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Sharqi
Şarqi
Spoken in Sharqistan
Ethnicity Sharqis
Native speakers 2,140,500  (2012)
Language family
Altaic
  • Turkic
    • Eastern Turkic
      • Sharqi
Official status
Regulated by Sharqi Nehizde Tilinen
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sq
ISO 639-2 srq
ISO 639-3 srq

The Sharqi language (Sharqi: Şarqi tili) is the official language of Sharqistan.

Script

The Cyrillic alphabet was the official script for Sharqi, until 2013, when it was replaced by Latin. This change later started a transition to Latin, which brought to a rearrangement of the alphabetical order and the elimination of the phoneme [ɪ] from the new Latin alphabet and the absorption of the phoneme [i] into a new letter: I i. A new letter, X x was also introduced (representing [ks]). The letters Ё ё, Ю ю and Я я have been abolished. Although not part of the alphabet, Y y ([j]) is sometimes used in loanwords.

In late 2015, an initiative to use the Georgian script along with the Latin was launched by Gennadi Nagelov. The Government is currently not looking forward to implementing Mkhedruli.

Alphabet

Letter Cyrillic (until 2013) Georgian (proposed) Name IPA
A a А а a [a]
B b Б б be [b]
D d Д д de [d]
E e Е е e [e]
F f Ф ф fe [f]
G g Г г ge [g]
Ġ ġ Ғ ғ ġe [ʤ]
H h Һ һ ha [x]~[h]~[χ]
I i I i i [i]~[ɪ]
J j Й й je [j]
K k К к ka [k]
L l Л л el [l]
M m М м em [m]
N n Н н en [n] ([ŋ] if final letter)
O o О о o [o]~[ɔ]
Ö ö Ө ө ოე ö or ogaşa o[1] [œ]
P p П п pe [p]
Q q Қ қ qa [p]
R r Р р er [r]~[ɾ]
S s C c es [s]
Ş ş Ш ш or ogaşa s[2] [ɕ]
T t Т т te [t]
U u Ұ ұ u [u]
Ü ü Ү ү უე ü or ogaşa u[3] [y]
V v В в ve [v]
W w[4] У у we [w]
X x Кс кс ქს xe [ks]
Y y[5] Й й ye [j]
Z z З з ze [z]
Ž ž Ж ж že [ʐ]
Ts ts Ц ц tse [ts]
Ć ć Ч ч će [ʧ]
Jo jo[6] Ё ё ჲო jo [jo]
Ju ju[7] Ю ю ჲუ ju [ju]
Ja ja[8] Я я ჲა ja [ja]


Sample of the scripts

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Sharqi in Latin scriptSharqi in Cyrillic scriptGeorgian script (proposed)English
Bartsük ödamlar jahsiarboli va huquqlariazi ozod va ten tügadi. Ölar sabab va oždan bisir va akaboli ruhazi bir-başkarü nemojdi kereq edi. Барцүк өдамлар яһсіарболі ва һұқұқларіазі озод ва тен түгаді. Өлар сабаб ва ождан бісір ва акаболі рұһазі бір-башкарү немойді кереқ еді. ბარწუეყ ოედამლარ ჲახსიარბოლი ვა ხუყუყლარიაზი ოზოდ ვა თენ თუეგადი. ოლარ საბაბ ვა ოზშდან ბისირ ვა აქაბოლი რუხაზი ბირ-ბაშქარუე ნემოჲდი ქერეყ ედი. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Morphology and syntax

Nouns in Sharqi take a number of case endings, which are the same for all nouns, both in singular and plural.

