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Southern Cross Republic
República do Cruzeiro do Sul
Flag
Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
Liberdade sob as estrelas do sul
"Freedom under the southern stars"
Anthem: Pátria Estrelada
The Starry Homeland
SouthernCross-Map-Location
Location of the Southern Cross Republic
Capital
and largest city
SantanaCoA (SCR) Santana
30°20′S 34°56′W
Official languages Portuguese
Recognised regional languages GalicianItalianGerman
Ethnic groups 82% Portuguese
08% Galicians
05% Italians
04% Germans
01% Unspecified
Demonym South Crosser
South Crossic (Adj.)
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Roberto Bispo (N)
Júlio Campos (N)
Maria Albuquerque (N)
Ricardo Gusmão
Legislature General Council
History
May 30, 1500
July 26, 1579
from Portugal
August 29, 1912
Area
• Total
45,252.86 km2 (17,472.23 sq mi) (132nd)
• Water (%)
0.54
Population
• 2013 estimate
1,011,413 (159th)
• 2010 census
1,001,366
• Density
22.35/km2 (57.9/sq mi) (195th)
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
• Total
$28.483 billion (119th)
• Per capita
$28,162 (39th)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
• Total
$21.114 billion (107th)
• Per capita
$20,876 (40th)
Gini (2010) positive decrease 41.3
Error: Invalid Gini value · 97th
HDI (2013) Green Arrow Up Darker 0.858
Error: Invalid HDI value · 29th
Currency Escudo (E$) (SCE)
Time zone SCT (UTC-2)
• Summer (DST)
SCST (UTC-1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +55 29
Patron saint Saint Anne
Internet TLD .cs
The Southern Cross Republic, also referred to as the SCR (Portuguese: República do Cruzeiro do Sul, the RCS, or Cruzeiro do Sul), is an island nation located in the South Atlantic Ocean there is 662km from the Brazilian coast, and it is the 2nd Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas. It is the 13th by geographical area and 11th most populous South American sovereign state. It shares maritime border with Brazil to the west.

Southern Cross Republic was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until its independence in 1912. After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1910 in Portugal.

The Southern Cross Republic is a developed country. It is a member of the UN, OAS, and OECD; as well as a founding member of the Mercosul, Unasul, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, and also CPLC.

The names "Southern Cross Archipelago" and "Southern Cross Republic" has origin in the constellation of same name—the Crux constellation, or Southern Cross constellation (Constelação do Cruzeiro do Sul in Portuguese). This name was adopted since the first days of the discovery.

History

Main Article: History of the Southern Cross Republic

Discovery

The land now called Southern Cross Archipelago, was claimed by Portugal in May 1500—38 days after the discovery of Brazil—, on the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral. The Portuguese encountered an uninhabited land.

Southern Cross Captaincy

Main Article: Southern Cross Captaincy

The Southern Cross Captaincy was one of the subdivisions of Brazil during the colonial period until the arrive of John VI of Portugal, when it had become a state of the United kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Southern Cross.

Ooccupation and the Foundation of Santana

The colonization was effectively begun in 1579, more precisely on July 26, day of Our Lady St. Anne, according the Catholic calendar. It was during the reign of Henry, the Cardinal-King of Portugal (Portuguese: Henrique I, Cardeal-Rei de Portugal) or Henry, the Chaste (Henrique I, o Casto).

European Immigration First Wave

Independence and Recognition

The Coimbra's Era

Post-War, the European Immigration Second Wave

The 60s in South America

Petroleum and the Economic Boom

Present Days

Geography

Main Article: Geography of the Southern Cross Republic and List of islands of the Southern Cross Republic

The Southern Cross Republic is an archipelago with six islands, and it is the 45th by area, with about 45,200 km² (or approximately 17,500 sq mi). It is located in the South Atlantic ocean. It has volcanic origin and it formed during the continental separation there is more than 200 million years ago. It is a rogue piece of the South America.

Scrmap1

The SCR's archipelago on Earth.

