|— Metropolitan Prefecture of the East Asian Federation —|
|- Revised Romanization||Seogyeong Jikalssi|
|- McCune-Reischauer||Sŏgyŏng Chik‘al|
|Nickname(s): The Western Capital, Capital of Willows|
|Country||East Asian Federation|
|Named for||"western capital"|
|- Type||Seogyeong Metropolitan Government|
|- Representative||Kim Tae-woo (Hyasoda)|
|- Chief Legislator||Park Chan-hae (Hyasoda)|
|- Assembly||Seogyeong Metropolitan Assembly|
|- Total||3,194 km2 (1,233.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||27 m (89 ft)|
|- Density||2,038.44/km2 (5,279.58/sq mi)|
|- Estimate (Q2 2010)||6,852,000|
|Time zone||Korean Standard Time (UTC+8:00)|
Seogyeong ("Western Capital", from Goryeo Dynasty), formerly Pyongyang and officially the Seogyeong Metropolis, is the capital of the East Asian Federation, located on the Taedong River. According to results from the 2008 population census, it has a population of 7,637,428, making it the fourth largest city in the Federation, behind Tokyo, Beijing and Seoul.
More than a third of North Koreans live in the Seogyeong Metropolitan Area, which includes the prefecture itself and parts of surrounding prefectures. As a metropolitan prefecture, it is directly governed by its representative to the Federation Board, which serves as de facto "governor" of the prefecture. The current federal representative is Kim Tae-woo.
Seogyeong is considered to be a center of global economic, political, and cultural importance, ranked as an Alpha+ city in the Global Cities Index of 2012. The city plays host to several multinational conglomerates, such as Hyasoda and Daewoo. It is one of the world's top five financial and commercial centers, with the Seogyeong Stock Exchange's market capitalization only bested by the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
As a leading world capital, Seogyeong is also a testbed for cutting-edge technologies. Programs such as the Integrated Defense Network and Digital Commons allow people to communicate with each other seamlessly through the internet. Public access network coverage extends throughout the entire public transport network, providing 100 Mbit/s wireless service through an LTE-Advanced network, and 10 Gbit/s fiber optic wired service to private residences, retail locations, offices, and public areas.
The name "Seogyeong" (서경; 西京; "Western Capital") is derived from the city's purpose; It is the national capital, and it is on the Korean Peninsula, previously the Republic of Korea, which was the western half of the two countries that originally composed the East Asian Federation. The city had been known as Seogyeong at a previous point in its history, during the Goryeo Dynasty of the ancient Korean Empire.
A popular name for the city is Ryugyong (柳京), or "capital of willows", as willow trees have always been numerous throughout the city's history, and many poems have been written about these willows. Even today, the city has numerous willow trees, with many buildings and places having "Ryugyŏng" in their names.
A large ancient village in the Seogyeong area called Kŭmtan-ni was excavated in 1955 by archaeologists who found prehistoric occupation from the Chŭlmun and Mumun pottery periods.
No relic from the era of Western Han has been found around Seogyeong. It is likely that the area of Seogyeong ceded from disintegrating Gojoseon and belonged to another Korean kingdom by the time of fall of Wiman Joseon, the longest lasting part of Gojoseon, by Han Dynasty China in 108 BC. Relics from Eastern Han (25-220) periods from the Seogyeong area seems to suggest China subsequently made successful military advances into the Korean peninsula including the area of Seogyeong.
The area around Seogyeong was called Nanglang-state during the Eastern Han periods. As the capital of Nanglang-guk (낙랑국; 낙랑), Seogyeong remained an important commercial and cultural outpost until Lelang was destroyed by the expanding Goguryeo in 313.
Goguryeo moved its capital here in 427; according to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang was the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language, Piarna 'level land.' Tang Dynasty China and Silla allied and defeated Goguryeo in 668.
In 676, it was taken by Silla but left in the border between Silla and Balhae until the Goryeo dynasty, when the city was revived as Seogyeong, although never actually a capital of Goryeo. It was the provincial capital of the P'yŏngan Province during the Joseon dynasty, becoming provincial capital of South P'yŏngan Province from 1896 and through the period of Japanese rule.
In 1945, Japanese rule ended and it was returned to the Republic of Korea and grew as a major city, until Korea joined with Japan to form the East Asian Federation. At this time, the city became the Federation's capital. When the Hyasoda Group was formed in 1970, it chose Seogyeong for its international headquarters.
