|Province of Shasta (en)|
|— Province of Sierra —|
Nickname(s): The Redwood Province (official); The Free Love Province;|
The Outdoorsman's Province; The German Province
Motto(s): Salus Populi Suprema Est Lex |
(Latin: The welfare of the people is the supreme law)
|Provincial song(s): "That Lovely Redwood Land"|
|Official language(s)||*Nationally recognized languages|
Ranked 3rd |
Ranked 14th |
|Admission to the Union||December 27, 1877 (14th)|
|Lord Superintendent||Sir Walter Williams|
|Lieutenant Governor||Julian Saenz|
Shasta Provincial Legislature (Unicameral) |
Donald Baer (G)|
Alice Waters (G)
Brent Voigt (DR)
|K.S. House delegation||
3 total commoners|
Pacific Time Zone |
UTC –8/UTC –7
Category • Topics
|The Flag of Shasta|
|The Seal of Shasta|
|Amphibian||Pacific tree frog|
|Crustacean||Red rock crab|
|Reptile||Northern alligator lizard|
|Colors||Cerulean Sky, White, Green Haze|
|Poem||Crown Yonder Hill|
|Song(s)||"That Lovely Redwood Land"|
| || |
Part of a series on the provinces and territories of Sierra
Shasta is the northwesternmost province of Sierra, located along the western coast of North America on the Pacific Ocean. Composed of 7 counties, Shasta is home to 984,221 people spread over 27,607 square miles, making it the 14th most populous and 3rd largest province of Sierra. The capital of Shasta is Apfelhain, which is the principal city of the Apfelhain-Mondsichelhafen metropolitan area, while the largest city is Eureka. Admitted into the Kingdom on November 28, 1858, it is the 9th province in order of admission to Sierra. It is the only second-level administrative region to have German as one of its official languages.
Shasta borders Rainier to the north, Washumko to the east, Plumas to the south, and the Pacific to the west. It is officially a part of the Sierran Pacific Northwest region, although it is sometimes considered an extended part of the Styxie due to historical and political connections. During the Sierran Civil War, Shasta formed an integral part of the self-declared Second California Republic. Its heavily German-influenced culture, progressive politics, and relative geographical separation from most of Sierra has made the province particularly unique amongst the Kingdom.
Shasta is an environmentally and geographically diverse province typical of the northern fringes of Sierra which can be divided into two unique geographic areas. The eastern portion of the province possesses the southernmost edges of the Cascade Range and is covered by both coniferous forests and fields of short grasses on top of hilly highlands and in mountain valleys. The western portion of the province in mainly covered in hills and highlands and is almost completely made up of dense forests. The world-renowned Redwood forests of Sierra, which draw tens of thousands of visitors every year, are located on Shasta's Pacific coast.
Prior to European discovery and exploration of Sierra, Shasta was mainly inhabited by a diverse group of Amerindians that included the Shasta, the Yurok, the Hupa, and the Karuk. The natives' way of life was left undisturbed for about a century longer than their southern counterparts further down in present-day Plumas. The first recorded European presence in Shasta was an accidental landing by a Spanish crew, who were part of the Manila Galleons, near Trinidad in 1775. By the 19th century, the Russians had begun colonization of northern Sierra through the establishment of active seafaring and sea lion hunting along Shasta's coast. Small parties of New Hollander colonists also explored parts of southern Shasta in their expansion northward, averting Spanish detection. Although Shasta was nominally claimed by New Spain and later, its successor Mexico, it did not see any significant development or attention until California gained independence as a republic in 1848. Shasta's population grew exponentially during and after the Gold Rush, and was a top destination for German-speaking Americans traveling along the Oregon Trail. It was initially administered as part of the larger state of Plumas, but it eventually gained provincehood in 1877 under Sierra following a partition passed by Parliament.
Shasta was occupied by the self-declared California Republic during the Sierran Civil War, before pro-government forces regained control over the area shortly before the war's end in 1877. During Sierra's economic boom during the late 19th-century, Shasta experienced the rise in boom towns as thousands of immigrants came for the province's budding mining and lumber industries. The development of the transcontinental railroad system and telegraph network substantially boosted the province's unprecedented population growth in the region, which saw the population approaching well over 100,000 by 1900. During and between both world wars, Shasta's manufacturing industries became a crucial component to the province's continued growth. It was also at the forefront of the Sierran Cultural Revolution, home to a disproportionately high percentage of Sierran Hapas. Deeply involved in progressive politics, the Hapas allied with the province's majority German-speaking population, who were predominantly liberal-minded. In the present-day, Shasta remains the most socially liberal province in the Kingdom, being the first to have legalized same-sex marriage and recreational marijuana in 2002 and 2004 respectively, and among the first to adopt reforms working towards socialized medicine and education. It has also been a hotspot for far-left extremism and eco-terrorism, which was especially problematic during the 1970s and 1980s, when the province faced arson-related attacks, hostage crises, and bombings.
The name Shasta traces its origins back to the Shasta people, an indigenous Amerindian tribe found in northern Shasta and southern Oregon in Rainier. The Shasta originally inhabited the Siskiyou Mountains and numbered as much as 2,000 individuals prior to contact with the Europeans. This origin has been anachronistically applied to the name. The province however, was actually named after Mount Shasta (which was named after the Shasta tribe), the highest mountain in the province and the fifth highest in Sierra. Peter Skene Ogden, a leader of a Hudson's Bay Company brigade, is widely credited with giving the mountain the name (originally as Sasty or Sastise, in honor of the previously mentioned Amerindian tribe). However, Ogden was referring to the nearby Mount McLoughlin, which was several miles due north of Mount Shasta. The name Shasta formally transferred from Mount McLoughlin to Mount Shasta in 1841 when the United States Exploring Expedition dispatched an expedition team in Upper California. A party of researchers, under the command of George F. Emmons traveled from Portland, Oregon towards San Francisco Bay along the Siskiyou Trail, where they made sight and note of Mount Shasta. The mountain's notability and prominence eventually loaned its name to refer the entire previously unexplored region of northern California. When Shasta became a province in Sierra, it was officially named the Province of Shasta. Its German spelling is Schasta.
