- As a member of the Seafaring Confederation, this Nation is part of The Nearly Real World.
Map of Saxony with state borders indicated
|Official languages||German, German Low Saxon, Dutch Low Saxon, Dutch|
|Ethnic groups||Saxon, Frisian, Dutch, German|
|Lana von Eilenbaum-Schmitt|
|HM King Willem-Alexander|
|106,888 km2 (41,270 sq mi)|
• 2014 estimate
|194/km2 (502.5/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
• Per capita
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time, Central European Time, UTC−01:00 (UTC-+1, 0 and -1)|
With 20,723,370 inhabitants, it is by far the largest nation of the Seafaring Confederation. It is also home to the highest number of Confederate ethnic groups and languages. Its capital is Hannover, whilst the city of Hamburg serves as the capital of the Seafaring Confederation.
The Saxons may have derived their name from seax, a kind of knife for which they were known.
From the north clockwise, Saxony borders the North Sea, Schleswig-Holstein-Jutland, Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany again, and the Netherlands. Part of the border with the Netherlands is through the former Zuiderzee. It covers a total area of 106,888 km² (41,269 mi²).
The north of Saxony is dominated by the North German Plain and the Wadden Sea. The North German Plain covers most of Dutch Lower Saxony, Hamburg, Bremen, the majority of German Lower Saxonian Kreise, and the north of Saxony-Anhalt. The plain is characterised by the abundance of push moraines formed by glaciers during the last ice age. The westernmost part of Saxony is the Veluwe, Europe's largest lowland forest. The southern borders of the Saxony, specifically in German Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, are dominated by the Teutoburger Wald and the Harz Mountains. The North German Plain and Harz Mountains go over into the Leipzig Bay around Halle and Leipzig, a relatively lakeless but highly fertile landscape. The South of Saxony, located mostly in the southern Saxony-State and along the border with the Czech Republic, are the Erzgebirge Mountains. The eastern and northeastern borders, mostly with the German state of Brandenburg, are dominated by hills and forests.
The northernmost point is the island of Scharhörn in the Wadden Sea, belonging to the Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg. The westernmost point is near the village of Deschka in Saxony-State, at the border with Poland. The southernmost point is near the village of Schönberg, also in Saxony-State, which is located on a strip of land protruding southwards into the Czech Republic. The westernmost point is the island of Noorderhaaks in Dutch Lower Saxony. The northermost point on the mainland is between Döse and Duhnen near Cuxhaven. The westernmost point on the mainland is due west of Breezanddijk on the Afsluitdijk.
Much of Saxony, specifically the states of Saxony-State and Saxony-Anhalt, the Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg, and northeastern German Lower Saxony, is located in the basin of the River Elbe, which enters the country at Schmilka in Saxony-State on the border with the Czech Republic, whereafter it flows through the Elbe Sandstone Mountains through Dresden, then flowing northwards close to the border with Brandenburg. It then flows back into Saxony-Anhalt, passing through Magdeburg before flowing northwards again towards the border with Brandenburg. It then forms the border first with Brandenburg and then with Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (with the exception of Amt Neuhaus, which lies on the eastern bank despite being part of German Lower Saxony). It then forms a short border with Schleswig-Holstein-Jutland before flowing directly through Hamburg, disecting it, after which its estuary forms a continuation of the border with Schleswig-Holstein-Jutland before terminating in the North Sea at Cuxhaven.
Central German Lower Saxony, including Hannover, and the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen are located in the basin of the River Weser. The Weser officially starts from Münden in the ultimate south of German Lower Saxony, as the confluence of the rivers Fulda and Werra. Between Münden and Holzminden it forms the approximate border with the German states Hesse and Northrhine-Westphalia, after which it entirely enters Saxony. From here it meanders northwards to Hamelin, then generally turns westwards and leaves the country again at Rinteln. It enters Saxony again and Leese and Stolzenau, flowing northwards past Nienburg, Verden and Achim before flowing through the city of Bremen. Having passed through here, the river flows more or less directly northwards before terminating in the North Sea at Bremerhaven.
Eastern German Lower Saxony and western Dutch Lower Saxony, specifically parts of the provinces of Groningen and Drenthe, are located in the basin of the River Ems. The river enters the country at Salzbergen and flows northwards past Lingen, Meppen and Leer before terminating in the Dollart Bay at Emden.
Dutch Lower Saxony is dominated by the branch of the river Rhine known as the IJssel. The river Rhine "enters" the country at Spijk and forms a brief border with Germany before forming a somewhat longer border with the Netherlands. At Westervoort, the Rhine splits, and the IJssel branches off northwards, fully entering the country at Velp. It flows past the hanseatic cities of Zutphen, Deventer and Zwolle before terminating in the IJsselmeer near the hanseatic city of Kampen.
Most of Saxony has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Germany gets an average of 789 mm (31 in) precipitation per year. Rainfall occurs year-round, with no consistent dry season. Winters are mild and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).
The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central Saxony is a transition region which varies from moderately oceanic to continental.