Case Possible forms boatairbuckethandheadsalteye
Nominative qajiq ava şalak qol böş tuz köz
Genitive –nen (-anen, if preceded by k or q) qajiqanen avanen şalakanen qolnen başnen tuznen köznen
Dative –ige (-ge, if preceded by vowel) qajige[9] avage şalakige qolige başige tuzige közige
Accusative –a (-e, if preceded by a) qajiqa avae şalaka qola başa tuza köza
Locative –em (-m, if preceded by vowel)/–da qajiqem avaem şalakem qolem başem tuzem közem
Vocative Same as nominative qajiq ava şalak qol baş tuz köz
Ablative –ili (-li, if preceded by vowel) qajiqili avali şalakili qolili başili tuzili közili
Case Possible forms boatsairsbucketshandsheadssaltseyes
Nominative qajiqlar avalar şalaklar qollar başlar tuzlar közlar
Genitive –nen qajiqlaranen avalarnen şalaklaranen qollarnen başlarnen tuzlarnen közlarnen
Dative –ige qajiqlarige avalarige şalaklarige qollarige başlarige tuzlarige közlarige
Accusative –a qajiqlara avalara şalaklara qollara başlara tuzlara közlara
Locative –em qajiqlarem avalarem şalaklarem qollarem başlarem tuzlarem közlarem
Vocative Same as nominative qajiqlar avalar şalaklar qollar başlar tuzlar közlar
Ablative –ili qajiqlarili avalarli şalaklarili qollarili başlarili tuzlarili közlarili

Pronouns

In Sharqi, both subject and object pronouns are expressed in the same way.

Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
SharqiEnglishSharqiEnglish
MenIBizWe
SinYou (singular)SinerYou (plural)
AlHe/She/ItAlarThey

The declension of pronouns uses different suffixes; the vocative case is not applied:

Declension of pronouns
Singular Plural
1st sing.2nd sing.3rd sing.1st plur.2nd plur.3rd plur.
Nom mensinalbizsineralar
Gen menensinenalenbizensinerenalaren
Dat menasinaalabizasineraalara
Acc meneksinekalekbizeksinerekalarek
Abl menursinuralurbizursineruralarur

Possessive pronouns

In Sharqi, to express possession (in a sentence in where the owned object is the subject), either the possessive pronoun or the genitive declension of the pronoun can be used. For example, "That car is mine" can be translated to Maşina menen ([The] car [is] [Genitive singular of men]) or Maşina menaq ([The] car [is] mine).

Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
SharqiEnglishSharqiEnglish
MenaqMineBizaqOurs
SinaqYours (singular)SineraqYours (plural)
AlaqHis/Hers/ItsAlaraqTheirs

The declension of pronouns uses different suffixes; the vocative case is not applied:

Declension of pronouns
Singular Plural
1st sing.2nd sing.3rd sing.1st plur.2nd plur.3rd plur.
Nom mensinalbizsineralar
Gen meninsininalinbizinsinerinalarin
Dat menasinaalabizasineraalara
Acc meneksinekalekbizeksinerekalarek
Abl menursinuralurbizursineruralarur

Verbs

Verbs in Sharqi are placed at the end of the sentence, such as in here: Men maktebaga berüm (I go to school), being placed as "I school-dynamic place complement go-conjugating particle".

Verb conjugation

Verb conjugation is the same for all the verbs. An example is written below, with the verb ojin (to play)

Present
Person Possible forms Present
Men –em (-m, if preceded by vowel) ojinem
Sin –sün ojinsün
Al –at (-t, if preceded by vowel) ojinat
Biz –oq (-q, if preceded by vowel) ojinoq
Siner –iz (-z, if preceded by vowel) ojiniz
Alar –di ojindi
Negative

In Sharqi, the negative of a verb is expressed by adding -jok (literally "no") at the end of the conjugated verb.

Example: Men supermarketaga berümjok. (I don't go to the supermarket.)

Past

To conjugate a verb in the past, simply add ökten after the main (conjugated) verb.

Example: Sin bo kitep oqesün ökten? (Have you read/Did you read this book?)

Future

To conjugate a verb in the future, simply add altadej after the main (conjugated) verb.

Example: Jahon Amerika Qoşilaq Vilojatlarga berüt altadej (Jahon will go to the United States of America)

Subjunctive

In Sharqi, the subjunctive is expressed by the pronoun, followed by the base form of the verb.

Example: Men sin kopirq oqe oylanem. (I suggest that you study more.)

In this case, oqe (to study) is at the base form, and therefore not conjugated.

Conditional

In Sharqi, the subjunctive is expressed by conjugated verb, followed by edi (would)

Examples:

  1. Men supermarketaga berüm edi. (I would go to the supermarket)
  2. Sin al sinamoq kereq edi! (You should try it out!)

Passive form

To make a verb passive, the particle -boli (literally "to be") is added between the verb and the conjugation desinence.