The official provincial nickname is "The Redwood Province", which appears on its vehicle registration plates, government websites, welcome signs, and tourism advertisements. The nickname is a reference to its famous redwoods, which are uniquely endemic to the coastal forests of northern Sierra and southern Rainier. The redwood is also the province's official tree. The Sequoiadendron giganteum, also known as the giant redwood, are found along the western slopes of Sierra Nevada, and have been a symbol of endearment and pride for the province. The nickname was formally chosen by the Shasta Provincial Legislature on September 9, 1956. Presiding governor Richard D. Calhoun remarked, "The beautiful redwood is a remarkable, striking creation of God. One cannot help but only stand in awe and amazement at the domineering majesty when one looks up at one of them."
The "Free Love Province" is the second most common nickname for Shasta, with it first emerging during the 1970s from residents and non-residents to describe the province's general attitudes towards sexuality and relationships. The province has been long noted for its gay-friendly and progressive politics. It was at the forefront of the early LGBT rights movement in Sierra and voters embraced the principles of free love. Hippie communities and love communes were common in Shasta during the Sexual Revolution, and some of Sierra's first gay pride parades were held in the province. It became the second province after San Francisco in 2004 in making same-sex marriages legal. It is home to some of Anglo-America's largest LGBTQ+ communities and is also home to a significant subculture of BDSM enthusiasts.
Other nicknames for the province include "The Outdoorsman's Province", "The Forested Province", "The German Province", "The Pioneer Province", and "The Indian Province".
Its official provincial motto is Salus Populi Suprema Est Lex, which in Latin means "The welfare of the people is the supreme law".
Shasta is the northwesternmost province in Sierra. It borders the Rainian state of Oregon to the north, which follows a generally straight path that runs west-to-east. To the east is Washumko, with the border between the two provinces following the 120th meridian west. To the south is Plumas, which roughly follows the 40th parallel north. The Pacific Ocean forms the western boundary of Shasta. With an area of 27,607 square mile (71,501 km2), Shasta is larger than Ireland and Georgia, while it is smaller than Sierra Leone. It is the 6th largest province in Sierra. Shasta's highest point is Mount Shasta, at 14,179 ft (4,322 m), and its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean at the Shasta coast. Shasta's two largest rivers are the Klamath River and the Pit River, which both flow east-to-west, with the former emptying into the Pacific Ocean and the latter flowing into the Shasta Lake and Sacramento River.
It is a Pacific Northwest province and is generally considered a part of the Styxie. It has been historically associated with republicanism because it became a constituent state of the breakaway Second California Republic during the Sierran Civil War and was home to a large voting bloc of Democratic-Republican voters, including German farmers.
Topography and terrain
Topographically, Shasta's terrain is rugged and mountainous. Its landscape has one of the largest areas of undisturbed or minimally exploited natural areas in Sierra. For instance, the Shasta–Trinity National Forest features over 2.2 million square acres of federally protected land.
Western Shasta is dominated by the Coast Ranges and the Klamath Mountains, which extends into Southern Rainier. Nearly two-thirds of Shasta's population lives to the west of the Klamath Mountains, while the mountains themselves are sparsely populated due to its highly variable topography. The highest peak in the Klamath Mountains is Mount Eddy at 9,025 feet (2,751 m). The Trinity River and Klamath River are the two major sources of water found in this section of the province.
The transnational Cascade Range in Shasta divides the province in half and includes the province's tallest peak, Mount Shasta. Lassen Peak, at 10,457 ft (3,187 m), forms the southern terminus of the mountain range near the Shasta–Plumas border. The mountains are part of the Ring of Fire and include both volcanically active and dormant peaks. Like much of the Cascades, the mountains' peaks are usually snowcapped year-round. Its supply of snow is replenished during the fall and winter due to strong prevailing westerlies originating from the Pacific that allow for substantial precipitation along its western slopes due to orographic lift. The region has an abundance of ravines, canyons, rivers, and lakes pocketing the range. Southern Central Shasta includes the northernmost section of Central Valley, which is known as the Sacramento Valley. The Sacramento River from the Klamath Mountains feeds the valley's flat and fertile soil with a steady stream of melted snow, which leads further south into Central Sierra.
Eastern Shasta is dominated by the Modoc Plateau, a relatively flat highland about 4,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level. The plateau is cushioned between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Warner Mountains to the east (which straddles the northeastern corner of the province). Small portions of the Basin and Range Province are also in eastern Shasta. The southeastern portion of Shasta, including the Adams' Panhandle, contains Eagle Lake, Honey Lake, and virtually all of their watershed. The Adams' Panhandle includes the Great Basin areas east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the Shasta–Washumko border, running along the Long Valley Creek River for the majority of its length.
Shasta has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb), which is further divided into three subtypes based on location and altitude. Coastal Shasta experiences significantly cooler and more uniform temperatures due to an oceanic-like climate known as cool-summer Mediterranean. Further inland, areas west of the Sierra Nevada experiences a hot summer Mediterranean climate with drier and hotter summers seen prevalent through western Sierra. Higher altitudes receive substantially more precipitation, cool summers, and mild winters known as the cold summer Mediterranean climate. These areas are heavily influenced by the nearby hot-summer Mediterranean areas and the Pacific Ocean, and have wintertime temperatures just low enough to allow snowfall. The highest altitudes have an alpine climate.
The Sierra Nevada has a profound effect on precipitation and climate in Shasta. As a result of its geography, it is the one of the wettest places in all of Sierra and its watershed is the largest source of water for the country. It casts a large rain shadow that leaves Eastern Shasta drier and lower in humidity year-round when compared to Western Shasta. The transmontane, inland sections of Eastern Shasta experience a hybrid climate of Mediterranean and continental. Although the region is generally semi-arid and experiences warm to hot summers, freezing temperatures have been observed in every month of the year, and cool nights can occur during even the hottest summer days.