Its highest point is the Bocanegra volcano (literally: Black mouth), with 1,323.1m (4,340.9 ft) height, located in the Southern Cross Island, in the mountains calls Sierra Central (Serra Central). The lowest point is the Lake Valley, with -40.8m (-133.9 ft) depth, located on the east valley in the Province of Bocanegra, between the Sierra Central and the Sierra of South Cape (Serra do Cabo Sul).

Climate

SCR Climate Map

Köppen–Geiger system: Cfa (green) and Cfb (purple).

Southern Cross Republic lies within the south temperate zone and is predominantly humid subtropical (Cfa, according to the Köppen climate classification). The climate is subtropical highland (Cfb) in the highest areas. There are four relatively well-marked seasons and rainfall is well distributed throughout the year, but occasional droughts can occur. The winter months, June to September, are characterized by heavy rains and by a cold southwesterly wind, which sometimes lower the temperature to below freezing, especially in the mountainous municipalities. The lowest registered temperature in the islands was −4°C (24.8°F) in Cruz Alta, Bocanegra, on August 1, 1955. In summer, the temperature not exceed the 32°C (89.6°F).

SCR CIA Factbook Map

The Southern Cross Archipelago.

Flora

Subtropical plants dominate the archipelago, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian Rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba and prosopis nigra). Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of the island. In the island some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (fazendas). The only tree-like plant native is a variant of the evergreen ombú. The surface soils are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture.

Most of the highlands has shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to this conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys and coast. Coniferous forests in medium altitudes on the main island, include variants of alerce, ciprestes da cordilheira, ciprestes das guaitecas, hulilã, lheque, manho hembra and araucária, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coiê, lenga and nhiro. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copí and colí.

Fauna

Government and Politics

Main Article: Politics of the Southern Cross Republic and Government of the Southern Cross Republic

Politics of the Southern Cross Republic takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic in which the President of the Southern Cross Republic is the head of government and head of state, in a multi-party system (de jure, two-party system de facto).

The national government is composed of three branches:

SouthernCross Presidential Palace

The Presidential Palace of the Southern Cross Republic.

SouthernCross General Council Building

The General Council building.

The Republican and Nationalist parties have been locked in a power struggle throughout most of Southern Cross Republic's history.

Southern Cross Republic adopted its first and current constitution in 1912, following the Portuguese revolution.

See also: Constitution of the Southern Cross Republic and Law in the Southern Cross Republic

Law and Order

Main article: Law of the Southern Cross Republic, Law enforcement in the Southern Cross Republic, and Crime in the Southern Cross Republic

Foreign Relations

Main Article: Foreign Relations of the Southern Cross Republic

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for managing the foreign relations of the Southern Cross Republic. The Southern Cross Republic is a significant political and economic power in Latin America. Southern Cross Republic's foreign policy is designed to help protect the country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity.

Military

Main Article: Defensive Forces of the Southern Cross Republic

SouthernCross-EMB314-FACS

EMB-314 Super Tucano of the FACS.

The South Crossic Defensive Forces consist of the Navy, the Army, and the Air Force. Enlistment is voluntary in peacetime, but the government has the authority to conscript in emergencies.

The Army is responsible for land-based military operations, and it is the oldest of the South Crossic armed forces. The Police is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution.

The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding territorial waters. It is the most important branch of the Defensive Forces with about 20 ships and 15 aircrafts. In case of a crisis situation the Navy must be ready to defend sea approaches, harbour areas, sea lines of communication and to co-operate with coalition units.

The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the armed forces, with about 38 manned aircrafts in service. The Air Force reduces the political, military, economical, social, environmental and psychological threats. The Air Force has important role in enhancing flight safety in South Crossic airspace.

Administrative Divisions

Provinces

Main Article: Provinces of the Southern Cross Republic

The Southern Cross Republic is divided into six Provinces (Províncias), and the capital, which are the administrative subdivisions of the country.

