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|Second Cold War|
¹Also a member of NATO
aWithdrew on December 21, 2014.
Historians have disputed as when the Second Cold War started but agree that the increasing strength and growth of China and Russia seen in the early 21st century upstarted the tensions. Most agree that the tensions grew paramount following the start of the Great Recession in 2008 but others purport a date as early as 2001. Both nations through strong political rhetoric openly challenged the United States as the world's sole superpower and formed the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation as a means to counteract the United States' NATO/TPAC alliances. The Asia-Pacific, Middle East, and Africa regions have been viewed as the primary sources of contentions–areas seen as open ground for influence and power relationships. Like the Cold War, the Second Cold War is dubbed "cold" because while there has been military and political buildup between the opposing factions, no actual large-scale fighting has occurred.
- Main article: Cold War
In the 20th century, following the defeat of the Axis in World War II in 1945, the former wartime allies the United States and the Soviet Union split ways as rival superpowers who pursued conflicting interests and ambitions. For the next 50 years, relations between the two fluctuated variably, a nuclear arms and technology race enveloped, several proxy wars erupted (including the Korean War and Vietnam War), and politically-motivated incidents such as revolutions occurred throughout the world. The Cold War eventually subsided following the ascension of the Soviet general secretary, Mikhail Gorbachev who engaged in diplomatic rapprochement with the United States and adopted far-reaching economic and political reforms within his country. The Cold War subsequently ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, leaving the United States the sole superpower in the world.
For the remainder of the 20th century, the United States stood virtually unopposed by any challenger states and dominated international politics with its foreign and military policies. In the wake of the new century, following the September 11 attacks, the United States under George W. Bush pursued a more precise course in its foreign policy (especially in the Middle East) while Russia under Vladimir Putin pursued an equally new aggressive approach in foreign policy which openly challenged America. At this time, China was experiencing exponential economic growth and began adopting affirmative policies that protected its increasing needs and interests. The emergence of political rivalries and tensions prompted analysts and historians to declare the revival of a Cold War-like global conflict. Historians typically attribute the buildup of American and Russian missile defenses in Eastern Europe and the Russia–Georgia War as the premature start of this second Cold War. The Great Recession in 2008 only intensified tensions as it crippled the United States and other Western powers. With what was perceived as the beginning of America's decline as a superpower, Russia and China, with their rapidly growing economies, pursued on as possible contending successors.
Somali Civil War
- See also Somali Civil War
- See also: Great Recession
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2012 London Olympics
Senkaku Islands dispute
Baja California crisis' '
Oceanic Civil War
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2014 League of Nations general elections controversy
Assassination of Frank Solomon' '
Mexican invasion of Central America' '
2015 Invasion of Mexico