|Sierran Crown Armed Forces (en)|
Fuerzas Armadas de la Corona de Sierra (es) |
Lực lượng Vũ trang Sierra (vn)
시에라의 국군 (kr)
Military flag of Sierra
|Founded||January 1, 1859|
Royal Army |
Royal Air Force
Royal Marines Corps
Royal Coast Guard
Royal Cyber Defense Force
National Guard (reserves)
|Headquarters||Pendleton Military Center|
|King of Sierra||Angelina II|
|Supreme Field Marshal||Daniel McComb|
|Minister of Defense||Henry McNiall|
|Military age||17 - 45|
|Conscription||21 - 45|
|24,127,382, age 17 - 45 (2014. est)|
|19,228,339, age 17 - 45 (2014. est)|
|2,282,829 (2014. est)|
|Percent of GDP||1.5%|
Sierran Indian Wars (1858-69) |
War of Contingency (1866-68)
Sierran Civil War (1874-77)
Sierran-Spanish War (1898)
Hani-Sierran War (1899-1902)
World War I (1918-19)
World War II (1941-45)
Korean War (1950-53)
Vietnam War (1961-75)
Persian Gulf War (1990-91)
Kosovo War (1998-99)
Global War on Terrorism (2001-present)
War in Afghanistan (2001-present)
Iraq War (2003-11)
Libyan Civil War (2011)
Baja California crisis (2014)
The Sierran Crown Armed Forces (also known as Her Royal Highness' Armed Forces, the Sierran Armed Forces, or SCAF) are the armed forces of the Kingdom of Sierra consisting of five main branches: the Royal Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force, the Royal Marines Corps, and the Royal Coast Guard. In addition, two other bodies: the Royal Cyber Defense Force and National Guard exist in the framework of the Armed Forces. Although the Monarch is the commander-in-chief, the prime minister heads the military and confers day-to-day administration and decision-making to the Ministry of Defense. The Ministry is headed by the Minister of Defense who is a civilian appointed and selected by the Prime Minister. High-ranking officials including generals as well as top civilian defense strategists form the Royal Security Council whose task includes advising the Monarch and prime minister on security decisions; coordinating and executing acts among the forces' branches; and interpreting and handling events and situations that may compromise national security. While the Armed Forces are responsible for the preserving the interests, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the Kingdom, it often engages in peacekeeping, humanitarian, and disaster relief operations.
A standing army was among the first institutions implemented upon the creation of Sierran government. The predecessor state, the California Republic, had suffered the lack of control over conflicting, armed militias and bands which consequently, created an ineffective and unstable country. The Crown Armed Forces was founded in 1858 with the hope that the new country would be able to defend themselves from four major security concerns at the time: an attack from Mexico, an invasion from the United States, raids from Indian tribes, or rogue bandits.
The Sierran Crown Armed Forces is the sixth largest military in the world in terms of active personnel with 732,181 in 2013. Comprised entirely of paid volunteers, nevertheless, there exists a conscription service that may be used during times of war or emergency. As of 2013, Sierra spends about $47.65 billion to fund the Armed Forces and its operations making it the seventh largest spender on military expenditures in the world.
|Kingdom of Sierra|
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The Sierran Crown Armed Forces' creation coincide with the promulgation of the Kingdom of Sierra through the Constitution of 1858. The need for a standing army was essential to ensure that the new nation stabilize and maintain authority across the largely lawless backwater territories Sierra owned. Under the previous government, the California Republic, there was no official permanent military force. The government relied solely on paramilitary organizations and civilian bands to provide for national defense, mostly from Indians and the possible threat of American or Mexican invaders. When the kingdom was formed, the government needed to prevent the outbreak of a potential civil war due to the possibility of the divided military factions vying for new political goals. It would took nearly five years before the Sierran Crown Armed Forces was finally deemed a singularly potent and cohesive entity after concessions were made to resistant groups who then swore allegiance to the Crown.
On January 6, 1859, Parliament established both the Royal Navy and the Royal Marines Corps simultaneously through Acts of Parliament. Most of the initial ships provided for the Navy were simply retrofitted steamboats and clippers that were brought over by civilians from the United States. The first domestic vessel manufactured and commissioned for use by the Navy was the ironclad HRHS Sequoia. The first naval engagements of Sierra were conducted over the conquest of Gilbert and Ellice Islands, a small group of Pacific islands and the Rapa Nui island in 1861 and 1862 respectively.