The provinces and the district are the biggest administrative subdivision. The province government (Governo da Província) of each province is led by a province governor (Governador(a)), who represents the national government at the regional level. Governors are elected by people for a term of four years, and only two consecutive mandates.

Flags Abbr. Provinces Capitals Area (km²) Population (inhabs.)
(2010 Census)
Density (/km²)
(2010 Census)
SCR-AdminDiv
Flag of Our Lady of Santana (SCR) ST Santana 72.26 228,326 3,159.78
Flag of New Lusitania (SCR) NL New Lusitania Bastos 5,453.77 246,584 45.21
Flag of Costa Verde (SCR) CV Costa Verde Amarante 5,806.63 220,862 38.04
Flag of Rio Belo (SCR) RB Rio Belo Rio Belo 4,496.14 108,748 24.19
Flag of West Valley (SCR) VO West Valley Porto Claro 5,374.75 54,592 10.16
Flag of Southern Algarves (SCR) AS South Algarve Pontal 12,052.16 97,405 8.08
Flag of Bocanegra (SCR) BN Bocanegra Vinhas 11,997.15 44,849 3.74

Municipalities

Each province is further divided into municipalities (municípios), which is also subdivided into parishes (freguesias). Each municipality is an unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in the Southern Cross Republic cover the entire territory of the country.

See also: List of Municipalities of the Southern Cross Republic

Economy

Main Article: Economy of the Southern Cross Republic and Infrastructure of the Southern Cross Republic

GDP composition by sector (2010)
Industry40.5%
Services56.5%
Agriculture3.8%

Southern Cross Republic is the South America's most stable and prosperous nations, leading Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.

SouthernCross OilPlatform

An oil platform in the Our Lady Santana Bay.

SCR - Geothermal Power Station

The Alta Neblina Geothermal Power Station, Alta Neblina-RB.

The South Crossic economy is an example of a mixed economy, a prosperous capitalist welfare state featuring a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors. The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector (Petróleo do Cruzeiro do Sul, PetroCS), hydroelectric energy production (Companhia Elétrica do Cruzeiro do Sul, CECS) and geothermal energy production (Geotérmica do Cruzeiro do Sul, GeoCS), mining sector (Mineração do Cruzeiro do Sul, MinaCS), and telecommunication provider (Telecomunicações do Cruzeiro do Sul, TeleCS). Through these big companies, the government controls approximately 30% of the stock values at the Santana Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Valores de Santana, BVS). When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil license ownership).

South Crossic escudo sign

The South Crossic escudo sign.

SCR EEZ-Map

The SCR's EEZ and time zone.

The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower and geothermal power, fish, forests, and minerals. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1980s, which led to a boom in the economy. Southern Cross Republic has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the Americas in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population. The South Crossic welfare state makes public health care free, and parents have 12 months paid parental leave. The income that the state receives from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production and the substantial and well-managed income related to this sector. Southern Cross Republic has a relatively low unemployment rate, currently around 5%. The hourly productivity levels, as well as average hourly wages in Southern Cross Republic are one the highest in the Latin America. However, it has a medium economic inequality, as measured by the Gini index.

In 2001 was established the Sovereign Fund of the Southern Cross Republic (Portuguese: Fundo Soberano do Cruzeiro do Sul, FSCS), a sovereign wealth fund to replace the National Oil Fund maintained by the central bank since 1986.

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in the Southern Cross Republic

Infrastructure

Components and Energy

Main articles: Agriculture in the Southern Cross Republic, Industry in the Southern Cross Republic, and Energy Policy of the Southern Cross Republic

Science and Technology

Main Article: Science and technology in the Southern Cross Republic

Technological research in the Southern Cross Republic is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies. SCR's most esteemed technological hubs are the XXX Institute, the XXX Institute and the South Crossic Space Agency has one of the most advanced space programs in Latin America.

