Logging and forestry are mostly popular in highland areas and along coasts. Secondary economic activities are also diverse within the country, with a large variety of consumer and industrial goods being manufactured at highly advanced robotic manufacturing centres. The most prominent manufactured goods in Rhodesia are concrete, steel and other smelted metals, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, furniture, electronics, and transportation based items. Advances in robotics and computer processes have allowed for the continued stability and growth of the secondary sector of the economy within Rhodesia, whereas in other post-industrial nations manufacturing is largely a declining feature of the economy. Much like most other developed nations, tertiary economic activities are the largest part of the economy as a whole and represent a diverse variety of fields. The largest industries within this sector are financial services, telecommunications, food and drink, general services, and logistics services.

Rhodesia is a recognized surplus export economy which has a large amount of goods which are produced in large quantities to feed a strong export market. Rhodesian exports can be divided into five categories; agricultural goods, raw mineral goods, consumer goods, industrial goods, and international services. The most prominent two of these categories is agricultural and industrial goods, both of which attribute for more than 60% of all Rhodesian exports. The most popular exported agricultural goods are coffee, tea, wheat, bananas, pineapples, citrus, sugar, and cocao. The most prominent exported industrial goods are concrete, smelted metals, mostly copper, steel, gold, and platinum, factory articles, machine parts, and construction equipment. Consumer goods represent about 30% of remaining exports, with the largest of these being processed food products, consumer electronics, automobiles, and clothing. Representing the last 10% of exports is raw minerals and international services, the two largest of which are diamond and manganese ore exports, international financial services, and international telecommunications services. The most prominent trading partners of Rhodesia are India, the United Kingdom, France, the United States, the Netherlands, South Africa, Russia, Brazil, Canada, and Mexico. While the goods which have been exported from Rhodesia have changed over time, the surplus export economy has given the country a strong and stable base of wealth.

Infrastructure

Rhodesia has a highly developed and integrative transportation network which is based upon the equal usage of the two major modern methods of transportation; those being roadway and railway based networks. As urban areas in Rhodesia have all been built after the Industrial Revolution on a continent other than Europe, the general low density of urban environments has pushed for the primary development of singularly roadway transportation networks. However, as outlined in Transportation Act 1949, expansive transportation networks are focused towards the equal development of both roadway and railway developments for short and long distance travels. As of 2014, roadway transportation networks account for nearly 62% of all personal domestic transportation needs, and railway transportation accounts for around 30% of all needs. The remaining transportation requirements for domestic travel are met by air and water based methods, those two having the highest popularity in travel to New Ayr and the Outerisles. As of 2014, 67% of households have at least personally owned automobile, and about 60% of all citizens said that they preferred to travel domestically with their personal automobiles. Another 35% of the population said that they preferred to use railway transportation for domestic travel, and around 4% said that they preferred air travel. In terms of locality transportation, 43% said they preferred railway, 30% said they preferred personal automobile, 12% said they preferred bicycle, and 11% said they preferred to walk. Bus travel is highly uncommon in Rhodesia, with the vast majority of Rhodesians, about believing that using a bus is pointless and creates unnecessarily slow traffic on roadways.

At 8.365 quadrillion BTU, Rhodesia is the world's twelfth largest consumer of energy and also its tenth largest producer. The combined total output of the Home Electric Network is 9.508 quadrillion BTU, with most of the excess energy being sold to other African nations and India through the Trans-Indian Electric Network. The majority of the nation's energy comes from the usage of both zero emission clean coal and methane-added natural gas generator stations, both of which make up about 65% of Rhodesia's total energy output. In order to prevent the nation from becoming entirely dependent upon the import of petroleum, oil based power plants are legally banned from entering service since the year 1974. Renewable energy accounts for the remaining 35% of production, one of the largest fractions of usage in the world. In terms of specific generation, around 55% of all renewable energy is generated from wind sources, 20% comes from water sources, 15% comes from solar power, and 10% comes from tidal power. Sustainability Act 2005 outlines that by 2025, Rhodesia is expected to generate the majority of its power from renewable energy sources, and that by 2050, the country expects to become entirely dependent upon renewable sources.