Flora and fauna
Shasta supports a highly diverse assortment of wildlife and plants, some of which are only endemic to the region. Around 60 percent of the province is forested, mostly west of the Cascades, with 40 percent of this land protected as federal or provincial land. The province is divided into several ecoregions, each formed through a combination of local geography, altitude, and climate. Large forests of coniferous and redwood trees can be found along the western slopes of the mountain range. Common tree species includes the redwood, ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, western red cedar, hemlock, pepperwood, tanoak, and many species of fern. Other trees include the black oak and blue oak, which are unique to the province and neighboring areas. Over two million acres of old-growth forest can be found in the northwestern corner of the province. Shasta's forest floors support an array of flowering plants, mosses, grasses, and fungi such as swordferns, tulips, tiger lilies, barrenworts, and huckleberries.
Terrestrial mammals native to Shasta include the American black bear, gray fox, coyote, mountain lion, bobcat, skunk, tree squirrel, Roosevelt elk, chipmunk, muskrat, Virginia opossum, yellow-bellied marmot, pika, pronghorn, raccoon, and wolverine. Historical extirpated species that once inhabited Shasta include the grizzly bear and gray wolf. These two species were once common throughout the province, but were hunted for sport and fur during the California Gold Rush. The last known grizzly in Shasta was recorded in 1921, several years before its population in all of Sierra was completely decimated. Recently, there has been interest in reintroducing a small population of grizzly bears in the province.
Shasta's wide range in geography supports various ecoregions, which are able to sustain a variety of avian species including kingfishers, chickadees, eagles, owls, ducks, quails, and other birds. Shasta is also home to hundreds of species of aquatic life including salmon, trout, whales, sea basses, sea lions, sturgeon, seals, and shellfish. There are also dozens of amphibian and reptilian species known to inhabit the province, including several species of rattlesnakes.
Shasta has several provincial parks and five national parks. Among them include Moonlight Coast Redwoods Provincial Park, Royal Redwood National Park, Shasta–Trinity National Park, Klamath National Park, Lava Beds National Monument, Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and Modoc Provincial Park. There are a total of 45 federally and provincially protected areas in Shasta, totaling some 2.5 million square acres of forests, grasslands, wetlands, lakes, caves, beaches, and mountains.
The original inhabitants of Shasta was a significant Amerindian population that included Shasta, Yurok, Wiyot, Karuk, Modoc, and Athabaskan-speaking tribes. The culturally and linguistically diverse groups lived in Shasta for thousands of years. Since European exploration and settlement was limited to south of modern-day Plumas during the Spanish and Mexican colonial periods, Shasta's indigenous populations largely eluded outside contact until the mid-19th century. Nonetheless, Shasta was a de jure territory of Spain and later Mexico, the former of which claimed the area for itself and the latter which later inherited the claims. Few land grants and ranchos were established by the Mexican government, including Rancho Buena Ventura, though mostly for Anglo-American and European settlers. There were limited excursions to Shasta by the New Hollander colonists and Russians who settled nearby. Tribal contact with outsiders increased substantially in the years preceding the Mexican-American War and the California Gold Rush. After California gained its independence, Shasta was incorporated as a part of the state of Plumas, which later reorganized as the province of Plumas when California transitioned into Sierra in 1858. Anglo-American exploration of Shasta was first conducted by American explorer John C. Frémont (future Sierran prime minister). Frémont entered modern-day Shasta through Modoc County in 1846 from Plumas.
Interaction between Shasta's indigenous peoples and Anglo-American newcomers shifted from cautious curiosity to open, widespread hostilities. The Sierran-Indian Wars, which started during the Gold Rush, continued for decades until its conclusion in the 1880s. The war consisted of constant raids organized by both sides against each others' settlements, and skirmishes that erupted over accidental encounters or misunderstandings. After the Compact of Indian Friendship was signed in 1887, Shasta's tribes were one of the first Amerindian groups to benefit from the reservation system, with the federal government allocated over 6,000 square miles (mostly in Eastern Shasta) for such groups in the province alone.
Settlement of the region was much slower compared to its neighbors to the south. Shasta remained largely rural and uninhabited during the 19th century. Development was limited and focused near mining sites and forested areas, which provided employment to miners, loggers, and fur trappers. Agricultural work began in the Sacramento Valley, though was generally subsistence farming in nature. Despite its sluggish development, the province proved to be an ideal location for Anglo-American emigrants from the Midwest and American Northeast. Located near the Oregon Trail, groups of Germans and Scandinavians had the choice between settling in Rainier further north, or Shasta and the rest of Sierra. Those who came did so by traveling along the California Trail, before following the Applegate–Lassen Cutoff, and then moving along the Lassen path. This path was particularly treacherous and difficult to navigate, and was generally avoided by most travelers. The first major Anglo-American settlement in Shasta that was based off of the Oregon Trail migratory waves was in the city of Redding.
After the conclusion of the Sierran Civil War, Parliament granted provincial status to Shasta as part of a concessionary deal with the Republicans for greater representation in the Senate. More than half of Plumas was partitioned in order to create Shasta, although much of this territory was never substantially inhabited by Plumas' Dutch-speaking citizens. Shasta was administered by moderate Democratic-Republican loyalists who took control over the new provincial government in the 1877 provisional elections. The city of Redding was chosen as the province's first capital and seat of government, and was the location where the Shasta Provincial Legislature convened for the first time.