The Second Industrial Revolution paired with economic growth spurred the modernization of the Sierra Crown Armed Forces. Committed towards a policy of semi-isolationism, it was understood that the forces were kept solely to defend the kingdom in case the United States or another foreign power decided to invade it. Domestically, the Armed Forces saw belligerent action against various Indian tribes during the 1860s, mainly to force natives out of their lands to allow Sierran civilians to settle. The first major engagement the Armed Forces faced was the War of Contingency (1866-68) when Sierra and Brazoria came in defense of Missouri when the United Commonwealth invaded it, during a campaign to restore the recently fallen United States. Sierran forces initially only supplied war supplies, but by 1867, the SCAF had halted Commonwealth advances, and pushed back eastward, eventually defeating the Commonwealth at the Battle of Salinas. The war allowed SCAF to earn its right as a fully capable and competent force. A few years later, the SCAF was once again in combat in the Sierran Civil War (1874–77) when Isaiah Landon, a San Joaquinian senator led an insurrection against the Kingdom, and established the self-declared Second California Republic. The three-year war was the first to directly, truly test Sierra's long-term military and technological capabilities, and resulted in over 75,000 casualties, 26,000 of which were fatalities. The bloodiest war in Sierran history, the war marked an end to impromptu militias and led to the creation of the National Guard.
Near the turn of the 19th century, the SCAF gained new victories overseas, defeating the Spanish in the Sierran-Spanish War over the Hani island of Mindanao, in 1898. Sierra fought against the Hani insurgents who objected to Sierran occupation of Mindanao and influence over the rest of the Hani archipelago and won in 1902, creating Sierran Han. Sierra later engaged in World War I and World War II, both times finding itself joining at the behest of the Anglo-American community. Sierra's entry into World War II was a signal of Sierra's permanent shift away from semi-isolationist when one of its bases in Hawaii, Pearl Harbor, was attacked by Japan. The war saw Sierra enter into the conflict, which greatly modernized its defense, and enhanced the forces' technological capacity much in part to the Sierran government's cooperation with other Anglo-American states through the Manhattan Project. By the end of World War II, Sierra became a nuclear state and invested much of its fund towards aerial, naval, and ballistic missile technology.
The Armed Forces continued to be deployed in Cold War-era engagements including the Korean War and the Vietnam War, which saw the SCAF accomplish their objectives, and further demonstrated Sierran military capabilities and prowess. Towards the end of the Cold War, SCAF was involved in the Persian Gulf War and the Kosovo War, and continued to grow in size and had over 25 overseas bases worldwide. After the September 11 attacks, SCAF was deployed in the Middle East in the Global War on Terrorism, most prominently in Iraq and Afghanistan in the first half of the 2000s decade, and later Libyan Civil War in 2013.
At the head of the Armed Forces is the Monarch who serves as the commander-in-chief and the source of loyalty expressed by the forces' personnel. Immediately below the monarch is the Prime Minister who leads the Armed Forces at the behalf of the Monarch. Securing the title of Supreme Field Marshal, the Prime Minister is in effect, the highest-ranking military official in the Armed Forces.
In the federal framework of the government, the Ministry of Defense, headed by the Minister of Defense, has oversight, authority, and responsibility over national security and defense. As a result, the Armed Fores are subordinate to the Ministry and is one of the main bodies the Ministry presumes jurisdiction over. It is the Ministry in which day-to-day operations and administration of the Armed Forces is conducted by as opposed to the Prime Minister or Monarch. Aside from the Minister of Defense, the Royal Security Council serve as the top military advisers to the Prime Minister. Serving simultaneously as four-star generals, the chiefs of staff also have oversight over their respective branches. It is the five branches of the Armed Forces: the Royal Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force, the Royal Marines Corps, and the Royal Coast Guard, that compose the Armed Forces.
The Royal Army is the largest of the branches and is responsible for land-based military operations. It is tasked with preserving the peace and security as well as the provision of defense for the Kingdom, the provinces, her territories, her allies, and any other lands under control by Sierra. In 2013, the Army had 374,311 active personnel and 92,848 reserves personnel.
The Army is divided into five divisions: the 1st Sierra Division, the 2nd Sierra Division, the 3rd Sierra Division, the 4th Sierra Division, and the 5th Sierra Division. All army personnel are equipped with state-of-the-art equipment and receive extensive training prior to active duty. The Army has possession of about 2,900 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles (including amphibious ones), 6,100 artillery pieces, 50 guided missile systems, and 700 helicopters. The most generally used tank is the American M1 Abrams followed by the indigenous KS-99.
