|Seumasach Siarranach (gd)|
Jacobite Shield and the Badge of Clan Stewart of Columbia
(1.2 million–1.8 million)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Sierra, Rainier, other parts of Anglo-America, British Isles|
|Alaska||No data available|
|No data available|
|English, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Irish|
|Mainly Roman Catholic, some Presbyterians, Baptists, and other denominations|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Ulster Scots, Scots-Irish Sierrans, Scottish, Irish, Scottish Sierrans, Scottish Rainians, Irish Sierrans, Irish Rainians|
|Monarchism in Sierra|
Following defeat in the final Jacobite rising in 1745 and the subsequent Highland Clearance, many Jacobite supporters immigrated to the Thirteen Colonies to escape political repercussion by the British government. These Jacobites preserved many of their cultural customs and heritage when they arrived to the New World. When the exiled Stuarts themselves moved to the Americas, the Jacobite cause was rekindled. During the mid-19th century, thousands of Jacobites moved west to California, where they backed Charles Miller (Smith I), a direct descendant of James II, in his ascension and assumption of the throne of the new Kingdom of Sierra. Jacobitism as a movement experienced a dramatic revival, persuading thousands of more European Jacobites to support Smith I, and his new royal house, by immigrating to Sierra.
From the creation of Sierra onwards, Jacobites became intrinsically linked with Sierran monarchism, and coalesced into a formidable force during the 1870s Sierran Civil War. The civil war, pitted the Jacobites and other loyalists against the Republicans, who threatened the existence of the monarchy. After the Civil War ended with the defeat of the Republicans, many Jacobites continued to maintain the unique culture that their forebears kept. Various Jacobite clubs and associations, including private militias, created during the war continued to exist after the war. These groups participated in ongoing conflict with the Republicans (who had developed their own culture and groups) in the Styxie. Such creations helped define the region's political culture, and allowed the Jacobites to persist as a visible, active group. During the later half of the 20th century, Jacobites participated in The Disturbances, a two decades-long conflict between the group, republicans, and the government. The conflict helped revived the communal sense of identity and led to a resurgence in Jacobite pride in the years that followed the conflict's end in the late 1980s.
Today, roughly a million or so Sierrans claim to be Sierran Jacobites. In addition to Sierran-based Jacobites, overseas communities also exist, with the majority of the diaspora living in either Rainier and Alaska. The term "Jacobite" has often been used erroneously or even disparagingly to mean a zealous or extreme monarchist in Sierra. Although Sierran Jacobites have traditionally been associated with monarchism (and to a lesser extent, the Royalists), not all Sierran Jacobites are supporters of Jacobitism itself. Ethnic Jacobitism has been occasionally used to distinguish the ethnic group from the political movement (which is a form of monarchism), similarly to how Sierran republicanism has been separated into two related but distinct groups: cultural and political, as well. There has been a proposal within Sierra on using a lower-cased "jacobite" to refer to a supporter of Jacobitism, while a capitalized "Jacobite" to refer to a member of the Scottish/Irish ethnic group. The Sierran Royal Bureau of Census officially recognizes the Sierran Jacobites as an ethnic subgroup of both Scottish Sierrans and Irish Sierrans, as the Sierran Jacobite community mainly consists of individuals with mixed ancestries of both ethnicities.
Jacobitism in the British Isles
Sierran Jacobites trace their origins to the British Jacobites, who emerged as a political movement during the Glorious Revolution. The Revolution saw the incumbent monarch, James VII of Scotland, II of England and Ireland, deposed by his daughter, Mary II and her husband (and his nephew), William of Orange in 1688. The political event was largely motivated by religious reasons. During the king's short, three-year long reign, James II troubled members of the opposition with his belief in the divine right of king, his policies of religious tolerance, his open Catholicism, and his close ties with France. The disagreements conflicted with the Anglican Establishment and the Parliamentarians' desire to keep England Protestant, and feared the king would undermine Britain's move towards a parliamentary democracy.
By 1688, James II had amassed a large standing army of loyal Catholics from all over the British Isles, given important state positions to Catholics, and issued the Declaration of Indulgence. He also forged an alliance with the Dissenters and Nonconformists, with the hopes of bringing down the Anglican supremacy in Britain. Despite this development, up until this point, opponents tolerated the King's rule. They believed that his reign would only be a temporary setback, as once he died, Mary would succeed him, returning the throne to a Protestant. However, the birth of his son, James, altered the line of succession. Prior to the young prince's birth, the throne would have passed to the King's daughter, Mary, who was a Protestant. With a Catholic as the heir apparent, the possibility of a Catholic dynasty in England became very likely.
Opponents of James II (The "Immortal Seven") began to conspire against the king, by seeking help from James II's nephew, William Henry of Orange, who was a Stadtholder in several Dutch provinces. William himself was married to James II's daughter, Mary. Being both Protestants, the two were viewed as the prime candidates to replace James II. Although William had entertained the idea of conquering England, he was fearful of receiving retaliation from his rival, Louis XIV of France, back in the Dutch Republic. Once William was assured he had English support, and he had received financial, military, and political backing from his home country and the Holy Roman Empire, William launched an invasion in England. He issued the Declaration of the Hague, which essentially was William's promise to defend British Protestants, and landed off the coast of Southern England in Brixham on November 5, 1688.