Transport

Main Article: Transport in the Southern Cross Republic

Health

Main Article: Health in the Southern Cross Republic

Education

Main Article: Education in the Southern Cross Republic

The education system in Southern Cross Republic is very diverse, because the constitution delegates the authority for the school system to the provinces and municipalities. The South Crossic constitution sets the foundations, namely that primary school is obligatory for every child and is free in public schools and that the republic can run or support universities. Because of its diversity, there are many private international schools in Southern Cross Republic that encourage respect for all cultures. Diversification of the education system in 6 sub-systems is viewed by many as being inefficient. Consequently, it was voted on May 21, 1999 to reform the education system in one common program for all the provinces and municipalities.

Communication

Main Article: Communications in the Southern Cross Republic

Demographics

Main Article: Demographics of the Southern Cross Republic

Left without inhabitants per millennia, the Southern Cross Island had its first inhabitants registered with the Portuguese colonization begun on July 26, 1579 with the foundation of Our Lady Santana's Villa, where about 40 Portuguese—26 men and 14 women—established their homes. Today, however, besides the Portuguese, there are descendants of Spanish (mainly Galicians), Italians (mainly Neapolitans), and Germans (mainly Swabians). The population of Southern Cross Republic totaled 1,008,187 on January 1, 2013. On January 1, 2014, the population was estimated to 1,011,413.

Language

The official language of the Southern Cross Republic is the Portuguese. In spite of having been domain of Portugal for so much centuries there is a great influence of the Brazilian Portuguese and the Galician.

Religion

Religions in the Southern Cross Republic (Census 2010)
Catholicism
  
67.8%
Undeclared
  
11.2%
No Religion
  
10.7%
Protestantism
  
10.1%
Other
  
0.2%

The most predominant religion in the Southern Cross Republic is Roman Catholicism. Approximately 68% of the population is nominally Catholic, and about 16% attend mass and take the sacraments regularly, while a larger number wish to be baptized, married in a church, and receive Last Rites.

Although Church and State were formally separated during the Proclamation of the Republic (1912), Roman Catholic precepts continue to have a relative weight in the South Crossic society and culture. Many South Crossic holidays, festivals, and traditions have a religious origin or connotation. The educational and health care systems were for a long time the Church's preserve, and in many cases, whenever a building, bridge, or highway was opened, it received a blessing from the Clergy.

The protestantism is about 10%, and the other religions are less than 1% in the SCR.

The group that more grows in Southern Cross Republic is it of non-religious; atheists, agnostics and secularists. They reach 22%, turning Southern Cross Republic the most secularized country of South America, followed by Uruguay (c. 17%).

Urbanization

Main article: List of largest cities in the Southern Cross Republic

Culture

Main Article: Culture of the Southern Cross Republic

SCR Folklore

The South Crossic folklore.

The South Crossic culture has its roots in the Portuguese culture, which in turn has its roots in Celtic culture, Iberian, Roman and Germanic. The differentiation of the South Crossic culture manifests itself through the types of housing, the religious, gastronomy and folklore due to the mixture occurred over the centuries between the various waves of migration, mainly Galicians, Italians and Germans, and the great influence of the Brazilian culture.

Music

Literature

Cuisine

Sports

The South Crossers' favorite sport is football, and the national team is its most passion.

SouthernCross Flag2 Southern Cross Republic SouthernCross CoA3
History DiscoveryCaptaincy (Settlement) • StateRepublic
Geography Archipelago (Southern Cross IslandPróxima IslandVespertine IslandSouth IslandBoca IslandBirds Island) • Environment (ClimateGeologyFaunaFlora)
Demographics South Crosser (PortugueseGalicianItalianGerman)
Languages Portuguese (GalicianItalianGerman)
Politics
Government PresidentVice PresidentMinisterial CabinetGeneral CouncilNational Justice CourtPolitical PartiesElections
Provinces Santana (Capital)New LusitaniaCosta VerdeRio BeloWest ValleySouth AlgarveBocanegra
Military Defensive Forces (ArmyNavyAir Force) • RanksPolice
Economy Central BankEscudoSovereign Fund

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