Science and technology

Rhodesia is one of the world's most technologically progressive nations, with around 6% of its national GDP focused on commercial research and development. It is estimated that 100% of people own a personal computer and that 100% of citizens have access to the internet. Along with intensive and universal education programmes, Rhodesia holds a large prominence in most modern research circles. Computer and robotics technologies play a large role in the nation's general manufacturing industries, and an estimated 67% of all technologies developed in Rhodesia are applied towards the further efficiency and output of industrial practices. Along with its highly mechanized and robotic industrial developments, Rhodesia is a world leader in the development and usage of clean and sustainable practices. A poll taken in 2014 stated that around 68% of people had an explicit concern for the environment and that a further 13% claimed they were not opposed to changing their lifestyle to suit more environmentally sound practices. As a result, recycling in Rhodesia is mandatory, there are numerous areas where non-rural development is restricted permanently, diesel fuel is used much more than gasoline, new buildings are fitted with energy saving devices, and most older buildings have been enhanced for energy efficiency. Medical sciences in Rhodesia are also a major focus of scientific advancement, with many pharmaceutical companies focused on the creation of products which can enhance, lengthen, and improve the standard human body.

Wealth equality

With a Gini coefficient of 0.24, Rhodesia is one of the world's most economically equal nations, with an array of welfare and socialistic policies inducing a high economic equality. As taxes are both progressive and generally high, only a relatively few people in Rhodesia are of high economic status. Many industries are also owned in part by the government, meaning that typically, most large companies are not profit-driven, and as a result, the balance of wealth within the country does not favour a small amount of people. Through high quality price controls, goods of high quality and goods considered to be "luxury" in some foreign countries are typical and of common ownership within Rhodesia. This means that, as Rhodesia is a surplus export economy that generates a high amount of profit from its trade, the entirety of the Rhodesian people live lives of high quality and of mostly equal economic status. The country has become one where there are no people who would be considered "poor" by most foreign countries, and as a result, Rhodesia has been considered one of the most successful socialist states in the world. The success of these policies has also been reflected in the nation's politics and culture; Rhodesia maintains some of the toughest immigration policies in the world, has a common political value of socialism, retains a society which is considered to renounce materialism, and the country's populace maintains an international image of amicable, happy people.

Demographics

A census is taken in Rhodesia every five years in concordance before parliamentary elections. While this was first used in 1905 to determine the number of seats that the parliament would hold, it has been expanded for numerous record keeping devices. The population in 2010, the date of the latest census, was 33,409,234, and the estimated population as of 2014 is 33,456,700. Rhodesia has a growth rate of 0.035% annually, one of the lowest positive rates of population change in the world. The country is the tenth largest nation in Africa and the thirty-ninth largest country in the world. According to 2014 estimates, the population of the country is highly stable, and proportionate representations find that age groups under 80 years of age are mostly equal to each other. Rhodesia is one of the world's least densely populated nations, and the stable population of the country is mostly urban at 91%, meaning that Rhodesia's rural areas are some of the least populated places in Africa at person per square mile estimates.

The population of Rhodesia is predominantly white European, with 74% of the population of any European ancestry. Europeans in Rhodesia are called White Rhodesians. The major European groups are English, Scottish, Welsh, German, and Dutch, along with the technically European Boers. Black African groups, known in Rhodesia collectively as Black Rhodesians, make up approximately 16% of the nation's population, all of which are descended from African tribes that assimilated to Rhodesian culture and were granted full citizenship during the centuries-long Rhodesian Bush War. Another 7% of the nation is made up of Asian races, the most predominant being the Japanese and the Malay. The remaining 3% of the population is made up of smaller ethnic groups or of mixed race individuals.

Language

The official language of Rhodesia is English, which is spoken by 100% of the population as their first language. English is taught in schools, used in government, and is the single spoken language of 80% off the population. The remaining 20% of people are fluent in one other language, those being Afrikaans at 8%, Japanese at 5%, Dutch at 3%, Malay at 2%, and German at 2%. Historically, these languages served importance as Rhodesia was surrounded by Boer, Dutch, and German establishments during its later waves of settlement. However, these colonies were eventually annexed by the British Empire, and the prominence of English became enough to almost completely derive the population of any need to speak a second language. Japanese and Malay immigrants also brought about their languages after a migration movement to continental coastal cities following the end of the Second World War in the late 1940s and early 1950s. As of 2014, the learning of a second language is not required in educational institutions, however Afrikaans, Japanese, Dutch, Malay, and German are offered at most educational institutions in Rhodesia as optional courses, and as a result, a small part of the population has become fluent in these languages.