Initially, Shasta's post-war population consisted mainly of migrants from Plumas and other provinces from the Styxie, as well as spillover migrants from Rainier. The local economy was limited to agriculture, mining, and forestry, though its rugged terrain and geographic isolation made it difficult for large-scale community planning. Small communities also formed along the coasts where residents took up fishing and trade to make a living. As Sierra's population and economy grew however, Shasta became an attractive region for Anglo-American immigrants, particularly those from German and Scandinavian communities from Teutonica and the United Commonwealth. After the completion of the Western Pacific Railroad and First Transcontinental Railroad reached the province in 1862, the population of Shasta accelerated at even faster pace and the federal government provided major financial grants to support the province's steady stream of growth.
Shasta preserved the tradition of granting large parcels of land to buyers at very low prices, which encouraged settlement and commercial farming in the region, which was confined within the Sacramento Valley and the coasts. Geographic separation by the Klamath Mountains and Cascades made it difficult for the government in Redding to communicate with its citizens along the coast. This barrier would lead to two divergent cultures and economies. The capital finally moved to Apfelhain, along the coast, in 1924, as the province's population had disproportionately concentrated near the coast, away from the sparsely populated interior. The decision, which was made by the Legislature, was meant with mixed reactions, particularly in the former capital, Redding, and provoked some calls for splitting the province into two halves instead.
During the 1880s, Sierra and Rainier had a protracted dispute over their mutual borders along the Shasta–Oregon line. Over the course of a decade, the two countries engaged in low-intensity border skirmishes as both nations fought over a narrow strip of overlapped claims. In 1883, Lord Superintendent Noah Corbyn rose a militia of 200 men to defend Sierra's claims over Goose Lake Valley. Corbyn's militia trespassed the Rainian side of the valley on numerous occasions, ransacking the town of Lakeview before Rainier sent its own troops. The two sides fought for two weeks, and resulted in 31 deaths, before Corbyn ordered the militia to retreat. The incident provoked heightened tensions between Sierra and Rainier, before Parliament issued a formal injunction against the Lord Superintendent's actions, condemning the unilateral attack. King Smith I formally dismissed Lord Superintendent Corbyn thereafter.
Shasta became the first province in the Kingdom to extend suffrage to women, doing so in 1899 following a successful decade-long women's suffragist campaign in the sparsely populated region. The decision inspired other provinces to follow suit, including Plumas and San Joaquin, which joined Shasta in the years to come. Debbie Beaton was the first woman to ever serve in the Sierran House of Commons, representing Shasta's 3rd parliamentary district from 1902 to 1906 as a Democratic-Republican. Beaton was a Progressive politician and voted in favor of Revolution-friendly measures during Prime Minister Robert Landon's incumbency. Beaton's decisions were highly unpopular among local Shasta residents, particularly among conservative Democratic-Republicans, who felt alienated by her pro-revolution politics. She was singled out primarily due to being Shasta's only female legislator at the time, despite several of her other peers voting similarly to her. The Shasta Provincial Legislature passed a measure in 1905 to ban direct immigration from East Asia to Shasta, which Shasta's federal representatives, including Beaton, protested vehemently against. German-speaking trade unions rallied against ousting Beaton and her allies, and successfully campaigned conservative favorite John Headey as Beaton's challenge in the 1906 primaries. Headey won and joined ranks with the Parliament Democratic-Republicans' nativist wing.
During the 1920s, unrest among farmers and workers with the Democratic-Republican establishment in Shasta eventually led to a populist movement concentrated in the Reformed Democratic-Republican Party (RDR), which sought to restore the original principles of the Democratic-Republican Party, namely agrarianism and republicanism, both of which were shied away by the Democratic-Republicans at the beginning of the 20th century. The RDR ran numerous candidates in local government, which successfully passed sweeping legislation that restricted corporate and banking growth, and strengthened farmers' rights. The party forced banks to loan money to farmers at artificially low interest rates and provide subsidies to wheat farmers. A notable example to the subsidies programs was exemplified in the controversial 1925 Wheat Protection Act, which prohibited any subsidies for rice farmers in order to discourage its cultivation.
During the Interwar period, Shasta received an influx of European immigrants, most of whom hailed from The Banat, due to economic hardship and political strife in the immigrants' homeland. Shasta promoted itself as an idyllic haven for foreigners, and its already well-established community of German-speaking residents was a strong motivating factor behind becoming Banatians' most picked destination to Sierra. Unlike most other parts of Sierra, the German immigrants received little discrimination by their Anglo-American peers, due in part to the latter population being so sparsely populated in the province. German became the dominant language in many communities, which led to the province adopting German as its second official language (after English) in 1933. During the introduction of Sierran Hanzi to Shasta, a version for the German language was developed by Shasta lawmakers.
During and after World War II, Shasta's economy diversified considerably, with developing industries in military technology, telecommunications, chemical production, and real estate. The Appleton Bay became a center for the manufacturing of heavy bombers and naval ships. The Fort Andreas Naval Center military installation provided tens of thousands of jobs and generated billions of revenue for the province's economy until its discontinuation in 1991.
During the 1980s and 1990s, Shasta suffered a number of domestic terrorism-related incidents, the majority of which were carried out by eco-terrorists and arsonists who illegally started wildfires, bombed government buildings and businesses, and carried out political kidnappings and hostages. The Inter-Species Alliance (ISA) was the most prominent animal rights activism group in Shasta which actively engaged in terrorist activities. Political violence decreased dramatically at the turn of the 21st century as the government passed sweeping reforms in environmental protections and peace settlement negotiations which satisfied the groups' demands.
|K.S. Decennial Census|
The Sierra Royal Bureau of Census officially recorded a population of 984,221 during the 2010 census. In 2016, the Bureau estimated that the population of Shasta surpassed the 1 million mark and reached 1,172,901, indicating a population increase of 188,680 or 19.7%. This includes a natural increase of 98,766 since the year 2010 (that is 144,197 births minus 45,431 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 33,539 into the province. Immigration from outside the Kingdom of Sierra resulted in a net increase of 56,375, and migration within the country resulted in a net decrease of 20,101. According to the 2010 census, of the people residing in Shasta, 80.4% were born in Shasta, 11.1% were born in another Sierran PSA or territory, 0.2% were born abroad to Sierran parent(s), and 8.3% were foreign-born. Over 95 percent of Shasta's native-born residents had parents or grandparents who were foreign-born. The center of population was located near Burnt Ranch in Turner County, in 2016, following a northwestern-oriented trend observed since 1880.