Examples:

  1. Al tandaşboliq. (He is chosen)
  2. Men tandaşbolim ökten. (I have/had been chosen)
  3. Sin tandaşbolisün altadej. (You will be/will have been chosen)

Imperative

To form the imperative of a verb, the conjugated verb is followed by the nominative declension of the pronoun referring to the subject. The compound is placed after the object complement.

Examples:

  1. Al raqtaniz siner! (Enjoy it!) [2nd plural]
  2. Qalayidiş žinausün sin. (Pick up that tin can.)
  3. Menek toqtazjok siner! (Don't stop me!)

Adjectives

Demonstrative adjectives

Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
SharqiEnglishSharqiEnglish
BulThisBularThese
DebThatDeblarThose

Possessive adjectives

Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
SharqiEnglishSharqiEnglish
MenenMyBizenOur
SinenYour (singular)SinerenYour (plural)
AlenHis/Her/ItsAlarenTheir
Personal pronouns
Singular Plural
SharqiEnglishSharqiEnglish
MenenlarMyBizenlarOur
SinenlarYour (singular)SinerenlarYour (plural)
AlenlarHis/Her/ItsAlarenlarTheir

Examples:

  1. Deb menen piġak. (That [is] my jacket.)
  2. Deblar menenlar piġaklar. (Those [are] my jackets.)

Locative suffixes

To express movement, Sharqi uses a system of suffixes, added to the interested noun.

Locative preposition Possible forms restoran (restaurant)
in/at/within/inside –em/–da restoranem/restoranda
from –dan restorandan
to –aga restoranaga
by/close to/nearby/around –jaqin restoranjaqin
far from/out –ozak restoranozak
above/over/on top of –önġi restoranönġi
below/under/
beneath/underneath
–alta restoranalta
between/among –şi restoranşi
next to –jinda restoranjinda
in front of –di restorandi
behind –arti restoranarti

Vocabulary

Basic words

Sharqi English
Salom Hello
Qalajsin(er)? How are you (all)?
Men jahşimin. Fine.
Men jamön qaldim. I'm (feeling) bad.
(Kapö) Ragmat! Thank you (very much)
Ha Yes
Jok No
Uşomadad You're welcome!
Bu jerda Here
Ana jerda There
Son Right
Ćon Left
Kapö Big
Kićno Small/Little
Kopirq More/Plus
Ozirq Less/Minus
Azi; -azi With
Uda; -jok Without
(Menek) Keşirim! Excuse me!/Sorry!
Jahsi tan Good morning
Jahsi tankjin Good afternoon
Jahsi tun Good night
Мen [Şarqistan]dan kelobem I come from [Sharqistan]
[Avtobus/Poezd/Taxi] Stantsija [Bus/Train/Taxi] Station
Kuşa/Jol Street/Road
Polisija Police
Qiziluj Hospital
Qiziljardam (van) Ambulance (van)
Otaşjoködamlar Firfighters
Kapöjol[10] Highway
Avtostrada Freeway (US)/Motorway (UK)

Numbers

Latin English Number
Nol Zero 0
Bir One 1
Iki Two 2
Us Three 3
Tört Four 4
Beş Five 5
Alti Six 6
Jetti Seven 7
Sekiz Eight 8
Toqüz Nine 9
On Ten 10
On bir Eleven 11
Оn iki Twelve 12
Žirma Twenty 20
Žirma bir Twenty-one 21
Otuz Thirty 30
Qirq Forty 40
Elü Fifty 50
Öltmiş Sixty 60
Jetmiş Seventy 70
Sekmiş Eighty 80
Toqmiş Ninety 90
Jüz One hundred 100
Jüz elü One hundred [and] fifty 150
Iki jüz Two hundred 200
Us jüz Three hundred 300
Tort jüz Four hundred 400
Beş jüz Five hundred 500
Min One thousand 1000
On min Ten thousand 10,000
Juz min One hundred thousand 100,000
Bir miljon One million 1,000,000
Bir miljard One billion 1,000,000,000

Notes

  1. Literally "strange o".
  2. Literally "strange s".
  3. Literally "strange u".
  4. Used in loanwords.
  5. Used in loanwords.
  6. Not considered a letter since 2013.
  7. Not considered a letter since 2013.
  8. Not considered a letter since 2013.
  9. In nouns ending in -q and -k, the final letter is dropped and replaced by -ge.
  10. Mainly used for big in-city roads, such as Qömlik Road in Olmos.

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