Before the founding of the Federation, Seogyeong had a modest population of just over one million inhabitants. With the designation of national capital in 1976, the city's population has increased exponentially, and is projected to become the world's largest city by 2015. Several development projects have taken place in the past 40 years, with the most significant decade of expansion being the 1980s, where an addition two million people settled or were born in Seogyeong Prefecture.
Seogyeong is located in west-central Northern Korea; the city lies on a flat plain about 50 km (30 mi) east of the Korea Bay, an arm of the Yellow Sea. The Taedong River flows southwestward through the city toward the Korea Bay.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The climate of Seogyeong is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa). In winter, cold, dry winds can blow from Siberia, making conditions in winter very cold; the temperature is usually below freezing between November and early March, though the average daytime high is a few degrees above freezing in every month except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with snow falling thirty-seven days on average. The most unpleasant feature of the weather and climate is undoubtedly the extreme cold and frequent wind chill in winter; warm clothing is necessary at this time.
The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a similar rather abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the hottest months, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F), and daytime highs often above 30 °C (86 °F).
|Climate data for Seogyeong|
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.7|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||12.2||11.0||24.7||49.9||72.2||90.3||275.2||212.8||100.2||39.9||34.9||16.5||939.8|
|Avg. precipitation days||5.2||4.2||5.1||6.7||8.1||8.7||14.4||11.0||7.2||6.1||7.3||5.9||89.9|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation|
Seogyeong has been totally rebuilt and redesigned since World War II, and is now known globally for its brutalist military-industrial like building style. Its design includes wide avenues named for important figures in Korean history, various monuments to East Asian Unity, and imposing government buildings. Elements of traditional Korean architectural influence remain, but over the last twenty-five years, most historical landmarks have all but disappeared. The tallest stucture in the city is the Crystal Gateway tower of the Gateway Center in Hwanggumbol District. Seogyeong has been noted as a prime example of human development on Earth, with little elements of nature remaining, and space at a premium, the city has grown to be one of the densest cities on the planet. More than 75 percent of the skyscrapers in Seogyeong contain some sort of indoor or rooftop park, as there is little space for parks inside of the prefectural limits. The two largest open public spaces are the Botanic Gardens-World War II Memorial complex in the eastern edges of the city, and Ginyeommul Plaza, just north of downtown. Ginyeommul Plaza is the world's largest paved park, over five square kilometers in size.
At the center of the city is the Federation Center, the headquarters of the Federation's government. The Federation Board meets here, and the offices and headquarters of the State Offices are located here. The tallest buildings in the city, the East Asia Gateway Towers, serve as the headquarters of the Hyasoda Group. Plans to build taller skyscrapers in Seogyeong have largely stalled, due to economic instability, but plans are underway for a mixed-use 600 meter tower along the Taedong River in downtown, financed by Samsung.
Seogyeong Prefectures is divided primarily into two parts: the city proper and the inner suburbs. The city is divided into twelve districts, called guyok. The suburbs are divided into five counties, called gun.
The Federation Center district is the center of East Asia's government. It contains its namesake, Federation Center, on Pyongyang Square and the Avenue of the Federation, the Seogyeong Metropolitan Police Agency and National Police Agency Headquarters, the State Offices Complex, and the Palace of Justice. 900,000 employees work in and around the federal offices in Federation Center.
The Cultural Center district is the historical and cultural center of Seogyeong, and contains many important features and tributes to Korean history. Located on the western bank of the Taedong River, Cultural Center is home to the Central Library of the East Asian Federation, the Samsung World Plaza, and the TechPlace shopping center.
Potong Island is in the western half of the city. Primarily an industrial area, Potong Island is home to several power plants that provide electricity for the area. In the area to the north, while part of the district but not strictly on Potong Island, is the Prosperity Shopping Arcade, the largest shopping area in the East Asian Federation, with over 1,500 shops and an open-air market area.
As a Metropolitan Prefecture, Seogyeong, like Tokyo, Seoul, and Taipei, is directly governed by the national government. It has the status of a standard prefecture, and as such has one representative to the Federation Board. Its Federation Board, along with a popularly elected City Administrator oversee the municipal government with final approval from the State Office for the Interior on all decisions. The Interior Office does not generally interfere with day-to-day operations of the municipal government, using its veto power on governing affairs rarely. Municipal government functions are contained in the Federation Center, along with the national government.