There were 117 municipalities in Shasta, of which 15 were cities, 48 were towns, 19 were townships, 10 were villages, and 25 were home-rule municipalities. The largest municipality and city in Shasta in 2010 was Eureka, with a population of 98,181. The smallest municipality is Birchville, with an official census population of 22.
Race, ancestry, and language
According to the Sierra Royal Bureau of Census, the 2010 racial makeup of the Province of Shasta was as follows according to self-identification.
- White Sierran – 85.11%
- Non-Hispanic White – 77.45%
- Asian Sierran/Pacific Islander - 4.02%
- Black or African Sierran – 2.5%
- Two or more races – 2.0%
- Native Sierran/Amerindian – 3.08%
- Other race – 5.12%
- Hispanic or Latino Sierran – 7.77%
- Sierran Creole – 0.1%
|Two or more races||1.17%||1.54%||2.0%|
Although the largest European ancestry group in Shasta is German, communities of Irish, Jacobite, and Scandinavian descent are prevalent throughout Eastern Shasta. Populations of Dutch ancestry are also common along the southwestern portion of Shasta, near the border of Plumas. The city of Redding historically had a significant number of Scots-Irish and English descent, many of whom arrived through the Oregon Trail. Coastal communities also supported Slavic communities, mostly of Russian descent, stemming back from Russia's early colonial endeavors along the Pacific Northwest Coast. In the late 19th-century and early 20th-century, Italians from the northern provinces arrived to Shasta, where they developed Shasta's local viniculture and wine industry.
Shasta's Hispanic population is mainly concentrated in the Eureka metropolitan area in southwest central Shasta. Some are descendants of Californios who dispersed from the Styxie region following the end of the Mexican-American War. Others arrived later during the Interwar Period in search of jobs as fishermen, shipbuilders, and farm workers.
Asians represent the second largest racial group in Shasta, and have had an established presence in the province as early as the Gold Rush days during the 1850s. The Chinese, the Japanese, and later the Hans came to the area as miners and later railroad workers. They were initially viewed with hostility and resistance from the white population, forcing many Asians to form their own enclaves or villages throughout the province. Many early travelers were men who came alone, and thus often intermarried with people of other races. This caused significant controversy with Shasta having one of the strictest and harshest anti-miscegenation laws in the country before the federal government struck it down in 1905. The Asian population grew exponentially during the Sierran Cultural Revolution and major relaxations to immigration laws, allowing entire families to come to settle the province. Shasta's modern Asian communities are generally concentrated along the Pacific coast, in the Eureka and Apfelhain metropolitan areas. Hans are the largest Asian ancestry group in Shasta, totaling near 45,000.
Amerindians are concentrated in Eastern Shasta and constitute the majority in three of the seven counties. As of 2017, there are a total of 23 reservations in the province, with the total area of Indian reservations constituting about one-fifth of the province's total area. Shasta was the first province in the Kingdom to provide reservations for its indigenous tribes.
According to the Royal Bureau of Census' National Population Statistics Survey in 2016, the largest groups in the province were German (56.4%), Irish (10.8%), Jacobite (8.7%), Dutch (7.9%), English (6.4%), Norwegian (5.5%), Italian (4.3%), and French (3.0%).
|Affiliation||% of Shasta population|
|Evangelical Protestant||19|| |
|Mainline Protestant||14|| |
|Other Christian||1|| |
|Nothing in particular||7|| |
|Other faiths||>1|| |
|Don't know/refused answer||>0.1|| |
- Catholic – 35%
- Protestant – 33%
- Unaffiliated – 26%
- Jewish – 2%
- Other religions including Buddhism, Canaanism, Islam, Hinduism, and Bahá'í – 4%
In 2016, the Royal Bureau of Census identified the Roman Catholic Church as the largest religious organization in Shasta in terms of membership, with 345,658 adherents. The next largest Christian churches were the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sierra, the Apostolic and Anglican Episcopal Church of Sierra, and the Free Church of Sierra, each with more than 50,000 members respectively. Other significant Christian churches with a presence in Shasta include the Pentecostal One World Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Lutheran Church–Styxie Synod. Shasta has a large community of Mennonites, with the overwhelming majority living in Eastern Shasta in closed communes. Collectively, these churches and groups had over 150 congregations throughout the province.
The Roman Catholic Church has four dioceses and one archdiocese in Shasta (Apfelhain, Mondsichelhafen, Yreka, Redding, and Eureka respectively), and is one of the oldest organized religions in the province. Various Catholic charities and religious organizations are based in Shasta, most notably the Knights of Saint Michael the Archangel. Shasta is also the birthplace of several Protestant churches, including the Lutheran Church–Styxie Synod and the International Church of the Living Word.
Shasta is the second least religious province in Sierra, ranking behind only San Francisco. Christian faith communities have been in decline since the mid-20th century with the rise of irreligion in the Pacific Northwest region. Approximately 26% of Shasta's population identify as nonreligious, with 16% identifying as atheist and 3% as agnostic. About 6% described themselves as "spiritual but not religious". A 2015 survey suggested that people in Shasta were less likely to attend weekly worship services and that only 51% of Shasta said that they were "absolutely certain that there is a God" compared to 77% with the rest of the nation. Among Shasta's Catholics and Protestants, only 41% and 56% said that they attended weekly services respectively.
Non-Christian religious communities that exist in Shasta include Shasta's Jewish community. The majority of Shasta's Jews descend from Yiddish-speaking immigrants from Germany and The Banat, and come from several denominational backgrounds (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reformed). Recent immigration from areas such as South Asia and the Middle East have introduced communities of Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Jains, and others.