Within weeks, the mere presence of William had inspired thousands of Protestants to riot, and caused many Royalist troops to defect towards the invader's side. William deliberately waited out for James II's regime to collapse on its own, and patiently stalled the advancement of his troops. For James II's part, he was hesitant to muster up a large force to oppose William. Indeed, many of his loyal troops were not eager to fight, and even his own commanders doubted their king's willpower. As rioting worsened in London, James II, his wife, and the Prince of Wales attempted to flee on December 10. The following day, the King was captured, and was sent back to London to conduct formal negotiations with his son-in-law. On December 16, James II sent an envoy to arrange a meeting with William. William had, at this point, no more desire to keep the king in power, yet he did not wish to arrest James II. Instead, William sent a letter warning the king that his own personal safety could not be guaranteed. As anti-Catholic rioting intensified, and Queen Mary pleaded him to leave, James II departed from England under the protection of Dutch guardsmen. As James II fled the country, William and Mary were declared joint monarchs.
Although William and Mary were officially recognized as the new monarchs, many Catholics, Episcopalians, and Tory royalists refused to accept this change. They believed that James II was still the constitutionally legitimate monarch, and became known as "Jacobites". They were named so after the Latin name of James, "Jacobus", and their descendants would come to embrace the name when they continued seeking to restore the throne to James II's heirs.
Although England readily accepted William and Mary's ascension, Scotland was initially hesitant to recognize the new monarchs, while Ireland completely refused to recognize the succession. In Scotland, the Presbyterian-dominated Convention in Edinburgh formally offered the throne to William and Mary. Although the Convention believed the Scottish throne was vacant, they did not accept the fact that James II (known as James VII in Scotland) had abdicated. Instead, they declared that the king abandoned the throne by forfalture (forfeit). William then, was recognized as the legitimate successor, by virtue of conquest. Various dissenters in the Convention disagreed with the opinion of the Convention, and would join the ranks of the growing number of Jacobites still loyal to James II.
Ireland continued to resist recognition of the new monarchs in London, and many Scottish Highlander clans began to revolt against the perceived usurpers. The first Jacobite rebellion emerged in Scotland in 1689, led by John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee, who rallied up a large alliance of Scottish allies in defending James VII's authority. In Ireland, Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell led thousands of loyal Irish Catholics in arms. The Catholic majority in Ireland had been heavily mistreated by previous monarchs, and were strong supporters for James II. The exiled king himself arrived in Ireland with 6,000 French soldiers in attempt to regain the throne in the Williamite War.
Lasting for nearly two years, the Jacobites in Ireland eventually surrendered, after suffering heavy losses. James II himself fled Ireland. Meanwhile, in Scotland, the Jacobites there were also badly beaten. Despite the major success at the Battle of Killiecrankie, the battle itself was merely a tactical victory and the Jacobites' leader, Viscount Dundee, was killed. The Williamite victories in Dunkeld and Cromdale, as well as the Glencoe massacre put an end to the rising in Scotland. In spite of these losses, the Jacobite cause would continue on and see additional risings, especially after 1714 when George I from the House of Hanover inherited the British throne through the Act of Settlement 1701.
After James II died in 1701, the Stuart claims to the Three Kingdoms passed down to his son, James Francis Edward Stuart (The Old Pretender). Recognized by King Louis XIV of France (who was also his cousin), the Old Pretender was also supported by Spain, the Papal States, and Modena, as well as the Jacobites who pledged their support to James II's progeny. However, he was attainted for treason in 1702 and had his titles stripped. Throughout his life, he actively championed his claim to the throne, and launched the unsuccessful Jacobite rising of 1715.
Diaspora to the Americas
Jacobites in Colonial America
Although the Stuarts did not arrive to America until 1772, the Jacobites had already established themselves in the New World beforehand, and lived amongst other British American colonists throughout the Thirteen Colonies. Despite being separated from their pretender king and homeland thousands of miles away, the Jacobites continued to maintain their culture and their politics. As civil unrest and political strife unfurled in the Americas, the Jacobites were largely ambivalent to the divide between the Patriots and the Loyalists, as they opposed the republicanism advocated by the former, and the loyalty to the "illegitimate" Hanoverian monarchy by the latter.
Exile of the Stuarts in America
Jacobites in Sierra
The early presence of Jacobites in Western North America (prior to the Gold Rush) was motivated by several factors, though they were similar to the motivations of the general population. A small number moved westward from the Atlantic Seaboard seeking for economic opportunity, individual independence, or interest in homesteading. Although the California Gold Rush persuaded even more American Jacobites to move to California, it was already open knowledge that Charles Miller (the acknowledged Prince of Wales to the community) had moved to California. As Charles Miller rose in prominence in Californian politics, so did his popularity and respect increase among both the Jacobites and the general public. Highly popular and a charismatic statesman, he was chosen to lead the Convention as its chairman and president. However, Miller himself did not originally promote his own royal heritage, and was initially a republican when he was invited to the Californian Constitutional Convention of 1847. Despite this, Miller amassed a devoted following of Jacobites, whom he acknowledged openly. While Miller himself was well-liked by close friends and rivals alike, his attachment to the Jacobite community and coinciding shift towards monarchism aroused suspicion and concern by members of the Constitutional Convention.