The Royal Navy is responsible for conducting naval and amphibious landing operations. In 2013, the Navy had 123,442 active personnel and 32,338 reserves personnel. A blue-water navy, the Navy is capable of exerting power across the high seas globally. The Navy is in possession of five aircraft carriers, thirteen amphibious assault ships, eighteen cruisers, thirty-two destroyers, four frigates, six corvettes, nine auxiliary ships, twenty-three submarines, and one hundred fifty-six aircraft commissioned specifically for the Navy.
The Navy is organized into six components: the Fleet Forces Command, the Asian-Pacific Fleet, the Atlantic-Indian Fleet, the Naval Intelligence and Logistical Support Command, and the Special Warfare Command. As of 2014, the Navy has four active fleets: the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Fleets, the latter three being headed by a three-star admiral and the former headed by a rear admiral.
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is responsible for conducting aerial warfare, providing logistical support for the other branches, and overseeing missile defense. The Air Force operates over 3,200 aircraft (including reconnaissance), 250 ICBMs (both conventional and the 135 active nuclear warheads), and 17 satellites.
The Air Force is organized into ten different commands: Air Combat Command, Pacific Air Command, European-African Air Command, Air Force Special Forces Command, Air Recruitment and Training Command, Air Logistic and Material Support Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Missile Command, Air Force Space Command, and the Air Force Reserve Command–all specializing in a specific field of aerial defense.
Royal Marines Corps
The Royal Marines Corps is responsible for providing power projection from the sea and exerting expeditionary warfare. Working closely with the Royal Navy, it is largely responsible and capable for amphibious operations, fighting with combined arms, and conducting forcible entries by land, sea, or air.
Royal Coast Guard
The Royal Coast Guard is responsible for protecting Sierra's coastal and littoral areas, maritime homeland security and law enforcement, conducting search and rescue missions, protecting the marine environment, and providing navigational aid. Currently, the Royal Coast Guard actively employs seventy cutters, thirty tugboats, 500 other boats, and 40 specially commissioned aircraft (all helicopters).
Royal Cyber Defense Force
Created in 2001, the Royal Cyber Defense Force is responsible for providing military communications and facilitating inter-branch support for the rest of the Armed Forces. In addition, the Royal Cyber Defense Force is charged with the responsibility of conducting defensive and offensive cyberwarfare and cybersecurity, often cooperating with federal civilian intelligence/law enforcement agencies and bodies.
The National Guard is the collective reserves component of all branches of the Sierran Crown Armed Forces and is composed of units corresponding to each province and territory in the Kingdom. As the militia force of Sierra, the National Guard is responsible for providing the defense of the Sierran homeland at a moment's notice in case of an attack or invasion by a foreign or domestic intrusion. It is also responsible for coordinating operations with civilian law enforcement agencies or bodies in times of civil unrest. An estimated 268,600 Sierran civilians in 2013 were enlisted, trained, and prepared to fight for the National Guard at any given time.
As of December 31, 2013, 732,181 people were on active duty in the Armed Forces and an additional 268,600 served in the reserves component. Although the Armed Forces is an all-volunteer force, conscription for both men and women between the ages of 21 and 45 may be enacted by the Prime Minister or Parliament in times of war through the Royal Selective Service. All citizens between the ages of 21 and 45 are automatically registered with the Service in the case of a future draft.
Like most militaries, members of the Armed Forces hold a rank, of either officer, warrant, or enlisted, to determine seniority and eligibility for promotion. While ranks may vary from branch to branch, all correspond to a standardized pay grade. Non-citizens are allowed to serve in the Armed Forces but because of federal law, such persons are prohibited from obtaining commissioned or officer status.
Weapons of mass destruction
Sierra is one of the six recognized signatory states with nuclear weapons under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. As of 2015, Sierra has, at its disposal, 135 active nuclear warheads in its stockpile. The total amount of nuclear warheads remains unclear although various reports range from 250 to 1,000. Sierra has stopped producing and testing its own nuclear weapons since 1991 although it has continued conducting research surrounding its technology for non-military use.
The Royal Air Force maintains 75 land-based ICBMs with most of them located in the Sierra Nevada or the restricted military areas in Clark. 10 Perry-class ballistic missile submarines are equipped with up to 24 Trident II weapons and are stationed in San Diego, San Francisco City, and Honolulu.