Religion

The Anglican Church of Rhodesia is the largest church in Rhodesia by number of registered individuals and the established church of the nation. Historically, Rhodesia has been a wholly Christian nation, with no other religions ever being present within the borders of the country. Although freedom of religion has been guaranteed by the government since 1901, no other religions other than denominations of Christianity have ever taken root within Rhodesia. As of 2014, 54% of the population said that they believed in Christianity and the remaining 46% of the population responded saying that they held no religious beliefs or did not follow organized religion. More specifically, 43% of the population said that they were irreligious, 41% said they were Anglican, 11% said they were nondenominational Christian, 3% said they were spiritual but not religious, and 2% said they were Catholic. Rhodesia is one of the most irreligious countries in the world, and the percentage of people who do not practice within any religion is considered to be continuously increasing.

Largest urban areas

Most populous urban areas of Rhodesia
Rank Urban area Population Province County
1AbbeyxSunderlandFifeshire
2New DoncasterxNorth AlbertDoncashire
3WilsonburghxNew AyrThistleshire
4TabbingtonxNew LowlandAyldshire
5GoldbushxNorth AlbertCoppershire
6SalisburyxSouth AlbertTatelandshire
7New DundeexNew LowlandSheepleshire
8NesterlingxNorth AlbertValeshire
9TrottenxNew AyrDandleshire
10SwaithxSunderlandDarlingshire
Based on the 2010 Census of Rhodesia











Welfare

Rhodesia is a welfare state with a large array of universal and no cost social services for the use by the general public. While most services are funded through taxes, taxation does not provide the funds needed for every service, and thus, through government enterprise in certain industries, a profit is created from certain businesses which then is put into social services. Services provided by the government are extensive and are provided to citizens with no direct cost of usage. Services include power, water, electricity, garbage, healthcare, education, and postage. Further services are provided at no expense, but they are only provided to citizens who cannot acquire these items on their own. These services are also investigated for fraud, should it be found that a citizen is abusing subsidies provided by spending them on nonessential items or outright abusing the services by taking subsidies when they do not need them. These services include housing, food subsidies, fuel subsidies, clothing subsidies, and unemployment subsidies. Overall, extensive government services funded in part by government enterprise has allowed for much more expensive and efficient services to be provided to the general public.

Healthcare and education

Healthcare in Rhodesia is universal, high quality, and efficient. The nation maintains a public health service that includes local clinics, regional hospitals depending on the density of an area, and emergency response services which range from ground to air transportation for those in need depending on their condition. Paired with an efficient network of local health centres, the fast response times of the emergency services have allowed for a much more effective healthcare service as a whole. Rhodesia is also a world leader in health science and medical research, a feature which is displayed through its systematically advanced and high quality institutions of healthcare service and state of the art condition management and recovery systems. The government allocates large sums of funding towards emergency response, the service, and research, allowing for research to benefit all citizens as a whole and for certain basic medical essentials to remain low in cost and distribution. Rhodesia maintains one of the worlds most efficient and effective public healthcare systems. The nation also has a high quality of life, high average life length, and low mortality rate as a result.

Education in Rhodesia is universal, of high quality, and mandatory from the ages of seven to sixteen. The nation's government maintains a daycare service for children aged two to seven whose parents cannot personally care for their children during the workday after the first two years of life, although it is not required nor does it act as an introductory programme for primary education. The first schooling phase is called Primary school, in which children aged seven to sixteen learn basic introductions to math, science, and language while also learning history and pursuing a number of different classes from which students may chose after the first stage of schooling. Secondary school is for children aged sixteen to eighteen and becomes much more vocational based upon the skills of a child. Many programmes are available within secondary school and all serve to introduce and expand the topics of each student based upon what they excel in. Thus, the classes of an individual student may vary depending on what they chose. After completing secondary school, there are three options available for students; university, tertiary school, or vocation based apprenticeship. Around 73% of students chose to continue into university, of which all are free for citizens of the nation and the cost is dramatically reduced for international Commonwealth citizens. Of those who enter into many of the fully funded universities, around 78% finish their required classes for graduation with an associate or bachelors degree.