Saxony is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The Saxonian political system operates under a constitution known as the Grundgesetz (Groondgesats in German Low Saxon, Groondwette in Dutch Low Saxon, Grondwet in Dutch). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
The president of Saxony, currently Lana von Eilenbaum-Schmitt, is the head of state of most of Saxony and has international representative powers for the entirety of the nation. The president of Saxony is however not the head of state of the State of Dutch Lower Saxony, of which the head of state is still the King of the Netherlands, currently HM King Willem-Alexander. The president is elected by a majority in both chambers of parliament. Second in the Saxonian order of precedence is the President of the Federal Diet, who is elected by the Federal Diet and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. Third in line is the Prime Minister of Saxony, who is appointed by the President of Saxony.
The Prime Minister is the primus inter pares of the cabinet of Saxony, and is the representative for the executive branch of the Saxonian government.
The Federal Diet, consisting of 555 members elected through mixed-member proportional representation, convenes at least four days a week in the Leineschloss, which it shares with the Staattag of German Lower Saxony. 300 members are elected through nationwide elections using party-list proportional representation, the remaining 255 members are elected on a state-by-state basis, where a state has the right to a certain number of representatives based on its share of the national population. It is up to the state how these representatives are elected. The Federal Diet has the power to draft and propose legislation, the right of information, the right of amendment, the right of interpellation, and the right of enquiry.
The Council of States, consisting of 50 members, convenes every second Tuesday in the Neues Rathaus, which it shares with the city council of Hannover. Each state sends ten representatives to the Council, except Bremen and Hamburg, which each send five. The Council has fewer powers than the Diet, having mostly only the right to accept or reject legislation which has been passed by the Diet. It does have the power of amendment, but an amendment by the Council can be overturned by a two-thirds majority in the Diet. The Council does have the right of information, the right of interpellation, and the right of enquiry.
Main article: States of Saxony.
Saxony comprises six federal states, which are known as Staaten in German and German Low Saxon, stöate in Dutch Low Saxon, and staten in Dutch. Each state has its own state constitution and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Because of differences in size and population, the subdivisions of these states vary, especially between city states (Stadtstaaten, stadstöate, stadstaten) and states with larger territories (Flächenstaaten, vloktestöate, vlaktestaten). As of 2015, Saxony is divided into 84 districts (called Kreise in German and German Low Saxon, but are called proveensies in Dutch Low Saxon or provinciën in Dutch within the state of Dutch Lower Saxony).
|Dutch Lower Saxony||Amersfoort||4,245,670||19,250|
|German Lower Saxony||Hannover||7,779,000||47,618|
|Free Hanseatic City of Bremen||Bremen||654,800||404|
|Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg||Hamburg||1,734,300||755|
Local government under the Saxonian constitution is classified as the state, the district, and municipal governments. In addition, the State of Dutch Lower Saxony is divided into water boards, a system it shares with the sovereign nation of the Netherlands, and for which separate elections are held.
The devolution and distribution of power and responsibilities between the federal and state governments is to be determined by the federal parliament, whilst the same distribution in the lower level governmental institutions is at the discretion of the state governments.
The states of German Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony-State are governed by unicameral legislatures, known as the Staattag or "State Diet". The Free Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg are also governed by unicameral legislatures, there known as the Bürgerschaft. The State of Dutch Lower Saxony is uniquely governed by the bicameral States-General.
The next level of government consists of the district governments, which exist in every state but the Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg. The states of German Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony-State are divided into Kreise, which are governed by unicameral legislatures known as the Kreisrat in rural Kreise in Stadtrat in urban Kreise. The State of Dutch Lower Saxony is divided into provinces, which are governed by unicameral legislatures known as States-Provincial. The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen is divided into two Stadtgemeinden. The legislature of the Stadtgemeinde of the city of Bremen is simply the Bürgerschaft, but the legislature of Bremerhaven is the unicameral Bremerhavener Stadtverordnetenversammlung.
The lowest level of government consists of the municipal governments, which exist in every state but the two Free Hanseatic Cities. Municipalities are governed by unicameral legislatures known as the Gemeinderat in German Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony-State, and as gemeenteraad in Dutch Lower Saxony.
Largest cities or towns in Saxony
Central Bureau of Statistics
|1||Hamburg||Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg||1,760,433||11||Osnabrück||German Lower Saxony||164,119|| |
|2||Bremen||Free Hanseatic City of Bremen||548,547||12||Oldenburg||German Lower Saxony||162,173|
|3||Lepizig||Saxony-State||531,582||13||Enschede||Dutch Lower Saxony||158,308|
|4||Dresden||Saxony-State||530,754||14||Apeldoorn||Dutch Lower Saxony||158,226|
|5||Hannover||German Lower Saxony||518,386||15||Amersfoort||Dutch Lower Saxony||152,752|
|6||Braunschweig||German Lower Saxony||248,867||16||Zwolle||Dutch Lower Saxony||124,032|
|7||Chemnitz||Saxony-State||243,248||17||Wolfsburg||German Lower Saxony||121,451|
|8||Halle||Saxony-Anhalt||232,963||18||Göttingen||German Lower Saxony||121,060|
|9||Magdeburg||Saxony-Anhalt||231,549||19||Bremerhaven||Free Hanseatic City of Bremen||113,366|
|10||Groningen (city)||Dutch Lower Saxony||200,210||20||Hildesheim||German Lower Saxony||102,794|