Residents of Shasta are known as Shastans. Although the Royal Bureau of Census places Shasta in the Styxie, Shasta's culture and politics match more closely to the transnational Pacific Northwest. Shasta's culture carries influences from Germans, Anglo-Americans, Irish, Jacobites, Dutch, Scandinavians, and numerous other immigrant groups. Coastal Shasta has a distinctly cosmopolitan culture with German overtures, as exemplified through its German-named towns and streets, German-inspired architecture and cuisine, and multiethnic makeup. The prevalence of German in the province have earned its citizens the pejorative nicknames "Krauts" and "Schnitz". The Shasta interior is much more localized, with pockets of semi-isolated, homogenous ethnic and religious communities dispersed throughout the region, including the Mennonites, the Jacobites, Scots-Irish, Swedish, Norwegians, and Finns. The Sierran Cultural Revolution was initially met with great resistance in Shasta, but as the province grew, the cultural effects and influence of the Revolution have successfully entered into coastal Shasta's culture, while it is distinctly absent in the interior, a similar pattern found throughout the Styxie.
Throughout the year, Shasta hosts a number of festivals celebrating its ethic heritage. Redding's Oktoberfest is organized by the German Shasta Society and is one of the largest of its kind, attracting about 100,000 visitors each year. Every fall, the Høstfest, a festival celebrating Scandinavian culture and cuisine in Apfelhain, is held and draws in numbers similar to the Oktoberfest. Other notable events include the World of Nations Fair, Polka Days, White Rose Festival, and Music Festival of Burning Embers.
Shasta is the native province of authors Kitt Langley, H. D. Fritz, and Douglas O'Henry, all of whom spent most of their lives in the province. Langely's epic-adventure novel Where the Conifers Fell was set in his hometown of Apfelhein, and focuses significantly on Shasta daily life and culture. The literary novel is celebrated annually in the town on Langely's birthday (February 9). Horror fiction writer James Rochester spent his young adulthood in the Klamath Mountains, and has written several novels with Shasta as their setting.
Several Hollywood films were filmed or set in Shasta locations, including 1987 film Peaches of Immortality, which was filmed in Mondsichelhafen. The award-winning 2002 film Intrepid was filmed in the Cascades and the city of Redding. Most of Tokki Network's Road to Nowhere was filmed in Apfelhain and surrounding areas.
The K.S. Ministry of Finance's Bureau of Statistics estimated Shasta's gross provincial product in 2010 to be $40.739 billion ($41,392 per capita GDP), ranking 17th out of the 23 provinces of Sierra and 20th of the 36 PSAs of the Kingdom. The unemployment rate in Shasta during 2014 was 2.39%. Its median household income in 2017 was $62,472, among the highest in the nation. The province's per capita personal income (PCPI) in 2017 was $40,282, which was slightly higher than the national average. Two of the seven counties (Moonlight and Rhineland) in Shasta are in the wealthiest 50 counties of the country.
Shasta's economy is multifaceted, having traditionally been supported by agriculture, mining, fishing, shipbuilding, and forestry. During the late 20th century, the province diversified, expanding its industries in energy pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, tourism, food processing, printing, construction, and education. The province's vast forests once made Shasta the nation's chief timber-producing and logging provinces, but concerns of over-harvesting, creation of federally protected land, and rising environmentalism has significantly shrunk production. It is the largest producer in the Pacific Northwest, after the Rainian province of Alaska, in seafood. Shasta has one of the world's largest salmon fisheries, most of which are farm-raised along the rivers, and harvests a number of other fish as well, including Alaska pollock. Crabs, lobsters, clams, and other shellfish are also harvested off the coast of Shasta. It is the top producer of rice in Sierra, with virtually all of the province's rice growing in Sacramento Valley. Other significant crops, fruits, and nuts grown in Shasta include almonds, walnuts, plums, several varieties of citrus, olives, sugar beets, alfalfa, asparagus, tomatoes, avocados, and broccoli.
Historically, Shasta was a major energy provider due in part to its large, natural reserves of coal. The early 20th century was the peak of Shasta's coal industry, which was the largest in Sierra before it began declining gradually following World War II in favor of natural gas, nuclear power, and hydroelectricity. Today, Shasta's energy consumption is only approximately 1.7% of the national total, and its carbon dioxide emissions represent only 0.2% of the national total. Much of its energy is outsourced to its neighbors, due to the province's increasing reliance on nuclear and hydroelectric power. Nuclear power alone provided nearly two-thirds of the province's electricity market, which are provided by two principal stations, the Six Rivers Nuclear Generating Station and the Bonanza King Nuclear Power Plant. Shasta's solar energy and wind energy industries have also seen major advancements since the 1990s, reflecting the province's goal to reduce coal dependence from 30% to less than 10% by the year 2025.
Taxation and budget
In Shasta, there are ten income brackets used to calculate provincial income tax, ranging from 1% to 10%. There are six income brackets for corporate taxes which range from 2% to 9.66%, and four brackets for taxes on capital gains and dividends (4% to 11%). Shasta has one of the lowest sales tax in the country, at only 4.45%. At the provincial level, a 0.5% property is levied on all properties on top of local property taxes, which may range from 0.1% to 2% depending on the market value of the property on a given date as determined by the local county assessor. Tangible personal property is also taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage of the original cost. In 2017, legislators in the Shasta Provincial Legislature have introduced a bill that would gradually replace sales taxes in favor of value-added taxes instead.
In 2017, the Government of Shasta spent 40% of its revenue on education, 22% on public services including law enforcement and transportation, 19% on human services including Medicare and Social Security pensions, and the remaining 19% on other services.