Housing and utilities

The government of Rhodesia supplies free housing to citizens who need shelter, with a process existing for the residence of a citizen within a public housing block from simple government shelter. There are three types of public housing within Rhodesia, those being the master planned housing estate, the mid level housing complex, and the high level housing complex. The master planned housing estate is a large block of small apartment buildings which can house about five to eight families each and a community centre or park built into the complex. This type of facility is most popular in lower density areas such as suburbs or smaller localities. A mid level housing complex is a collection of five to seven buildings of about 12 stories each which are designed in a block-like fashion with inserted public facilities. These complexes can be found in many different residential densities, and are most commonly found within the middle areas of cities. High level housing complexes are collections of four or five high density residential tower blocks which are located typically in high density areas. Like the other two housing estates, they contain inserted public recreational facilities. Public housing is only provided to citizens who cannot otherwise purchase shelter on their own. The complexes are also highly sustainable and older buildings have been renovated numerous times to remain modern, energy efficient, and sustainable.

All electricity, water, postage, and sanitation utilities are provided to the public at no cost by the government. Electricity in the nation is provided through various methods of power generation and sharing across a domestic grid. Clean drinking water in Rhodesia is also provided by the government, with its sourcing and logistical transportation provided by a national network of pipelines and locality based networks which are maintained to be efficient and reliable. Domestic postage is provided by the government at no expense to citizens, though international parcel mailing costs a small extra-domestic fee and is subject inspection by customs services if it is not from a Commonwealth nation. Sanitation is also provided nationally at no direct expense to the public, with recycling programmes and sustainability efforts being employed in the service to their fullest extent.

Necessities subsidies

Rhodesia maintains a system of subsidies payment towards citizens who are unable to provide basic necessities for themselves, known as a whole and officially as unemployment subsidies and sometimes referred to as necessities subsidies. These subsidies provide periodic supplies for the areas of food, automotive fuel, and clothing, along with an extra allocation of money for general expenditure. Food subsidies payment is given at a period of one month, and averages around £30 per person within the household. Automotive fuel subsidies are provided at £60 for each automobile at a period of one month. The subsidies also includes the payment for local transportation networks should citizens not be in the possession of an automobile. Clothing subsidies are provided at £250 per person for every three months. All money not spent by a citizen within their period of use is expected to be returned to the government at the chance of prosecution for abuse of subsidies usage. The provision of these subsidies is also investigated thoroughly before and during the periods which they are provided to a household of citizens to insure that they are required. It is implied through these subsidies that citizens will active search for employment during the period which they are receiving the mandated funds.

Culture

Rhodesia is a nation which embraces its British heritage and as a result is heavily influenced by English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish culture. As a result, Rhodesia is considered a culturally Western nation. Unlike many other Western nations, however, isolationist policies which were implemented in the mid-twentieth century have kept the country clear of strong American influence and allowed for the development of a uniquely Rhodesian society. Major cultural values which have been established through Rhodesian terms are racial egalitarianism, charity, friendliness, seriousness where it is necessary, and good will.

Literature, music, and media

As a wholly English speaking nation, the entirety of Rhodesian literature is in the English language and Latin script. Independent Rhodesian literature began to developed around the year 1910, after the first famous Rhodesian novelist, Samson Rawls, published Twenty-Seven in the Sun. Considered to be the genesis of Rhodesian literature, the novel included themes of stoicism, passive aggressive nature, nonsensical saying, strong wound emotion, and intraracial tolerance. Novels became the most prominent feature of Rhodesian literature during the twentieth century, and certain genres of novels became especially popular within Rhodesia, those being criminal mysteries, romantic dramas, dark comedies, and historical fiction, mostly of the medieval age. Notable writers from this period include Peter Danson, who was heavily influenced by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Louise Dame, who held strong interests in Greek homo-eroticism and Shakespearean tragedy, Charles Bakerman, who was a first-generation immigrant from Sussex, and George Terrance, who was influenced by Arthurian legend the Roman Empire. These popular examples of literature were also explored in poetic form, with free verse poetry exploring the thematic concepts of unrequited love, dark humour, fatalism, and worthlessness becoming extremely popular among Rhodesians. The consistency of dark and depressing concepts common throughout literature from Rhodesia has created an international stigma of a deeply troubled population, however some Rhodesian critics describe the national interest as being a trait of their British heritage and the belief that darker themes are much more interesting and thought provoking.