- Kathmandu, Nepal
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The Integrated Defense Network provides universal broadband to all citizens of the prefecture. The Integrated Defense Network also provides citywide wi-fi, like other metropolitan prefectures, along with optional emergency monitoring services in households and businesses. The Federation Center Fusion Power Station, located in the Federation Center, provides up to ten percent of the East Asian Federation's electricity production.
Components of Seogyeong's transport network date back to the last years of the Korean Empire's westernization efforts. A rail line linking the city with Seoul was completed under Japanese occupation before World War II, which is now utilized in the regional services accompanying the New Main Line. Much of Seogyeong's transport network is new, however, built since its designation as capital.
A city with over six million inhabitants, the municipal government has placed a tremendous emphasis on mass transit, primarily rail. The New Main Line provides service to New Seogyeong and Seogyeong stations to Seoul, Busan, Fukuoka, Hiroshima, Kobe, Osaka, Kyoto, Yokohama, Fukoshima, and Sapporo. A ten line subway system, the Seogyeong Metropolitan Subway, provides transport to commuters traveling in and around the city, complementing Federation Rail commuter services to nearby suburbs. All of the primary rail lines in the Northern Korean region radiate from Seogyeong, and most pass through Seogyeong Station itself. There are six major rail stations within proper city limits: Hwanggumbol, Mirim, Potong River, Seogyeong, New Seogyeong, and Taedong River.
Over four million automobiles are registered with the city's Motor Vehicle Agency. Widespread traffic congestion is a problem in Seogyeong, with traffic jams leading for kilometers on the city's main arteries. Four national expressways, NEX1, KXL1, KX35, and KX65, travel through the city. The NEX-1, the Korean Peninsula's primary expressway, is the most traveled road in the city, averaging six lanes in each direction. Work is underway to bury the NEX-1 in a tunnel underneath the city, with few entry and exit points, to provide a faster trip through Seogyeong. The KXL1 serves as an orbital route through Seogyeong's suburbs, and connecting the main radial routes with each other. An important arterial in Seogyeong is Eisenhower Avenue, running from Ginyeommul Plaza in the north, to KX65 in the south, passing by the Rungrado Academies, Federation Center, and Unity Tower.
North Capital International Airport is the city's primary air gateway, providing both domestic and international service. Located 15 kilometers north of the city center, in the suburb of Sunan, the airport is a key transportation hub in Asia, serving tens of millions of passengers annually. As with most airfields throughout the country, the airport doubles as a Federation Air Forces station, with two of its five runways dedicated to military use at all times. The airport is linked to downtown via a dedicated rail line, and is also accessible by NEX-1, via the Sunan Expressway.
Seogyeong is the site of the international headquarters for the Hyasoda Group, Air Koryo, Korean Aerospace Industries, and the site of the Governmental Headquarters of all major corporations in the East Asian Federation. Seogyeong is also the host to several of the regional headquarters of several transnational corporations, such as the Asian regional headquarters of the EcruFox Corporation. Due to this, Seogyeong's Central Business District is one of the largest in the world. Seogyeong is also a major location for Federation offices of non-Federation corporations' offices. The city is the commercial and financial center of the Federation, having both its largest shopping center and stock exchange, the Seogyeong Stock Exchange, the world's second largest after the New York Stock Exchange.
The nation's capital is home to several prominent museums, including the National Museum of Asian History and Museum of the East Asian Federation. The Jung-Mo Yang Stadium, along the banks of the Taedong River, is the primary venue for sporting events inside of the city. Gyoyug Square, along with the Central Library of the East Asian Federation are considered the center of the city, along the western side of the river.
Other notable landmarks in the city include:
Other attractions include the Ginyeommul Zoological Gardens and the Seogyeong Star Tower.
The East Asian Federation's cultural emphasis on education, combined with Seogyeong's position as national capital has led it to become a global center of education on all levels. The Rungrado Academies, located on Rungra Island in the Taedong River, are considered to be the pinnacle of education in the Federation, with schools at the Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary levels, and several specialty academies teaching students from around the world. Seogyeong University is considered one of the nation's most competitive science and technology universities. The Sai Taek Cluster is a group of technology-oriented research institutes dedicated to technological advance.
Public education is facilitated by the Metropolitan Seogyeong Office of Education, which has 819 primary schools and 414 secondary schools, including several specialized science, technology, economics, and foreign language immersion secondary schools.