As of 2017, Shasta has 8,289 miles of highway, of which 6,391 receive federal and aid, and of which 2,918 miles are freeways. The highway fatality rate was 0.8 fatalities per million miles traveled. Shasta is one of several provinces which does not maintain its own independent provincial highway system. Instead, all of its non-Interprovincial highways are signed and routed according to the K.S. National Highway System. Nonetheless, the Shasta Department of Transportation has nearly full control over these highways' maintenance and construction, with relaxed compliance to federal standards and specifications.
|Interprovincials, K.S. Routes, Provincial Highways, and other highways in Shasta|
In 2017, there were over 2,400 route miles of railroads. All railroads are publicly owned but are leased to both public and private rail service companies. The publicly-funded Sierrail runs four lines with twenty stops in Shasta, operating twelve trains daily. Sierrail has light-rail connections with a number of populated centers including Mondschielhafen, Eureka, Yreka, Redding, and Mount Shasta. In addition to commercial rail, Shasta operates two Class I railroads for its freight trains: the North Pacific Railroad and the Twin Pines Railway. The first operational railroad in Shasta, the Northern Access Railway, was opened in 1871, as an extension of the First Transcontinental Railroad. It connected Redding to the main long-distance corridor. A number of additional lines and tracks were built based off of this network.
Western Shasta is serviced by the Upper Pacific Transportation Authority (UPTA) intercity bus service, which is jointly owned and funded by the counties of Heidi and Moonlight, and participating cities. The bus service is provided by Yellowbird public carrier and maintains over 22 active bus lines, providing service to over 12,000 passengers each day. Its busiest lines are the direct connections between Mondschielhafen and Eureka.
Shasta has over 20 airports, which includes general aviation, commercial, and military installations. The following listed below are airports in Shasta which see over 15,000 enplanements annually.
|City served||Code||Airport name|| ARA|
|Eureka||ACA||Arcata–Eureka Airport||Non-Hub Primary||37,291 (2017)|
|Mondsichelhafen||MON||Mondsichelhafen International Airport||Small Hub||58,272 (2017)|
|Redding||RDD||Redding Municipal Airport||Non-Hub Primary||15,682 (2017)|
|Montague||SIY||Siskiyou International-Montague Airport||General Aviation||23,280 (2017)|
There are a number of waterways running through Shasta's major cities, including Apfelhain and Eureka, which are supplemented by a network of bridges and ferry lines. Shasta operates a fleet of 8 full-service ferries, which mainly carry passengers between the immediate coastline along low-traffic lines. There are several waterports on the Pacific coast, the largest of which is located in Apfelhain, the Port of Apfelhain, which was formerly a military installation operated by the Sierran Royal Navy.
Government and politics
The Constitution of the Province of Shasta is one of the world's longest constitutions, totaling 221,381 words. The current constitution was adopted on June 11, 1921, and is the sixth iteration of the province's constitutions. It enshrines the framework of Shasta's government, enumerates the basic rights afforded unto its citizens, and includes the province's 498 amendments and addenda, the latter of which is responsible for the constitution's immense length. Nearly 80 percent of the amendments deal with matters pertaining to a specific county or township. In addition, like most PSAs in the Kingdom, Shasta's citizens have the ability to make amendments to the constitution via initiatives and referenda. In 2017, Shasta voters had 12 proposals on the ballot, of which 7 passed. The province's longstanding tradition of participatory democracy is responsible for the large cumulative growth of Shasta's constitution. In addition, statutory elections on constitutional conventions are held every 5 years, asking voters if the province is in need of constitutional reform or revisions. Since 1991, calls for a constitutional convention have been rejected.
The Lord Superintendent of Shasta, Sir Walter Williams, is the Queen's viceregal representative in the Province of Shasta. The Lord Superintendent is also the nominal head of state and primarily performs duties which are ceremonial in nature. During the Lord Superintendent's absence, the Queen-in-Council may appoint another representative to fill in the vacancy. By convention, this has normally been the Chief Justice of the Shasta Supreme Court or the Speaker of the Provincial Legislature.
Like most provincial governments in Sierra, the position of the Governor of Shasta is the head of government and is elected independently and separately from the Provincial Legislature. Although the governor ultimately derives their authority from the Lord Superintendent, the governor is the de facto chief executive of the province. Shasta operates under a clear separation of powers, which allows the governor to focus purely on executive action and contest in direct, popular elections, in contrast to the parliamentary system found at the federal level. The current governor is Kaitlyn Gans, a Green, who assumed office on December 16, 2014.
The governor is also assisted by the lieutenant governor, who is elected on the same ticket. Shasta is one of the few provinces which does not provide or maintain an official residence for the governor. During the governor's tenure, they may continue residing in their personal residence, although temporary housing arrangements within the capital of Apfelhain can be made upon request. Shasta law requires that at least one-fourth of this residency assistance be paid by the governor out-of-pocket. The governor has several responsibilities, including but not limited to, exercising the Lord Superintendent's prerogative powers, overseeing the executive government, enforcing the law, participating in the Executive Council, leading the province's National Guard, preparing an annual budget, suggesting legislation to the Legislature, appointing executive officials and civil servants, and coordinating emergency or disaster relief services during times of distress.
Other elected executive positions include the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Comptroller, the Treasurer, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction. All elected officials hold a term of four years, with no constitutional term limits, though by convention, governors and lieutenant governors generally serve no more than two consecutive terms.
Shasta has operated with a unicameral legislature since 1978 following a voter-initiated amendment that abolished the original bicameral legislature. The Shasta Provincial Legislature is composed of 40 seats, all of whom are elected every two years in October. Since the first unicameral legislature convened, it has been dominated by the Progressive coalition-parties (the Democratic-Republicans, Greens, and Social Democrats. Each law passed by the Legislature must receive the assent of the Lord Superintendent, though by convention, this has come to mean whenever the bill has shown clear support by a simple majority. The legislature is empowered to create and pass legislation that targets the entire province or selected communities. The Speaker is the leader of the legislature and is charged with presiding over all official sessions on the legislative floor.