Music in Rhodesia is highly of Western influence and the vast majority of lyrics composed in the country are in English. Historically, Rhodesians have always been typical fans of classical music, but many also hold interest in the developed musical forms of their time. Throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, classical music, Gregorian chanting, and opera were the most popular forms of music. In the 1940s and early 1950s, as a result of extended contact with American soldiers in World War II, a form of jazz which included much more melancholic notes and lyrics became popular in Rhodesia, sparking an interest in the development of new forms of popular music. Around the late 1950s, a similar style of rock and roll became popular throughout Rhodesia, known as sad rock, which made long-strung, mid to low tempo, and generally mellow melodies popular throughout the nation. Psychedelic rock became extremely popular in the 1960s, giving way to further independent development of the genre within Rhodesia, and continuing the trend of generally depressing music. In the 1970s, pub rock, which was initially found within the United Kingdom, became resoundingly popular within Rhodesia, giving way to the development of domestic forms of alternative music which generally dominate the music scene today. Contemporary Rhodesian music shares similar traits of its past, that being mid to low tempo and melancholic mellow melodies, with the most popular forms of music being alternative music, neopsychodelic music, classical music, and neoclassical rock music.

As a developed, post-industrial, and modern nation, the media plays a large role in contemporary Rhodesian society and culture. The origin of media within the country stems largely from the early popularity of the British Broadcasting Company throughout the 1920s and 1930s. It was within those years that the commercialisation of the radio and the development of mass media that was instrumental in its success within Rhodesia. While beginning with largely just newscasts, Rhodesian media became much more diverse throughout the 1950s, when the development of popular music took new heights in the creation of wholly music-broadcasting radio stations. Along with the development of television, the media became a venerable outlet for Rhodesian culture to flourish domestically as it entered into an age of self imposed isolation. Literature recitals, talk shows, music, and news programmes all became common features of radio stations, and news broadcasts and television entertainment series including elements from Rhodesian literature became common formats on Rhodesian television networks. The development of the internet in the late twentieth century and the early twenty-first century brought forth a much more diverse development of media. In 2010, it was declared that the average Rhodesian watched at least one hour of television each day, spent at least two hours on the internet, and listened to the radio for at least ten minutes.

Visual and performance art

Rhodesia is considered one of Africa's most aesthetically refined nations, with a rich, vibrant, and diverse history of visual art forms and practices. Rhodesian art is largely divided into four categories; Neoclassic, Impression, Symbol, and Surreal. All four of these forms continue to have great success in Rhodesia, with the distinct survival of these art forms being attributed mainly towards the isolationism that the country experienced at the later half of the twentieth century. Neoclassicism and Impressionism both arrived in Rhodesia during its settlement in the later half of the nineteenth century, and took root in early artists within the settlements. As a result of its distance from organized religious institutions, Rhodesian neoclassical and impressionist art forms experienced much more freedom in what they could explore and display. This created a highly experimental base of artists who explored the human form, and as a result, led to mainstream Rhodesian art being shunned by many European-derived circles for its display and acceptance of nudity. Symbolism and surrealism became popular in the early twentieth century, after many followers of Gustav Klimt and Max Ernst moved to Rhodesia to partake in the exploration of the human form. These two art forms remained strong into the beginning of Rhodesia's self imposed isolation, and in that, they found much more discovery and revel by the population. When Rhodesia emerged from its isolation, the four art forms had developed ground as to where they did not falter to new forms. As a result, Rhodesia maintains a strongly independent art community which focuses value on the turn of the century between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and newer forms of art and expression have not become popular within the nation.

The performance art of Rhodesia stems largely into four categories; the ancient art of drama, the classical art of opera, and the modern arts of dance and musical. Drama and opera have been prevalent within Rhodesia since the nation's founding in the late nineteenth century. However, it was not until the turn of the century did independent works begin to develop within Rhodesia, most stemming from adaptations of books and legends which came along with the nation's foundation. The early twentieth century was characterized by a golden age of these arts within the country, as most people found a large amount of joy in the partaking and observation of both drama and opera. With the development of the radio and the television, musicals also became prominent in the art forms of Rhodesian circles, and from this, the art of dance became separate from musicals, opera, and drama alike. The four performance arts flourished independently during the isolation age that Rhodesia imposed upon itself in the later half of the twentieth century, drawing largely from the traditions of European influences in their development. As a result of its independent development, themes common in performance art became the emphasis of the human form and its beauty, the exploration of the darkest and deepest emotions, and the large scale acceptance of the human body within these arts.

Social class

Unlike most other western countries, Rhodesia maintains a heavily stratified society that is remnant of its history entrenched in tradition. Although as of the Peace of Salisbury there are no more privileges associated with a class in terms of favouritism, the upper echelons of Rhodesian society remain highly separated from the lower tiers in terms of social rank. It is because of this that many foreign organisations have criticised the nature of classism within Rhodesia, but nonetheless, many people accept and even support the class system.