His apparent popularity had no real bearing on deliberations in the Convention however, as Miller attempted to present himself as an impartial speaker, with respect to the Convention. As the debate over the country's future governmental structure raged on, the Jacobites continued rallying in numbers in open support for an American-based monarchy. Some Jacobite political leaders arose during this time, penning essays and periodicals that supported the monarchist cause. Pro-monarchists often consisted of Jacobites and their sympathizers, and stressed on the compatibility between stable monarchism with representative democracy, as it had manifest itself in the United Kingdom and its dominions.
Influence in the Constitutional Convention
Sierran Civil War
Sierran Jacobite culture has a rich, extensive history, tracing its origins to the British Isles and Celtic culture. Jacobite culture retains many traditional elements of Scottish Highlander and Irish culture, and is evident in various forms, ranging from the cuisine, to literature, to music. The original Jacobitism was closely tied with the Scottish and Irish society of clans, which were large kinship groups of shared identity, with unique tartans, coats of arms, and lands. Jacobite politics, folklore, heraldry, and other elements of its culture have helped shape modern Sierran society and played a crucial role in the development of the Kingdom during its formative years. The Jacobites are one of the several recognized European ethnic groups in the Styxie, which have more or less, not fully assimilated in the Sierran Cultural Revolution. Despite this, many Jacobites aligned themselves with the Revolution, and there is a significant number of Jacobites who have incorporated contemporary Sierran culture into their lives.
Nearly all Sierran Jacobites speak English as a first language, although a minority also speak a variety of languages (depending on geographic location) including French (western Plumas), German (Shasta and central Plumas), and Dutch (western and central Plumas) as their first. A significant number of the Jacobites can also speak in Scottish Gaelic or Irish as a second language. The linguistic presence of Scots is also found in the community, although its use is limited primarily to the descendants of more recent Scottish Lowlands immigrants.
Many children learn Scottish Gaelic and Irish at home, and their learning is supplemented in many Styxer schools which offer a bilingual immersion class. Adolescents and young adults who seek to reconnect with their Sierran Jacobite roots are also encouraged to learn the languages in order to more fully appreciate the culture and community bonds.
The Sierran Jacobites are predominantly Catholic, and the group is identified as a member of the Sierran Big Five (Jacobites [incl. Irish], Hispanics, Channeliers (French), Banatians, and Creoles), the core ethnic groups which identify with Catholicism in an otherwise Protestant-Confucianist dominated country. Although there are Protestant Jacobites and those of other faiths, they form a small minority, as Protestantism has been closely associated with republicanism, whilst Catholicism as the faith of the Sierran Monarchy, which serves as the political focus of the Jacobite communal spirit. Malcolm McClennan, a prominent 20th-century Jacobite leader remarked in a 1972 speech during The Disturbances that "to be Jacobite is to be Catholic. There can be no separation between the blood and the Eucharist. A true Jacobite devotes his life to two foci: the Crown and the Church, of which the two unites Jacobites together through their loyal stewardship and unbreakable fraternity."
Observances of various Catholic holidays and feasts including Mardi Gras, Lent, Holy Week, Saint Andrew's Day, and Christmas is an integral component in Sierran Jacobite communities. In addition, secular festivals and celebrations unique to Gaelic or Jacobite traditions are also widely celebrated such as White Rose Day and Robert Burns Day, the latter of which was adopted by the Sierran Jacobites during the mid-20th century, despite being developed independently in Scotland after the Highland Clearances. Such celebrations have since incorporated some element of religion and politics in contemporary times.
In addition to traditional Celtic mythology, the Sierran Jacobites have a strong oral and literary tradition of Jacobite folklore. Most folk tales and songs revolve around the House of Stuart, particularly of James II and his heirs, as well as the celebration of heroism and sacrifice by various past Jacobite leaders and fighters.
Influence on Sierran culture
Relationship with Sierran monarchism/Jacobitism
- For a more comprehensive list, see List of Sierran Jacobites.
Today, the majority of Sierran Jacobites remain concentrated in the Styxie region, especially in southern Plumas, western San Joaquin, and eastern Santa Clara, as well as the neighboring Bay Area region (San Francisco and western Santa Clara). The city of Henrietta has the largest concentration of Sierran Jacobites in the world, with over 80,000 residing there. Outside the Styxie, a sizable presence exists in the Southwest Corridor, mainly in the Gold Coast, Orange, and the Inland Empire.
- Republicanism in Sierra
- Monarchism in Sierra
- The Troubles
- Catholicism in Sierra