The Supreme Court of Shasta is the highest court of law in Shasta and is composed of five judges, four of whom are elected directly by the people every five years. The chief justice is appointed by the Lord Superintendent, on the advice of the Governor, and serves for five years. The Supreme Court does not have original jurisdiction over most case matters and instead, can only hear cases being appealed from the lower courts. Shasta has two courts of appeal, one for western Shasta and the other for eastern Shasta. Both courts of appeal are composed of seven judges, who are all elected by the general populace on five year terms. Each of the seven counties have their own local superior courts, which have original jurisdiction over nearly all cases within the county. Cases which have been settled by the Supreme Court of Shasta can be appealed to the federal courts of appeal and ultimately, the Supreme Court of Sierra.
Counties, cities, and towns
|County||County seat||Year founded||Population||Population (2010)|
|Bear||Rough and Ready||1877–1910|
In terms of total area, the largest county is Evergreen County at 3,208 square miles (8,303.68 km2) while the smallest county is Moonlight County at 1,230 square miles (3,185.69 km2). The most populous county is Heidi County with a 2010 Census population of 431,101, while the least populous county is Sturgeon County with 20,666.
Largest cities or towns in Shasta
Sierra Royal Bureau of Census
Political party strength and ideologies
Shasta is one of the most politically left provinces in Sierra, although there is an ideological split between Western and Eastern Shasta along the Klamath Mountains and Cascades, with the former more liberal and latter more conservative. While Royalists and Libertarians win Eastern Shasta counties by large margins, the Democratic-Republicans, Greens, and Social Democrats dominate the much more populated west at the federal and provincial level. Throughout the province's history, Shasta has had a strong tradition of progressive politics and is considered a leading force in green politics, being the only province in Sierra which has consistently voted Greens into office at all levels since 1990. Its long history with green politics and strong environmentalist record has allowed the province to preserve one of the largest areas of old-growth forests and protected natural areas in the country.
Many reforms and policies that define Shasta's modern progressive character and strong tradition of participatory democracy were adopted from electoral ballot measures, including legalization of same-sex marriage, recreational marijuana use, death penalty abolition, and single-use plastic bag bans. It was one of the first provinces in Sierra to allow initiatives and referendums to allow citizens to introduce or approve proposed legislation or alterations to the provincial constitution in 1918, a decision which would be followed by nearly every other province since. Of the 211 measures placed on the ballot since 1918, voters have voted in favor of 67 out of 88 initiatives and 79 out of 123 referenda.
- Voter registration and party enrollment (2017)
- Total registered voters: 421,397
Shasta's system public education is established and described in Article XII of the provincial constitution and Title VIII of the Shasta Public Code. All public and private schools comply with the Master Educational Plan, as defined by the Shasta Department of Education. Students and schools are evaluated annually by the national Cumulative Academic Testing (CAT) to determine funding eligibility and assistance for underperforming schools and districts. Shasta's public education has consistently ranked high when compared to other Anglo-American subnational education systems. In 2017, 82% of high school students graduated within 4 years and 81% of new students in the 2017–18 academic year were previously enrolled in preschool or other preparatory-level instruction programs. Literacy rates are virtually universal in Shasta among natural-born citizens and 63% of Shasta's high school students were accredited with a provincial seal of biliteracy (passed competence test demonstrating bilingualism or multilingualism). Sierran Hanzi competency rates are also high in Shasta, with about two-thirds of students scoring a 3 or higher on the Sierran Hanzi High School Exit Exam (SHHSEE) in 2017.
Primary and secondary schools
All teachers in Shasta's public schools are unionized. Public schools are subject to the control of local school districts which exist independently from other local authorities including county and municipal governments. There are a total of 7 state charter schools, which are public schools which are not part of any school district, and instead directly funded and controlled by the provincial government. Under provincial law, school attendance is mandatory for students from the age of 5 to 17, or until graduation from an accredited high school, whichever is sooner.
Colleges and universities
- College of the Redwoods
- Sierra National University, Humboldt
- Shasta College
- Western Shasta Community College District (WSCCD), 4 campuses
- Dell'Arte International School of Physical Theatre
- Shasta Bible College
- Simpson University
- Turner University
- National University, Redding
Shasta is one of the few Sierran provinces to lack any professional sports teams, a fact attributed to the province's relatively sparse population. The only major sports teams in Shasta are the Humboldt Lumberjacks, particularly its men's basketball, women's rowing, and football, which play in the Great Northwest Collegiate Athletic Association. The Lumberjacks' sports teams have won a combined number of 6 championships since 1926. High school sports teams, events, and competitions are regulated and overseen by the Shasta High School Interscholastic Confederation, which officially endorses 12 different sports.
|Insignia||Symbol||Binomial nomenclature||Year Adopted|
|Official provincial amphibian||Pacific tree frog||Pseudacris regilla||1980|
|Official provincial bird||Nuttall's woodpecker||Dryobates nuttallii||1974|
|Official provincial butterfly||Fiery skipper||Hylephila phyleus||1997|
|Official provincial beverage||Coffee||2010|
|Official provincial fish||Rainbow trout||Oncorhynchus mykiss||1983|
|Official provincial flower||Golden bartonia||Mentzelia lindleyi||1974|
|Official provincial mammal||Gray wolf||Canis lupus||Traditional|
|Official provincial crustacean||Red rock crab||Cancer productus||1999|
|Official provincial motto||"Salus Populi Suprema Est Lex" (The welfare of the people is the supreme law of the land)||1877|
|Official provincial slogan||"Wilder West"||2005|
|Official provincial nickname||"The Redwood Province"||1965|
|Official provincial tree||Coast redwood||Sequoia sempervirens||Traditional|
|Official provincial fruit||Strawberry||Fragaria × ananassa||1999|
|Official provincial song||"That Lovely Redwood Land" (2nd edition)||1919/1963|
|Official naval ship||KHMS Shasta||2001|
|Pacific Ocean||Oregon (Rainier)||Oregon (Rainier)|