Rhodesia is considered to be divided into four separate social spheres; the commontry, the nobility, the gentry, and the royalty. The commontry is the lowest of all classes, and it is also the largest. Members of the commontry are those who were born within rank or title, and as such, they are considered to be commoner citizens without special recognition. The majority of the Rhodesian population is considered to exist within the commontry. The nobility is the second highest tier of Rhodesian society, and it is made up of barons appointed by the monarch through ratified letters patent. The members of the nobility are specially recognised individuals whose titles are inherited. All nobles are called barons, and they are made members of the nobility through lack of land appointed by the monarch. The gentry of Rhodesia is made up of the earls of the country, and it is similar to the nobility but separate in that they are permitted to have control over earldoms. Although any person can hold lands in a freehold, the earldoms held by earls are made up of lands which are specially tied to the title rather than the family which posses the title. Therefore, earldoms are held in trust with parliament, and as such, earls are entitled to a share of expenditure through parliament if ratified by the monarch to receive such expenditures. Although they have special links to the parliament, the earls of Rhodesia are not entitled to any privileges within it, as all citizens are seen legally as equals in terms of the law. The highest level of Rhodesian social class is royalty, made up exclusively of those tied to the monarch or past monarchs of Rhodesia. Members of the royalty are those within the closest relations to the monarch, and with the passage of each monarch, most royalty is descended into either gentry or nobility. The non-heir children of the monarch are considered to be life-long members of the royalty, however, the children of those children are considered to be only barons, and their positions may be elevated to earl so long as parliament approves. The royalty is the highest rank in Rhodesian social class, although, as per the equal application of the law, no special privileges exist for those who are not the monarch or the heir of the monarch.

Cuisine

Rhodesian cuisine draws largely from influences of British cuisine and the unique ecology of the nation. The country also has considerable influence from German, Japanese, and Italian dishes because the population has traditionally liked the cuisine of all three of those nations. As Rhodesia supports a large variety of climates which are good for the production of various different foods, many different foods have become apart of the typical Rhodesian diet. Most Rhodesians who wake up at or before 10:00 typically eat a light breakfast, usually consisting of an egg, cheese, a sausage, and buttered or jammed toast. Most people have their lunchtime between about 11:30 and 13:30, with lunch consisting of a variety of options. The most common lunch time Rhodesian dishes are: wheat or rye bread sandwiches with swiss or cheddar cheese, lettuce, mayonnaise or mustard, and ham; fish a chips (typically in more coastal or other waterfront areas); three or four sausages; or sushi (also found more often in coastal areas). Because of heavy British influence, most people, around about 16:00, enjoy a short break for a cup of tea or coffee and east a variety of small biscuits, cookies, and other light, breaded snacks. Dinner in Rhodesia typically takes place at around 18:45 and 19:30, and consists of a variety of foods. Traditionally, a Rhodesian dinner would consist of a main course of roast beef, ham, or mutton with a variety of vegetable-based side dishes, but because of cuisine influences, a much larger variety dinnertime foods have become popular. Lasagna, pasta dishes, sushi, sausages, sauerkraut, curry, fried rice, and hibachi dishes have all become extremely popular within the population, and no standard Rhodesian dinnertime cuisine is present throughout the nation.

Sport

As a nation of heavy British cultural influence, the most popular sports in Rhodesia are football, rugby, and cricket. While they are not directly related to the British influence, arena combat and wrestling are both also extremely popular sports within the country. Football is considered, alongside arena combat, as one of the most popular sports within Rhodesia, with a variety of leagues representing many different cities, localities, and municipalities throughout the nation organized under the Rhodesian Football Federation. Arena combat is considered to be a uniquely Rhodesian sport, as the heavy bloodshed created by the sport has caused controversy among certain conservative nations around the world. Rugby is considered to be the second most popular team sport, with teams organized under the Rhodesian Rugby Federation, and wrestling is considered to be the second most popular single-person sport and unlike highly dramatized and fake American wrestling, Rhodesian wrestling is much more true to its name. Cricket is the fifth most popular sport overall, and like both football and rugby, its teams are organized under the Rhodesian Cricket Federation. All sports in Rhodesia are organized under the Rhodesian Sporting Confederation, which serves to organize tournaments and leagues in order to create a stable and full sporting schedule.

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